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Technical Paper

NEEXT : New Electric Experience For Traction

Electric scooters are suited to mobility in zones with environmental traffic limitations, and particularly for city centers with very poor room for parking. Aim of this paper is the illustration of the performance that can be obtained from a purposely designed electric scooter. The features of the main components of the scooter driveline: battery package, converter, motor and control will be described.
Journal Article

Particle Number and Size Distribution from a Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine during DPF Regeneration

The aim of this work is to analyze particle number and size distribution from a small displacement Euro 5 common rail automotive diesel engine, equipped with a close coupled aftertreatment system, featuring a DOC and a DPF integrated in a single canning. In particular the effects of different combustion processes on PM characteristics were investigated, by comparing measurements made both under normal operating condition and under DPF regeneration mode. Exhaust gas was sampled at engine outlet, at DOC outlet and at DPF outlet, in order to fully characterize PM emissions through the whole exhaust line. After a two stage dilution system, sampled gas was analyzed by means of a TSI 3080 SMPS, in the range from 6 to 240 nm. Particle number and size distribution were evaluated at part load operating conditions, representative of urban driving.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Investigate the Dynamic Characteristics of ESP and EHB Hydraulic Units

The paper deals with the Hardware-In-the-Loop based methodology which was adopted to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of Electronic Stability Program (ESP) and Electro-Hydraulic Brake (EHB) components. Firstly, it permits the identification of the time delays due to the hardware of the actuation system. Secondly, the link between the hardware of the hydraulic unit and a vehicle model running in real time permits the objective evaluation of the performance induced by the single components of different hydraulic units in terms of vehicle dynamics. The paper suggests the main parameters and tests which can help the car manufacturer in evaluating ESP hydraulic units, without expensive road tests.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis and Experimental Validation of the Inlet Flow Distribution in Close Coupled Catalytic Converters

The unsteady flow effects in two different close coupled catalytic converters were investigated in order to achieve a better understanding of the steady state experimental tests which are usually performed to evaluate a flow distribution. Firstly the validity of a CFD model was achieved through a comparison of some steady state simulations with the results of HWA experimental measurements. Several different formulations of the uniformity index, that were found in literature, were then compared, trying to highlight the strengths and shortcomings of each one. Further information was derived from a comparison of the two catalysts that were tested to achieve a general methodology that would be useful for future analysis. Finally, a new approach to evaluate the flow distribution using a steady state analysis was proposed by comparing the results of a transient simulation that was obtained for a whole engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Hardware and Virtual Test-Rigs for Automotive Steel Wheels Design

The aim of this paper is to study in deep the peculiar test-rigs and experimental procedures adopted to the fulfilment of the principal requirements of automotive steel wheels, in particular regarding fatigue damaging. In the discussion, the standard requirements, the OEM specifications and the dimensional and geometric tolerances are approached. As result of an increasingly necessity to improve the performance of the components, innovative virtual test benches are presented. Differently from their traditional precursors, virtual test-rigs give an extended view of the physical behaviour of the component as the possibility to monitor stress-strain distribution in deep. In the first section, the state of the art and the specifications are listed. Secondly, the adopted hardware test-rigs as the experimental tests are described in detail. In the third one, proposed virtual test-rig is discussed.
Technical Paper

Electro-Hydraulic Braking System Modelling and Simulation

The first step toward a braking system ‘by wire’ is Electro-Hydraulic Braking System (EHB). The paper describes a method to evaluate through virtual experimentation the actual improvement in vehicle behaviour, from the point of view of both handling and comfort, including also pedal feeling, due to EHB. The first step consisted in modelling the hydraulic unit, comprehensive of sensors. Then it was conceived a control logic devoted to medium-low intensity braking manoeuvres, without ABS intervention, to determine an optimal braking force distribution and pedal feeling depending on the manoeuvre. A failsafe strategy, complete of on board diagnosis, to prevent dangerous system behaviour in the eventuality of a component failure was carried out and tested. