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Video

Characterization of a New Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst with Low Temperature NOx Storage Capability for LD Diesel

2012-06-18
Currently, two consolidated aftertreatment technologies are available for the reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines: Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems and LNT (Lean NOx Trap) systems. Urea SCR technology, which has been widely used for many years at stationary sources, is becoming nowadays an attractive alternative also for light-duty diesel applications. However, SCR systems are much more effective in NOx reduction efficiency at high load operating conditions than light load condition, characterized by lower exhaust gas temperatures.
Video

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2012-05-30
The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Soot and NOx Formation in a DI Common Rail Diesel Engine with Pilot Injection

2001-03-05
2001-01-0657
The influence of pilot injection timing and quantity on soot, NOx, combustion noise and bsfc has been analyzed on a passenger car DI Diesel engine prototype equipped with a common rail fuel injection system. The investigated engine operating points were 1500/5, 2000/2, 2500/8 rpm/bar, which are quite typical of EC driving cycles. For each of these operating conditions, the pilot injection quantity was varied by up to 15% of the total injected quantity and the pilot injection timing was varied between 32° and 1° crank angle degrees. The principal combustion characteristics were determined on the basis of the heat release, and a thorough statistical analysis was performed to infer the correlation between the combustion parameters and soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Contribution to the Improvement of Individual Cylinder AFR Control in a 4 Cylinder S.I. Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1009
Numerical simulation can be effectively used to reduce the experimental tests which are nowadays required for the analysis and calibration of engine control systems. In particular in this paper the use of a one-dimensional engine model to analyze the response of an UEGO sensor in the exhaust manifold of a 4 cylinder s.i. engine (with multipoint fuel injection) is described: numerical simulation has been used to simulate a misfunction of the fuelling system, which caused one of the four cylinders to be fuelled with an air/fuel ratio that was 10% richer than the others. The simulated UEGO response was then compared with experimental measurements, and after this validation process, the sensor model can be used to study a proper fuel injection control strategy thus reducing the required experimental tests, as outlined in a test case presented at the end of the paper.
Technical Paper

Gerotor Lubricating Oil Pump for IC Engines

1998-10-19
982689
This paper documents an extensive study aimed at a better understanding of the peculiarities and performance of crankshaft mounted gerotor pumps for IC engines lubrication. At different extents, the modelling, simulation and testing of a specific unit are all considered. More emphasis, at the modelling phase, is dedicated to the physical and mathematical description of the flow losses mechanisms; the often intricate aspects of kinematics being deliberately left aside. The pressure relief valve is analysed at a considerable extent as is the modelling of the working fluid, a typically aerated subsystem in such applications. Simulation is grounded on AMESim, a relatively novel tool in the fluid power domain, that proves effective and compliant with user deeds and objectives. Testing, at steady-state conditions, forms the basis for the pro!gressive tuning of the simulation model and provides significant insight into this type of volumetric pump.
Technical Paper

Octane Rating Methods at High Revolution Speed

1995-10-01
952520
An experimental investigation on a group of unleaded gasolines of different chemical composition has been carried out, in order to analyze their knock behaviour in a mass-produced engine at high revolution speed, to highlight possible inconsistencies with their standard Research and Motor octane numbers and to try to discover explanations for the abovementioned inconsistencies. The investigation has been focused on fuels containing oxygenated compounds, such as alcohols (methanol and ethanol) and ethers (MTBE), with the aim of pointing out the influence of the fuel composition on the octane rating, especially as far as the variation in the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio (due to oxygenated compounds blending) is concerned. In particular, the rating of all the fuels under the same relative air/fuel ratio has shown to be a mandatory condition in order to obtain a proper estimate of antiknock performances. The evaluations obtained are consistent with the standard Motor octane numbers.
Technical Paper

Influence of Late Intake-Valve Opening on the S.I. Engine-Performance in Idle Condition

1996-02-01
960586
This work has been carried out on a two-cylinder s.i. automotive engine and it investigates spark advance, air-fuel ratio and variable valve overlap for low emissions and low fuel consumption, with an acceptable cyclic irregularity under idle conditions. An original application of a variable valve timing system, based on a passive electro-hydraulic link, has been used for this purpose. The instantaneous engine speed and in-cylinder pressure have been measured and recorded by means of an acquisition data system that allows both the determination and the comparison of some cyclic irregularity indexes, under different engine settings, at idle. The optimum spark advance, air-fuel ratio and valve overlap, which yield the best compromise between fuel consumption and cyclic irregularity, under idle operating conditions, have therefore been pointed out.
Technical Paper

