Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Relative Contributions of Intake and Exhaust Tuning on SI Engine Breathing - A Computational Study

2007-04-16
2007-01-0492
This study examines the contributions and interactions of intake and exhaust tuning on a 4-stroke single-cylinder engine for various engine speeds and valve timings. The parametric study was performed using a 1-D engine simulation model, the combustion sub-model of which was calibrated based on experimental pressure data. Mechanisms by which tuning changes the volumetric efficiency of an engine were studied. Simulation results are compared with established empirical correlations which predict pipe lengths for maximum volumetric efficiency. It was found that intake tuning has a more dominant role in the breathing capability of the engine compared to exhaust tuning and that both are independent from each other. Valve timing was found to have no effect on intake tuning characteristics but to affect exhaust tuning.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-loop Test Bench for Production Transmission Controls Software Quality Validation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0502
Production software validation is critical during software development, allowing potential quality issues that could occur in the field to be minimized. By developing automated and repeatable software test methods, test cases can be created to validate targeted areas of the control software for confirmation of the expected results from software release to release. This is especially important when algorithm/software development timing is aggressive and the management of development activities in a global work environment requires high quality, and timely test results. This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The powertrain model used within the HIL consists of an engine model and a detailed automatic transmission dynamics model. The model runs in an OPAL-RT TestDrive based HIL system.
Technical Paper

Piston Secondary Dynamics Considering Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

2007-04-16
2007-01-1251
An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model including elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication at the bore-skirt interface. A piston EHD analysis is used based on a finite-difference formulation. The oil film is discretized using a two-dimensional mesh. For improved computational efficiency without loss of accuracy, the Reynolds’ equation is solved using a perturbation approach which utilizes an “influence zone” concept, and a successive over-relaxation solver. The analysis includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading and piston barrelity and ovality. A Newmark-Beta time integration scheme combined with a Newton-Raphson linearization, calculates the piston secondary motion.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Method for Piston Secondary Dynamics and Piston-Bore Contact

2007-04-16
2007-01-1249
Low vibration and noise level in internal combustion engines has become an essential part of the design process. It is well known that the piston assembly can be a major source of engine mechanical friction and cold start noise, if not designed properly. The piston secondary motion and piston-bore contact pattern are critical in piston design because they affect the skirt-to-bore impact force and therefore, how the piston impact excitation energy is damped, transmitted and eventually radiated from the engine structure as noise. An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model. The method includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading, piston barrelity and ovality, piston flexibility and skirt-to-bore clearance. The method accounts for piston kinematics, rigid-body dynamics and flexibility.
Technical Paper

A New Calibration Method for Digital 3D Profilometry System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1380
Recently the use of digital 3D profilometry in the automotive industries has become increasingly popular. The effective techniques for 3D shape measurement, especially for the measurement of complicated structures, have become more and more significant. Different optical inspective methods, such as 3D profilometry, laser scanning and Coordinate-Measuring Machine (CMM), have been applied for 3D shape measurement. Among these methods, 3D profilometry seems to be the fastest and inexpensive method with considerably accurate result, and it has simple setup and full field measuring ability compared with other techniques. In this paper, a novel calibration method for 3D-profilometry will be introduced. In this method, a multiple-step calibration procedure is utilized and best-fit calibration curves are obtained to improve measurement accuracy. A recursive algorithm is used for data evaluation, along with calibration data.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Tire-Snow Interaction Forces Using Metamodeling

2007-04-16
2007-01-1511
High-fidelity finite element (FE) tire-snow interaction models have the advantage of better understanding the physics of the tire-snow system. They can be used to develop semi-analytical models for vehicle design as well as to design and interpret field test results. For off-terrain conditions, there is a high level of uncertainties inherent in the system. The FE models are computationally intensive even when uncertainties of the system are not taken into account. On the other hand, field tests of tire-snow interaction are very costly. In this paper, dynamic metamodels are established to interpret interaction forces from FE simulation and to predict those forces by using part of the FE data as training data and part as validation data. Two metamodels are built based upon the Krieging principle: one has principal component analysis (PCA) taken into account and the other does not.
Technical Paper

Radial-Ply vs. Bias-Ply Tires' Transmissibility

2007-04-16
2007-01-1513
Full nonlinear finite element radial-ply and bias-ply tire models are developed to investigate different structured tires' transmissibility phenomena. The reaction forces of the tire axles in time domain are recorded first when the tires encounter a bump (cleat), and then the FFT algorithm is applied to examine the dynamic response information in frequency domain. The results of the radial-ply vs. bias-ply tires' transmissibility are validated against previous studies and show reasonable agreement.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization of Engine Lubrication System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1568
The quality of engine lubrication depends upon how much oil is supplied and how the lubricant is pressurized to the lubricated components. These variables strongly affect the safe operation and lifespan of an engine. During the conceptual design stage of an engine, its lubrication system cannot be verified experimentally. It is highly desirable for design engineers to utilize computer simulations and robust design methodology in order to achieve their goal of optimizing the engine lubrication system. The heuristic design principle is a relatively routine resource for design engineers to pursue although it is time consuming and sacrifices valuable developing time. This paper introduces an unusual design methodology in which design engineers were involved in analyzing their own designs along with lubrication system analyst to establish a link between two sophisticated software packages.
Technical Paper

