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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Particle Number and Size Distribution of a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueling with Alternative Blended Diesel Fuels

2011-04-12
2011-01-0620
An EURO 3 certified common rail diesel engine was fueled with pure petroleum diesel (EURO 4 standard) and three different alternative blended diesel fuels, 10% biodiesel blended diesel (B10), 10% gas to liquid blended diesel (G10) and 10% water emulsified diesel (E10). Tests were performed at different engine speeds and load states. Particle number concentration and size distribution data were obtained from an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS). Over all the working conditions, total particle and nucleation mode particle number concentration among these fuels from high to low were in this order: B10, E10, pure diesel and G10. Proportions for nucleation mode particle over all the operating states in that order were 89%, 82%, 59% and 66%. Particle size distributions of B10 and E10 presented bimodal logarithmic distributions with outstanding nucleation mode peaks at all working conditions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Strain Distribution for Hole Expansion with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0993
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly used in automotive industry. A major issue for AHSS stamping is edge cracking. This failure mode is difficult to predict by conventional forming limit curve (FLC). The material edge stretchability is mainly evaluated using the hole expansion test. In this study, digital Image Correlation (DIC) is applied for strain measurement. DIC is a non-contact, full field, high accuracy and direct measurement technique that provides more detailed information for the evolution of strains on the sheet surface. Tests were conducted for five AHSS and nine cases. This paper will explain in detail the DIC technique and its results.
Journal Article

Scanning Frequency Ranges of Harmonic Response for a Spot-Welded Copper-Aluminum Plate Using Finite Element Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-1076
In this paper, a finite element methodology is given in which finite element models of a three-weld Al-Cu plate is created with support and loading conditions emulating those seen in an optical lab. Harmonic response is sought for the models under the presumption that various defective welds are present. The numerical results are carefully examined to determine the guideline frequency range so the actual optical experiment can be carried out more efficiently.
Journal Article

Investigation on Dynamic Recovery Behavior of Boron Steel 22MnB5 under Austenite State at Elevated Temperatures

2011-04-12
2011-01-1057
Hot forming process of ultrahigh strength boron steel 22MnB5 is widely applied in vehicle industry. It is one of the most effective approaches for vehicle light weighting. Dynamic recovery is the major softening mechanism of the boron steel under austenite state at elevated temperatures. Deformation mechanism of the boron steel can be revealed by investigation on the behavior of dynamic recovery, which could also improve the accuracy of forming simulations for hot stamping. Uniaxial tensile experiments of the boron steel are carried out on the thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble3800 at elevated temperatures. The true stress-strain curves and the relations between the work hardening rate and flow stress are obtained in different deformation conditions. The work hardening rate decreases linearly with increasing the flow stress.
Technical Paper

Effect of Material Microstructure on Scuffing Behavior of Ferrous Alloys

2011-04-12
2011-01-1091
Scuffing is one of the major problems that influence the life cycle and reliability of several auto components, including engine cylinder kits, flywheels, camshafts, crankshafts, and gears. Ferrous casting materials, such as gray cast iron, ductile cast iron and austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) are widely applied in these components due to their self-lubricating characteristics. The purpose of this research is to determine the scuffing behavior of these three types of cast iron materials and compare them with 1050 steel. Rotational ball-on-disc tests were conducted with white mineral oil as the lubricant under variable sliding speeds and loads. The results indicate that the scuffing initiation is due to either crack propagation or plastic deformation. It is found that ADI exhibits the highest scuffing resistance among these materials.
Technical Paper

Vibration Characteristic Analysis and Optimization of the Rear Suspension of Eccentrical Motor Driven Electric Vehicle

2013-03-25
2013-01-0088
To wheel driven electric vehicle, besides road unevenness excitation, the electric motor torque fluctuation has great effects on the whole body vibration (WBV) according to prior research.[1],[2] To evaluate and further reduce the influence of torque fluctuation on the whole body vibration (WBV), vibration characteristic of rear suspension is analyzed thoroughly and finally optimized in this paper. Firstly, based on an existing eccentrical motor driven electric vehicle, a rear twist beam suspension suitable for high frequency analysis is modeled in Adams/View. Secondly, the vibration characteristic is simulated using Adams/Vibration module and verified with natural modal parameters of system. Finally, the vibration characteristic is optimized by adjusting the parameters of bushings using DOE method and proven to be effective to reduce WBV caused by torque fluctuation.
Technical Paper

An Application of Variation Simulation - Predicting Interior Driveline Vibration Based on Production Variation of Imbalance and Runout

