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Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1220
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.
Technical Paper

Effects of Forming Induced Phase Transformation on Crushing Behavior of TRIP Steel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0216
In this paper, results of finite element crash simulation are presented for a TRIP steel side rail with and without considering the phase transformation during forming operations. A homogeneous phase transformation model is adapted to model the mechanical behavior of the austenite-to-martensite phase. The forming process of TRIP steels is simulated with the implementation of the material model. The distribution and volume fraction of the martensite in TRIP steels may be greatly influenced by various factors during forming process and subsequently contribute to the behavior of the formed TRIP steels during the crushing process. The results indicate that, with the forming induced phase transformation, higher energy absorption of the side rail can be achieved. The phase transformation enhances the strength of the side rail.
Technical Paper

Effects of Manufacturing Processes and In-Service mperature Variations on the Properties of TRIP Steels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0793
This paper examines some key aspects of the manufacturing process that “ Transformation Induced Plasticity” (TRIP) steels would be exposed to, and systematically evaluate how the forming and thermal histories affect final strength and ductility of the material. We evaluate the effects of in-service temperature variations, such as under hood and hot/cold cyclic conditions, to determine whether these conditions influence final strength, ductility and energy absorption characteristics of several available TRIP steel grades. As part of the manufacturing thermal environment evaluations, stamping process thermal histories are included in the studies. As part of the in-service conditions, different pre-straining levels are included. Materials from four steel suppliers are examined. The thermal/straining history versus material property relationship is established over a full range of expected thermal histories and selected loading modes.
Journal Article

Predicting Stress vs. Strain Behaviors of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloy with Actual Pore Distribution

2016-04-05
2016-01-0290
In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure-based finite element modeling method (i.e., extrinsic modeling method) is developed, which can be used in examining the effects of porosity on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings. For this purpose, AM60 Mg tensile samples were generated under high-pressure die-casting in a specially-designed mold. Before the tensile test, the samples were CT-scanned to obtain the pore distributions within the samples. 3D microstructure-based finite element models were then developed based on the obtained actual pore distributions of the gauge area. The input properties for the matrix material were determined by fitting the simulation result to the experimental result of a selected sample, and then used for all the other samples’ simulation. The results show that the ductility and fracture locations predicted from simulations agree well with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Lean-NOx and Plasma Catalysis Over γ-Alumina for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

2001-09-24
2001-01-3569
The NOx reduction performance under lean conditions over γ-alumina was evaluated using a micro-reactor system and a non-thermal plasma-equipped bench test system. Various alumina samples were obtained from alumina manufacturers to assess commercial alumina materials. In addition, γ-alumina samples were synthesized at Caterpillar with a sol-gel technique in order to control alumina properties. The deNOx performances of the alumina samples were compared. The alumina samples were characterized with analytical techniques such as inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and surface area measurements (BET) to understand physical and chemical properties. The information derived from these techniques was correlated with the NOx reduction performance to identify key parameters of γ-alumina for optimizing materials for lean-NOx and plasma assisted catalysis.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Failure Prediction for Automotive Windshields Based on Strength and Flaw Distributions

2000-10-03
2000-01-2720
This paper describes a method for predicting structural failure probabilities for automotive windshields. The predictive model is supported by the data from strength tests performed on specimens of automotive glass. Evaluations of stresses can be based on finite element calculations, or measurements of the residual stresses that arise from fabrication. Failure probabilities for each subregion of a windshield are estimated from the local state of stress, the surface area or length (for edge elements) of the subregion, and statistical distributions of glass strengths. Example calculations are presented that show the relative contributions of edge stresses, surface stresses and residual stresses to calculated failure probabilities.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Biaxial Strength of New vs. Used Windshields

2000-10-03
2000-01-2721
This paper presents the strength data for conventional automotive windshields in both the new and used conditions. More specifically, the biaxial strength of outer surface of curved and symmetrically laminated windshield, measured in biaxial flexure, is reported. The relative contributions of inplane membrane stress, which can be significant for new windshields, and bending stress are quantified with the aid of strain gauge rosettes mounted on both the outer and inner surfaces of windshield. The strength distribution for new and used windshields, based on Weibull distribution function, is found to be multimodal indicating more than one family of surface flaws. Depending on handling damage during manufacturing, assembly and installation processes, the low strength region of new windshields can approach that of used windshields with 50,000+ road miles!
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