Optimal Engine Torque Management for Reducing Driveline Clunk Using Time - Dependent Metamodels

2007-05-15
2007-01-2236
Quality and performance are two important customer requirements in vehicle design. Driveline clunk negatively affects the perceived quality and must be therefore, minimized. This is usually achieved using engine torque management, which is part of engine calibration. During a tip-in event, the engine torque rate of rise is limited until all the driveline lash is taken up. However, the engine torque rise, and its rate can negatively affect the vehicle throttle response. Therefore, the engine torque management must be balanced against throttle response. In practice, the engine torque rate of rise is calibrated manually. This paper describes a methodology for calibrating the engine torque in order to minimize the clunk disturbance, while still meeting throttle response constraints. A set of predetermined engine torque profiles are calibrated in a vehicle and the transmission turbine speed is measured for each profile. The latter is used to quantify the clunk disturbance.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Re-Analysis Methodology for Vibration of Large-Scale Structures

2007-05-15
2007-01-2326
Finite element analysis is a well-established methodology in structural dynamics. However, optimization and/or probabilistic studies can be prohibitively expensive because they require repeated FE analyses of large models. Various reanalysis methods have been proposed in order to calculate efficiently the dynamic response of a structure after a baseline design has been modified, without recalculating the new response. The parametric reduced-order modeling (PROM) and the combined approximation (CA) methods are two re-analysis methods, which can handle large model parameter changes in a relatively efficient manner. Although both methods are promising by themselves, they can not handle large FE models with large numbers of DOF (e.g. 100,000) with a large number of design parameters (e.g. 50), which are common in practice. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the PROM and CA methods are first discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Controlling Induction System Deposits in Flexible Fuel Vehicles Operating on E85

2007-10-29
2007-01-4071
With the wider use of biofuels in the marketplace, a program was conducted to study the deposit forming tendencies and performance of E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% gasoline) in a modern Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). The test vehicle for this program was a 2006 General Motors Chevrolet Impala FFV equipped with a 3.5 liter V-6 powertrain. A series of 5,000 mile Chassis Dynamometer (CD) Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) and performance tests were conducted while operating the FFV on conventional (E0) regular unleaded gasoline and E85 to determine the deposit forming tendencies of both fuels. E85 test fuels were found to generate significantly higher levels of IVD than would have been predicted from the base gasoline component alone. The effects on the weight and composition of IVD due to a corrosion inhibitor and sulfates that were indigenous to one of the ethanols were also studied.
Technical Paper

Characterization of a Catalytic Converter Internal Flow

2007-10-29
2007-01-4024
This paper includes a numerical and experimental study of fluid flow in automotive catalytic converters. The numerical work involves using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to perform three-dimensional calculations of turbulent flow in an inlet pipe, inlet cone, catalyst substrate (porous medium), outlet cone, and outlet pipe. The experimental work includes using hot-wire anemometry to measure the velocity profile at the outlet of the catalyst substrate, and pressure drop measurements across the system. Very often, the designer may have to resort to offset inlet and outlet cones, or angled inlet pipes due to space limitations. Hence, it is very difficult to achieve a good flow distribution at the inlet cross section of the catalyst substrate. Therefore, it is important to study the effect of the geometry of the catalytic converter on flow uniformity in the substrate.
Technical Paper

Towards Shape Optimization of Radiator Cooling Tanks

2002-03-04
2002-01-0952
With increased demand for improvements in the efficiency and operation of all automotive engine components, including those in the engine cooling system, there is a need to develop a set of virtual tools that can aid in both the evaluation and design of automotive components. In the case of automotive radiators, improvements are needed in the overall pressure drop as well as the coolant flow homogeneity across all radiator tubes. The latter criterion is particularly important in the reduction of premature fouling and failure of heat exchangers. Rather than relying on ad hoc geometry changes with the goal of improving the performance of radiators, the coupling of CFD flow simulations with numerical shape optimization methods could assist in the design and testing of automotive heating and cooling components.
Technical Paper

New On-Board Power Generation Technologies for Automotive Auxiliary Power Units

2003-06-23
2003-01-2256
Improving fuel economy, emissions, passenger comfort and convenience, safety, and vehicle performance in the automobile is resulting in the growth of electrical loads. In order to meet these electrical load demands and to meet the requirement of power generation when the engine is off, several technologies are on the horizon for on-board power generation in the vehicles. In this paper, new on-board power generation technologies based on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) system, and diamond or carbon nanostructures are compared in terms power density, cost, and long term feasibility for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Economic Analysis of Powertrain Control Technologies

2002-10-21
2002-21-0035
Regulatory and market pressures continue to challenge the automotive industry to develop technologies focused on reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy. This paper introduces a practical model, which evaluates the economic value of various technologies based on their ability to reduce fuel consumption, improve emissions or provide consumer benefits such as improved performance. By evaluating the individual elements of economic value as viewed by the OEM manufacturer, while keeping the end consumer in mind, technology selection decisions can be made. These elements include annual fuel usage, vehicle performance, mass reduction and emissions, among others. The following technologies are discussed and evaluated: gasoline direct injection, variable valvetrain technologies, common-rail diesel and hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis Method using a Niching Genetic Algorithm

2007-04-16
2007-01-0548
A reliability analysis method is presented for time-dependent systems under uncertainty. A level-crossing problem is considered where the system fails if its maximum response exceeds a specified threshold. The proposed method uses a double-loop optimization algorithm. The inner loop calculates the maximum response in time for a given set of random variables, and transforms a time-dependent problem into a time-independent one. A time integration method is used to calculate the response at discrete times. For each sample function of the response random process, the maximum response is found using a global-local search method consisting of a genetic algorithm (GA), and a gradient-based optimizer. This dynamic response usually exhibits multiple peaks and crosses the allowable response level to form a set of complex limit states, which lead to multiple most probable points (MPPs).
Technical Paper

An Efficient Possibility-Based Design Optimization Method for a Combination of Interval and Random Variables

2007-04-16
2007-01-0553
Reliability-based design optimization accounts for variation. However, it assumes that statistical information is available in the form of fully defined probabilistic distributions. This is not true for a variety of engineering problems where uncertainty is usually given in terms of interval ranges. In this case, interval analysis or possibility theory can be used instead of probability theory. This paper shows how possibility theory can be used in design and presents a computationally efficient sequential optimization algorithm. The algorithm handles problems with only uncertain or a combination of random and uncertain design variables and parameters. It consists of a sequence of cycles composed of a deterministic design optimization followed by a set of worst-case reliability evaluation loops. A crank-slider mechanism example demonstrates the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed sequential algorithm.
Technical Paper

System Reliability-Based Design using a Single-Loop Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0555
An efficient approach for series system reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) is presented. The key idea is to apportion optimally the system reliability among the failure modes by considering the target values of the failure probabilities of the modes as design variables. Critical failure modes that contribute the most to the overall system reliability are identified. This paper proposes a computationally efficient, system RBDO approach using a single-loop method where the searches for the optimum design and for the most probable failure points proceed simultaneously. Specifically, at each iteration the optimizer uses approximated most probable failure points from the previous iteration to search for the optimum. A second-order Ditlevsen upper bound is used for the joint failure probability of failure modes. Also, an easy to implement active strategy set is employed to improve algorithmic stability.
Technical Paper

Design of an Automotive Grade Controller for In-Cylinder Pressure Based Engine Control Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0774
This paper describes a new tool to capture cylinder pressure information, calculate combustion parameters, and implement control algorithms. There are numerous instrumentation and prototyping systems which can provide some or all of this capability. The Cylinder Pressure Development Controller (CPDC) is unique in that it uses advanced high volume automotive grade circuitry, packaging, and software methodologies. This approach provides insight regarding the implementation of cylinder pressure based controls in a production engine management system. A high performance data acquisition system is described along with a data reduction technique to minimize data processing requirements. The CPDC software architecture is discussed along with model-based algorithm development and autocoding. Finally, CPDC calculated combustion parameters are compared with those from a well established combustion analysis system and thermodynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

Engine Simulation of a Restricted FSAE Engine, Focusing on Restrictor Modelling

2006-12-05
2006-01-3651
One-dimensional (1D) engine simulation packages are limited in modeling flows through an adverse pressure gradient where boundary layer separation is more likely to occur, as in the case of the diffuser part of the restrictor. The restrictor modeling difficulty usually manifests itself as an engine model that consumes a lot of effort (both computational and from the user) in the modeling of the restrictor. The approach sought in this work was to provide a flow vs pressure drop dependency to the code such that it does not consume too much effort in the analysis of the restrictor. This approach is similar to that used for the valve flow, where a look up table is typically provided for determining the flow. Experimentally determined flow measurements on a thin-plate orifice, a short restrictor and a long restrictor are presented and discussed. The developed model gave excellent results in an acyclic steady-state simulation and is being integrated in the full engine model.
X