2011-05-17
2011-01-1543
An application of variation simulation for predicting vehicle interior driveline vibration is presented. The model, based on a “Monte Carlo”-style approach, predicts the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) response of the vehicle driveline based on distributions of imbalance and runout derived from manufacturing production variation (the forcing function) and the vehicle's sensitivity to the forcing function. The model is used to illustrate the change in vehicle interior vibration that results when changes are made to production variation for runout and imbalance of driveline components, and how those same changes result in different responses based on vehicle sensitivity.
Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0337
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Reducing Part Load Pumping Loss and Improving Thermal Efficiency through High Compression Ratio Over-Expanded Cycle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1744
In vehicle application, most of time gasoline engines are part load operated, especially in city traffic, part load operation covers most common operation situations, however part load performances deteriorate due to pumping losses and low thermal efficiency. Many different technologies have been applied to improve part load performances. One of them is to adopt over-expanded (Atkinson/Miller) cycle, which uses late/early intake valve closing (LIVC/EIVC) to reduce pumping losses in part load operation. But over-expanded cycle has an intrinsic drawback in that combustion performance deteriorates due to the decline in the effective compression ratio (CR). Combining with high geometry CR may be an ideal solution, however there is a trade-off between maintaining a high CR for good part load fuel consumption and maintaining optimal combustion phasing at higher load.
Technical Paper

Novel Operating Mode for DC-to-DC Converters in PHEVs

2013-04-08
2013-01-1761
The demand on the DC-to-DC converters is increasing and more capable units are required. In this paper we will introduce a third mode of operation that will allow the Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle (PHEV) to meet the LV load demand without weight or cost increase. This mode operation will utilize the DC-to-DC converters of the on-board charger to compensate for the increase in load demand.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of a Poly-Disperse Droplet Stream Generator

2013-04-08
2013-01-1617
A specially designed generator has been developed to produce poly-disperse droplet streams: A liquid fuel (n-heptane) is metered to an ultrasonic atomizer to produce droplets, which are then carried and accelerated vertically upwards through a nozzle tube by carrier-air flow. Conditions of the streams at the nozzle exit are modulated by varying the length of nozzle tubes, the fuel and carrier-air flow rate. Optical measurement techniques such as direct photography method, schlieren photography and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are employed to characterize its performance characteristics. Effects of the nozzle tube length, the carrier-air and fuel flow rate are investigated to evaluate the performance of the generator. Longer nozzle tubes provide a better flow guidance for the carrier-air, and tend to generate streams with less and smaller droplets due to the transporting losses.
Journal Article

Managing the Computational Cost of Monte Carlo Simulation with Importance Sampling by Considering the Value of Information

2013-04-08
2013-01-0943
Importance Sampling is a popular method for reliability assessment. Although it is significantly more efficient than standard Monte Carlo simulation if a suitable sampling distribution is used, in many design problems it is too expensive. The authors have previously proposed a method to manage the computational cost in standard Monte Carlo simulation that views design as a choice among alternatives with uncertain reliabilities. Information from simulation has value only if it helps the designer make a better choice among the alternatives. This paper extends their method to Importance Sampling. First, the designer estimates the prior probability density functions of the reliabilities of the alternative designs and calculates the expected utility of the choice of the best design. Subsequently, the designer estimates the likelihood function of the probability of failure by performing an initial simulation with Importance Sampling.
Journal Article

A Methodology for Design Decisions using Block Diagrams

2013-04-08
2013-01-0947
Our recent work has shown that representation of systems using a reliability block diagram can be used as a decision making tool. In decision making, we called these block diagrams decision topologies. In this paper, we generalize the results and show that decision topologies can be used to make many engineering decisions and can in fact replace decision analysis for most decisions. We also provide a meta-proof that the proposed method using decision topologies is entirely consistent with decision analysis at the limit. The main advantages of the method are that (1) it provides a visual representation of a decision situation, (2) it can easily model tradeoffs, (3) it can incorporate binary attributes, (4) it can model preferences with limited information, and (5) it can be used in a low-fidelity sense to quickly make a decision.
Journal Article

Random Vibration Testing Development for Engine Mounted Products Considering Customer Usage

2013-04-08
2013-01-1007
In this paper, the development of random vibration testing schedules for durability design verification of engine mounted products is presented, based on the equivalent fatigue damage concept and the 95th-percentile customer engine usage data for 150,000 miles. Development of the 95th-percentile customer usage profile is first discussed. Following that, the field engine excitation and engine duty cycle definition is introduced. By using a simplified transfer function of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to a base excitation, the response acceleration and stress PSDs are related to the input excitation in PSD, which is the equivalent fatigue damage concept. Also, the narrow-band fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) is calculated in terms of the input excitation PSD based on the Miner linear damage rule, the Rayleigh statistical distribution for stress amplitude, a material's S-N curve, and the Miles approximate solution.
Technical Paper