Speed Dependence of Turbulence Properties in a High-Squish Automotive Engine Combustion System

1996-02-01
960268
The variation of turbulent flow quantities with engine speed has been investigated in the combustion chamber of an automotive diesel engine with a high-squish conical-type in-piston bowl and one helicoidal intake duct, at speeds covering the wide range of 600-3000 rpm, under motored conditions. The investigation had the main purpose of studying the engine speed effect on the structure of both cycle-resolved and conventional turbulence over the induction, the compression and the early stage of the expansion stroke. The low frequency component of the fluctuating motion was also investigated.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between Heat Transfer and Knock Intensity on a Statistical Basis

1996-10-01
962101
Heat transfer in the combustion chamber of s.i. engines operating under knocking conditions has been detected and analyzed. Measurements have been carried out, cycle by cycle, on a CFR laboratory engine by means of a dedicated instrument and an original method. The relationship between heat transfer and knock intensity has been analyzed on a statistical basis, emphasizing knock intensity influence on heat transfer distribution. Moreover, the share of heat transfer more closely related to knock intensity has been highlighted: heat transfer is shown not to be significantly affected by knock intensity under light-to-medium knock conditions; on the contrary, the influence becomes evident under medium-to-heavy knock conditions. Eventually, heat transfer indexes influenced by knock intensity have been evaluated, allowing a comparison of knock-related thermal properties of fuels.
Technical Paper

A New Test Bench for HWA Fluid-Dynamic Characterization of a Two-Valved In-Piston-Bowl Production Engine

1995-10-01
952467
A new test bench has been set up and equipped in order to analyze the air mean motion and turbulence quantities in the combustion system of an automotive diesel engine with one helicoidal intake duct and a conical type in-piston bowl. A sophisticated HWA technique employing single- and dual-sensor probes was applied to the in-cylinder flow investigation under motored conditions. The anemometric probe was also operated as a thermometric sensor. An analytical-numerical procedure, based on the heat balance equations for both anemometric and thermometric wires, was refined and applied to compute the gas velocity from the anemometer output signal. The gas property influence, the thermometric sensor lag and the prong temperature effects were taken into account with this procedure. The in-cylinder velocity data were reduced using both a cycle-resolved approach and the conventional ensemble-averaging procedure, in order to separate the mean flow from the fluctuating motion.
Technical Paper

Turbulence Spectrum Investigation in a DI Diesel Engine with a Reentrant Combustion Bowl and a Helical Inlet Port

1996-10-01
962019
The frequency spectral structure of turbulence spatial components was investigated in the cylinder of an automotive diesel engine with a high-squish reentrant in-piston bowl of the conical type and a helical inlet port. A sophisticated HWA technique using single- and dual-sensor probes was applied for instantaneous air velocity measurements along the injector axis at practical engine speeds, up to 3000 rpm, under motored conditions. The investigation was carried out for both cycle-resolved and conventional turbulence components, as were determined by different wire orientations, throughout the induction, the compression and the early stage of the expansion stroke. The anisotropy of turbulence spectral structure and its temporal evolution during the engine cycle were examined by evaluating the autospectral density functions and the time scales of each turbulence component in consecutive correlation crank-angle intervals.
Technical Paper

Time-Frequency Spectral Stucture of Turbulence in an Automotive Engine

1992-02-01
920153
The results of an experimental study on the statistical structure of turbulence in an automotive engine are reported, with specific reference to the time-frequency domains. Autocorrelation and autospectral density coefficients were evaluated in consecutive crank-angle intervals throughout the induction and compression strokes. Eulerian time scales were obtained on the analogy of both the micro and integral time scales of turbulence for stationary flows. The spatial distribution of the turbulence structure was investigated in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine with a shallow in-piston bowl and two tangential intake ducts. The study was carried out for different swirl flow conditions, produced by deactivating one intake duct and/or by changing the engine speed. The velocity data were acquired using an advanced HWA technique, under motored conditions.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Mass Estimation from CAN Data and Drivetrain Torque Observer

2017-03-28
2017-01-1590
A method for estimating the vehicle mass in real time is presented. Traditional mass estimation methods suffer due a lack of knowledge of the vehicle parameters, the road surface conditions and most importantly the effect of the vehicle transmission. To resolve these issues, a method independent of a vehicle model is utilized in conjunction with a drivetrain output torque observer to obtain the estimate of the vehicle mass. Simulations and experimental track tests indicate that the method is able to accurately estimate the vehicle mass with a relatively fast rate of convergence compared to traditional methods.
Technical Paper

Mode-shifting Minimization in a Power Management Strategy for Rapid Component Sizing of Multimode Power Split Hybrid Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1018
The production of multi-mode power-split hybrid vehicles has been implemented for some years now and it is expected to continually grow over the next decade. Control strategy still represents one of the most challenging aspects in the design of these vehicles. Finding an effective strategy to obtain the optimal solution with light computational cost is not trivial. In previous publications, a Power-weighted Efficiency Analysis for Rapid Sizing (PEARS) algorithm was found to be a very promising solution. The issue with implementing a PEARS technique is that it generates an unrealistic mode-shifting schedule. In this paper, the problematic points of PEARS algorithm are detected and analyzed, then a solution to minimize mode-shifting events is proposed. The improved PEARS algorithm is integrated in a design methodology that can generate and test several candidate powertrains in a short period of time.
Technical Paper

A Deep Learning based Virtual Sensor for Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation: Experimental Results

2018-04-03
2018-01-1089
Modern vehicles have several active systems on board such as the Electronic Stability Control. Many of these systems require knowledge of vehicle states such as sideslip angle and yaw rate for feedback control. Sideslip angle cannot be measured with the standard sensors present in a vehicle, but it can be measured by very expensive and large optical sensors. As a result, state observers have been used to estimate sideslip angle of vehicles. The current state of the art does not present an algorithm which can robustly estimate the sideslip angle for vehicles with all-wheel drive. A deep learning network based sideslip angle observer is presented in this article for robust estimation of vehicle sideslip angle. The observer takes in the inputs from all the on board sensors present in a vehicle and it gives out an estimate of the sideslip angle. The observer is tested extensively using data which are obtained from proving grounds in high tire-road friction coefficient conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1142
The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Theoretical Car Flow Investigation

1986-03-01
860213
During the past few years substantial advances have been made in reducing the drag of automobiles. Future improvements are becoming increasingly difficult to achieve; for this reason more-advanced flow investigation methods are required. This paper shows some results of flow analysis performed using two methods. The first is experimental and is based on car-wake flow surveying; the second is computational and is based on inviscid flow calculations simply corrected for viscous effects. The two methods may be usefully combined.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Combustion Process of Commercial and Reference Fuels on the CFR Laboratory Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2265
As in the standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedure which is used to evaluate the fuel Octane Number (ON), some signal properties are considered, while others are neglected, it happens that different pressure signals of the sensor, obtained from different fuels and operating conditions, can lead to the same Knock Intensity index (KI) value, even though the knock behavior is not the same. Therefore the aim of this work was to analyze the standard signal processing chain of the Cooperative Fuel Research engine (CFR) (from the pressure sensor to the knock-meter display) and its effects on the value of the KI, for different fuels and operating conditions.
Technical Paper

PEM Fuel Cell Performance under Pre-Compression of Electrode: A Multidisciplinary, Integrated and Advanced Calculus Approach

2011-04-12
2011-01-1175
Finite element methodologies are widely used in the attempt to minimize the expense for testing and mock-ups. The same approach could be extensively used in predicting PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) performance, considering all of the aspects related to this modern and complex technology, from electric to thermal and structural, to fluid-dynamics behavior. The present work focuses on the clamping pressure of the stack and its influence on the electro-chemical performance of the fuel cell. The main objective is to evaluate PEMFC performance related to several clamping configurations defined by the user when assembling the entire stack. The concept is to simulate the behavior of more deformable components and predict their influence on the overall performance.
Technical Paper

A PEM Fuel Cell Distributed Parameters Model Aiming at Studying the Production of Liquid Water Within the Cell During its Normal Operation: Model Description, Implementation and Validation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1176
One of the major issues coming out from low temperature fuel cells concerns the production of water vapor as a chemical reaction (between hydrogen and oxygen) by-product and its consequent condensation (at certain operating conditions), determining the presence of an amount of liquid water affecting the performance of the fuel cell stack: the production and the quantity of liquid water are strictly influenced by boundaries and power output conditions. Starting from this point, this work focuses on collecting all the required information available in literature and defining a suitable CFD model able to predict the production of liquid water within the fuel cell, while at the same time localizing it and determining the consequences on the PEM cell performances.
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