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Journal Article

Model Based Engine Control Development and Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for the EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Competition

When developing a new engine control strategy, some of the important issues are cost, resource minimization, and quality improvement. This paper outlines how a model based approach was used to develop an engine control strategy for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The outlined approach allowed the development team to minimize the required number of experiments and to complete much of the control development and calibration before implementing the control strategy in the vehicle. It will be shown how models of different fidelity, from map-based models, to mean value models, to 1-D gas dynamics models were generated and used to develop the engine control system. The application of real time capable models for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing will also be shown.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Characterization and Analysis of Diesel Engines with Two-Stage Turbochargers

Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance, reducing the turbo-lag phenomenon and improving the matching. However, the definition of the control system is particularly complex, as the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization. This work documents a characterization study of two-stage turbocharger systems. The study relies on a mean-value model of a Diesel engine equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, validated on experimental data. The turbocharger is characterized by a VGT actuator and a bypass valve (BPV), both located on the high-pressure turbine. This model structure is representative of a “virtual engine”, which can be effectively utilized for applications related to analysis and control. Using this tool, a complete characterization was conducted considering key operating conditions representative of FTP driving cycle operations.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Injection Timing on In-Cylinder Fuel Distribution in a Natural Gas Powered Engine

One obstacle hindering the use of port fuel injection in natural gas engines is poor idle performance due to incomplete mixing of the cylinder charge prior to ignition. Fuel injection timing has a strong influence on the mixing process. The purpose of this work is to determine the impact of fuel injection timing on in-cylinder fuel distribution. Equivalence ratio maps have been acquired by Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence in an optical engine with a production cylinder head. Experimental results have been used to determine the injection timing which produces the most uniform fuel distribution for the given engine.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Enhanced Catalysis for Automotive Exhausts

This paper presents a concept for enhancing catalytic removal of pollutant species from an exhaust stream by placing placing the plasma adjacent to the catalyst surface. Model calculations of the behavior of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF), which influences the chemistry and ionization levels near the surface, are performed and analyzed. Preliminary experiments attempting to reduce these theoretical ideas to practice in N2/NO mixtures, are discussed. Although removal of NO is observed, this is due to gas phase effects alone. The present experimental arrangement is not able to produce the requisite conditions outlined by theory to enact plasma-enhanced catalysis.
Technical Paper

A Study of In-Cylinder Mixing in a Natural Gas Powered Engine by Planar Laser-Induced Fluorcence

There is currently a large effort in industry to make natural gas a viable alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. While the use of natural gas offers several advantages such as reduced emissions and potentially higher efficiency, it also has some inherent difficulties. Among these is the challenge of producing a consistently homogeneous air/fuel mixture while retaining the advantages which accompany modern, multi-point, fuel injection systems. The purpose of the research described here is to investigate the in-cylinder mixture formation process in a port injected natural gas fueled engine. Planar laser-induced fluorescence has been used to produce qualitative air fuel ratio maps in the engine cylinder, in selected planes, throughout the intake and compression strokes. The process consists of impinging a sheet of ultraviolet laser light on various planes parallel to, and normal to, the cylinder axis.
Technical Paper

Estimate of IC Engine Torque from Measurement of Crankshaft Angular Position

Crankshaft angular position measurements are fundamental to all modern automotive engines. These measurements are required to control fuel injection timing as well as ignition timing. However, many other functions can be performed from such measurements through the use of advanced signal processing. These additional functions are essentially diagnostic in nature although there is potential for substitution of primary fuel and ignition control functions. This paper illustrates the application of crankshaft angular position measurement to the estimation of individual cylinder indicated and/or brake torque in IC engines from measurement of crankshaft position/velocity.
Technical Paper

Empirical-Numerical Simulation Technique for Improving the Quality of Rolled Rods by Roll Pass Design

Improper roll pass designs can lead to either underfill which results in the formation of hairline cracks on the surface of the finished bars or overfill which results in roll overloading and the formation of fins. Therefore to reduce downtime, and improve yield and quality, it becomes important to design an acceptable roll pass in reasonable time. This paper presents a methodology for roll pass design which uses a three dimensional finite element technique along with an empirical procedure to arrive at an iterative scheme for reducing the number of passes and improving metal flow in the passes. This methodology is applied to improving an existing seven pass square - to - round rolling sequence, resulting in the reduction of the number of passes and improved distributions of effective strains in the rolled product.
Technical Paper

