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Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Assess the Impact of Road Events on PHEV Performance using Real World Data

2011-04-12
2011-01-0875
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Addressing Drivability in an Extended Range Electric Vehicle Running an Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS)

2011-04-12
2011-01-0911
The EcoCAR Challenge team at The Ohio State University has designed an extended-range electric vehicle capable of 50 miles all-electric range via a 22 kWh lithium-ion battery pack, with range extension and limited parallel operation supplied by a 1.8 L dedicated E85 engine. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This vehicle design is implemented in a GM crossover utility vehicle as part of the EcoCAR Challenge. This paper explains the implementation of the vehicle's control strategy in order to maintain high efficiency and improve drivability. The vehicle control strategy employs both distinct operating modes and an Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) to find the most efficient operating point. The ECMS strategy does an online search for the most efficient torque split in order to meet the driver's command.
Journal Article

Ignition Delay Correlation for Predicting Autoignition of a Toluene Reference Fuel Blend in Spark Ignition Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0338
An ignition delay correlation was developed for a toluene reference fuel (TRF) blend that is representative of automotive gasoline fuels exhibiting two-stage ignition. Ignition delay times for the autoignition of a TRF 91 blend with an antiknock index of 91 were predicted through extensive chemical kinetic modeling in CHEMKIN for a constant volume reactor. The development of the correlation involved determining nonlinear least squares curve fits for these ignition delay predictions corresponding to different inlet pressures and temperatures, a number of fuel-air equivalence ratios, and a range of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. In addition to NO control, EGR is increasingly being utilized for managing combustion phasing in spark ignition (SI) engines to mitigate knock. Therefore, along with other operating parameters, the effects of EGR on autoignition have been incorporated in the correlation to address the need for predicting ignition delay in SI engines operating with EGR.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Injection Timing on In-Cylinder Fuel Distribution in a Natural Gas Powered Engine

1997-05-01
971708
One obstacle hindering the use of port fuel injection in natural gas engines is poor idle performance due to incomplete mixing of the cylinder charge prior to ignition. Fuel injection timing has a strong influence on the mixing process. The purpose of this work is to determine the impact of fuel injection timing on in-cylinder fuel distribution. Equivalence ratio maps have been acquired by Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence in an optical engine with a production cylinder head. Experimental results have been used to determine the injection timing which produces the most uniform fuel distribution for the given engine.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Enhanced Catalysis for Automotive Exhausts

1997-05-01
971719
This paper presents a concept for enhancing catalytic removal of pollutant species from an exhaust stream by placing placing the plasma adjacent to the catalyst surface. Model calculations of the behavior of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF), which influences the chemistry and ionization levels near the surface, are performed and analyzed. Preliminary experiments attempting to reduce these theoretical ideas to practice in N2/NO mixtures, are discussed. Although removal of NO is observed, this is due to gas phase effects alone. The present experimental arrangement is not able to produce the requisite conditions outlined by theory to enact plasma-enhanced catalysis.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Ignition Hazard Posed by Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery Canisters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0731
ORVR (Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery) canisters trap vapors during normal operations of a vehicle's engine, and during refueling. This study evaluates the relative risks involved should a canister rupture in a crash. A canister impactor was developed to simulate real-world impacts and to evaluate the canisters' rupture characteristics. Numerous performance aspects of canisters were evaluated: the energy required to rupture a canister; the spread of carbon particles following rupture; the ease of ignition of vapor-laden particles; the vapor concentration in the area of ruptured, vapor-laden canisters; and the potential of crashes to rupture and ignite canisters. Results from these five items were combined into a risk analysis.
Technical Paper

Empirical-Numerical Simulation Technique for Improving the Quality of Rolled Rods by Roll Pass Design

1992-02-01
920783
Improper roll pass designs can lead to either underfill which results in the formation of hairline cracks on the surface of the finished bars or overfill which results in roll overloading and the formation of fins. Therefore to reduce downtime, and improve yield and quality, it becomes important to design an acceptable roll pass in reasonable time. This paper presents a methodology for roll pass design which uses a three dimensional finite element technique along with an empirical procedure to arrive at an iterative scheme for reducing the number of passes and improving metal flow in the passes. This methodology is applied to improving an existing seven pass square - to - round rolling sequence, resulting in the reduction of the number of passes and improved distributions of effective strains in the rolled product.
Technical Paper

Welding Residual Stresses in Splicing Heavy Section Shapes

1997-04-07
971585
Welding residual stress is one of the primary factors responsible for cracking at the access hole interface between the flange and web plate of welded heavy W-shapes. During multi-pass welding, cracks can be found in either the flange plate or the web plate, depending upon welding sequence, joint details and access hole size. In this study, an integrated numerical and experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of welding parameters and joint geometry on the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in thick-section butt joints. The results provide guidelines for improved design for welding of heavy W-shapes.
Technical Paper

The Application of Fuzzy Logic to the Diagnosis of Automotive Systems

1997-02-24
970208
The evolution of the diagnostic equipment for automotive application is the direct effect of the implementation of sophisticated and high technology control systems in the new generation of passenger cars. One of the most challenging issues in automotive diagnostics is the ability to assess, to analyze, and to integrate all the information and data supplied by the vehicle's on-board computer. The data available might be in the form of fault codes or sensors and actuators voltages. Moreover, as environmental regulations get more stringent, knowledge of the concentration of different species emitted from the tailpipe during the inspection and maintenance programs can become of great importance for an integrated powertrain diagnostic system. A knowledge-based diagnostic tool is one of the approaches that can be adopted to carry out the challenging task of detecting and diagnosing faults related to the emissions control system in an automobile.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Engine Misfire on Exhaust Emission Levels in Spark Ignition Engines