A Cost-Driven Method for Design Optimization Using Validated Local Domains

2013-04-08
2013-01-1385
Design optimization often relies on computational models, which are subjected to a validation process to ensure their accuracy. Because validation of computer models in the entire design space can be costly, we have previously proposed an approach where design optimization and model validation, are concurrently performed using a sequential approach with variable-size local domains. We used test data and statistical bootstrap methods to size each local domain where the prediction model is considered validated and where design optimization is performed. The method proceeds iteratively until the optimum design is obtained. This method however, requires test data to be available in each local domain along the optimization path. In this paper, we refine our methodology by using polynomial regression to predict the size and shape of a local domain at some steps along the optimization process without using test data.
Journal Article

Determination of Weld Nugget Size Using an Inverse Engineering Technique

2013-04-08
2013-01-1374
In today's light-weight vehicles, the strength of spot welds plays an important role in overall product integrity, reliability and customer satisfaction. Naturally, there is a need for a quick and reliable technique to inspect the quality of the welds. In the past, the primary quality control tests for detecting weld defects are the destructive chisel test and peel test [1]. The non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method currently used in industry is based on ultrasonic inspection [2, 3, 4]. The technique is not always successful in evaluating the nugget size, nor is it effective in detecting the so-called “cold” or “stick” welds. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a precise and reliable noncontact NDE method for spot welds. There have been numerous studies in predicting the weld nugget size by considering the spot-weld process [5, 6].
Technical Paper

The Selection of Window in Spatial Phase Shift ESPI

2013-04-08
2013-01-1420
Shearography is a laser based optical method that is similar to holographic interferometry and ESPI. It is a full-field, non-contacting and non-destructive measurement method for the surface deformation. It overcomes some of the disadvantages of holography; it does not need a reference beam, so that it obtains vibration isolation and simplifies the setup. These advantages grant shearography the ability to be a practical measurement tool and it has already gotten many industrial acceptances for non-destructive testing The embedment of the phase shift technique improves dramatically the measuring sensitivity and accuracy of the shearography. It uses the piezoelectric as the carrier to generate a known phase gap and takes multiple images with the phase before and after the sample is loaded, so that the phase map is calculated. And for each pixel the phase is accurate. However, the disadvantage of the phase shift technique is the time consumption.
Technical Paper

Forming Limit Measurement Using a Multi-Sensor Digital Image Correlation System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1423
A multi-sensor Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is employed to measure the deformation of metal specimens during tensile tests. The multi-sensor DIC system is capable of providing high quality contour and deformation data of a 3D object. Methodology and advantages of the multi-sensor DIC system is introduced. Tests have been done on steel and aluminum specimens to prove the performance of the system. With the help of the multi-sensor DIC system, we proposed our approaches to determine the forming limit based on shape change around the necking area instead of calculate the FLD based on the in-plane strains. With the employed system, all measurements are done post-deformation, no testing controlling mechanism, such as load force control or touching control, is required. The extracted data is analyzed and the result shows a possibility that we may be able to improve current technique for Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) measurement.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of Rubber Bushing in Engine Cradle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1425
Fatigue defect and failure of rubber element widely used in mechanical systems could seriously affect the safety and reliability of systems in practical operation. Because rubber element is considered as hyperelastic material, traditional σ - N curve which is usually used in metal material for fatigue life analysis can not be used here. The fatigue life of rubber bushing in automobile engine cradle was analyzed by using the energy method. The Yeoh model coefficients were given by tensile test of natural rubber, and the estimating formula for fatigue life of natural rubber was obtained by finite element calculation and fatigue test. Maximum strain energy density was treated as the parameter of fatigue damage, then the rubber bushing fatigue life was calculated by the estimating formula. The results were verified by test of rubber bushing, which indicated that the model mentioned in this paper is accuracy enough.
Technical Paper

Improving Material Property Measurement by Using Multi-Camera Digital Image Correlation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1428
In this work, a multi-camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is applied to measure the material properties of aluminum (5754) specimens. Such tests are usually done using 2D (one-camera) or 3D (two-camera) DIC systems. A multi-camera DIC system includes three or more cameras and inherits all the advantages of a conventional 3D DIC system (with two cameras) such as, full-field measurement, high accuracy and high speed. In addition, this system further improves the measured results by including redundant data. In this work, we will show the potential of this system to measure a variety of material properties at one time.
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