Welding Residual Stresses in Splicing Heavy Section Shapes

Welding residual stress is one of the primary factors responsible for cracking at the access hole interface between the flange and web plate of welded heavy W-shapes. During multi-pass welding, cracks can be found in either the flange plate or the web plate, depending upon welding sequence, joint details and access hole size. In this study, an integrated numerical and experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of welding parameters and joint geometry on the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in thick-section butt joints. The results provide guidelines for improved design for welding of heavy W-shapes.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Intake-Generated Flow Fields in I.C. Engines Using 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3-D PTV)

Flow fields generated during the intake stroke of a 4-stroke I.C. engine are studied experimentally using water analog simulation. The fluid is seeded by small flow tracer particles and imaged by two digital cameras at BDC. Using a 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry technique recently developed, the 3-D motion of these flow tracers is determined in a completely automated way using sophisticated image processing and PTV algorithms. The resulting 3-D velocity fields are ensemble averaged over a large number of successive cycles to determine the mean characteristics of the flow field as well as to estimate the turbulent fluctuations. This novel technique was applied to three different cylinder head configurations. Each configuration was run for conditions simulating idle operation two different ways: first with both inlet ports open and second with only the primary port open.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Off-Line of Action Contact at the Tips of Gear Teeth

A mathematical basis for predicting loaded off-line of action contact at the tips of undermodified gear teeth is discussed. Two methods of solving the contact problem, using a modified simplex algorithm, are used to predict the load distribution. The methods differ in the compliance matrix formulation and the way they search for contact. The first method uses a tapered plate model and the second method uses a finite element model. The effects of off-line of action contact on load sharing, effective contact ratio and motion curves are shown.
Technical Paper

Periodic Response of Nonlinear Engine Mounting Systems

A new semi-analytical framework for the study of passive or active engine mounting systems is presented. It recognizes that most practical problems incorporate a nonlinear mount or isolation element and the resulting physical system, consisting of the engine, mount and flexible base, involves many degrees of freedom. Unlike linear systems, sinusoidal excitation produces a periodic response, including super- and sub- harmonics. Two example case systems are employed to illustrate key concepts of the framework. The first numerical example case involves a passive hydraulic engine mount with an inertia track. The second example case is a novel experimental system that has been developed to study active and passive, nonlinear mounting problems. New analytical and experimental results are presented and various nonlinear phenomena are considered. The impact of nonlinearity on vibratory power transmission and active control is also investigated.
Technical Paper

Engine Vibration Control Using Passive, Active, and Adaptive Hydraulic Mount Systems

Performance characteristics of passive, active, and broadband adaptive engine mounts are compared over a wide frequency range up to 250 Hz in the context of a quarter-vehicle heave model. The optimal damping coefficient of a rubber-metal mount is determined using random vibration theory. The small-scale active mount employs proportional-plus-integral control based on linear optimal control theory. The new adaptive hydraulic mount system implements an on-off damping control mode by using engine intake-manifold vacuum and a microprocessor-based solenoid valve controller. Through analytical methods, it is observed that this adaptive mount provides most desirable dynamic performance with regard to the engine-bounce control, shock absorption and vibration isolation performance requirements. Although technical prospects of the proposed adaptive system appear promising, in-situ performance needs to be evaluated.
Journal Article

Development of a Non-Linear Clutch Damper Experiment Exhibiting Transient Dynamics

Many powertrain structural sub-systems are often tested under steady state conditions on a dynamometer or in a full vehicle. This process (while necessary) is costly and time intensive, especially when evaluating the effect of component properties on transient phenomena, such as driveline clunk. This paper proposes a laboratory experiment that provides the following: 1) a bench experiment that demonstrates transient behavior of a non-linear clutch damper under non-rotating conditions, 2) a process to efficiently evaluate multiple non-linear clutch dampers, and 3) generates benchmark time domain data for validation of non-linear driveline simulation codes. The design of this experiment is based on a previous experimental work on clunk. A commercially available non-linear clutch damper is selected and the experiment is sized accordingly. The stiffness and hysteresis properties of the clutch damper are assumed from the measured quasi-static torque curve provided by the manufacturer.