1995-02-01
950480
One of the gray areas in the implementation of regulations limiting the generation of pollutants from mobile sources is the actual effectiveness of the exhaust gas emissions control strategy in vehicles that have been in use for some time. While it is possible today to conduct limited diagnostics with the on-board engine computer by performing periodic checks to verify the validity of the signals measured by the on-board sensors, and to measure tailpipe emissions during routine inspection and maintenance, the task of correlating these measurements with each other to provide an on-line, accurate diagnosis of critical malfunctions has thus far proven to be a very challenging task, especially in the case of misfire.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Intake-Generated Flow Fields in I.C. Engines Using 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3-D PTV)

1994-03-01
940279
Flow fields generated during the intake stroke of a 4-stroke I.C. engine are studied experimentally using water analog simulation. The fluid is seeded by small flow tracer particles and imaged by two digital cameras at BDC. Using a 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry technique recently developed, the 3-D motion of these flow tracers is determined in a completely automated way using sophisticated image processing and PTV algorithms. The resulting 3-D velocity fields are ensemble averaged over a large number of successive cycles to determine the mean characteristics of the flow field as well as to estimate the turbulent fluctuations. This novel technique was applied to three different cylinder head configurations. Each configuration was run for conditions simulating idle operation two different ways: first with both inlet ports open and second with only the primary port open.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Off-Line of Action Contact at the Tips of Gear Teeth

1994-09-01
941761
A mathematical basis for predicting loaded off-line of action contact at the tips of undermodified gear teeth is discussed. Two methods of solving the contact problem, using a modified simplex algorithm, are used to predict the load distribution. The methods differ in the compliance matrix formulation and the way they search for contact. The first method uses a tapered plate model and the second method uses a finite element model. The effects of off-line of action contact on load sharing, effective contact ratio and motion curves are shown.
Technical Paper

Combine Tractive Devices: Effects on Soil Compaction

1995-09-01
952159
Soil response to differences in tire size and inflation pressure was measured for a JD 9600 combine with 18.4R38 dual tires, 30.5L32 single tires, 68x50.00-32 single tires at 103 and 166 kPa inflation pressure and a John Deere half-track system on two different soils (Kokomo and Crosby) near Urbana, Ohio. A loaded 42.3 m3 grain cart was included on the Kokomo soil for comparative purposes. The Ohio State Soil Physical Properties Measurement System was used to sample and measure the bulk density, air-filled porosity, air permeability and cone penetration resistance between 10 and 50 cm depths. The results for Kokomo soil show the grain cart had the greatest effect with an average decrease in total porosity of 12.90 percent, compared to 7.95%, 6.05%, 4.56%, 3.06%, and 2.04% for singles, tracks, duals, wide overinflated, and wide rated pressure tires, respectively, on the combine.
Technical Paper

Soil Compaction of Four-Wheel Drive and Tracked Tractors Under Various Draft Loads

1995-09-01
952098
The soil response to traffic loads as affected by tire inflation pressure, track width and drawbar pull was measured. The change in soil physical properties caused by a John Deere 8870 tractor at two tire pressure settings and CATERPILLAR Challenger 65 and 75 tractors with 64 and 89 cm wide belt tracks, were measured at two load levels; no draft (tractor only) and tractor pulling a 12.5 m field cultivator. The Ohio State University Soil Physical Properties Measurement System was used to measure cone penetration resistance, air permeability, air-filled porosity, and bulk density. The results show the dual overinflated tires caused the greatest change, followed by the CATERPILLAR Challenger 65 track, then the CATERPILLAR Challenger 75 track, and finally dual correctly inflated tires caused the least effect on soil physical properties. These results were consistent at each depth. The effects of the two draft levels give the same ranking of the tractive units.
Technical Paper

Integrated Powertrain Diagnostic System: Linking On- and Off-Board Diagnostic Strategies

1996-02-01
960621
A number of automotive diagnostic equipment and procedures have evolved over the last two decades, leading to two generations of on-board diagnostic requirements (OBDI and OBDII), increasing the number of components and systems to be monitored by the diagnostic tools. The goal of On-Board Diagnostic is to alert the driver to the presence of a malfunction of the emission control system, and to identify the location of the problem in order to assist mechanics in properly performing repairs. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology for the development of an Integrated Powertrain Diagnostic System (EPDS) that can combine the information supplied by conventional tailpipe inspection programs with onboard diagnostics to provide fast and reliable diagnosis of malfunctions.
Journal Article

Development of a Non-Linear Clutch Damper Experiment Exhibiting Transient Dynamics

2015-06-15
2015-01-2189
Many powertrain structural sub-systems are often tested under steady state conditions on a dynamometer or in a full vehicle. This process (while necessary) is costly and time intensive, especially when evaluating the effect of component properties on transient phenomena, such as driveline clunk. This paper proposes a laboratory experiment that provides the following: 1) a bench experiment that demonstrates transient behavior of a non-linear clutch damper under non-rotating conditions, 2) a process to efficiently evaluate multiple non-linear clutch dampers, and 3) generates benchmark time domain data for validation of non-linear driveline simulation codes. The design of this experiment is based on a previous experimental work on clunk. A commercially available non-linear clutch damper is selected and the experiment is sized accordingly. The stiffness and hysteresis properties of the clutch damper are assumed from the measured quasi-static torque curve provided by the manufacturer.
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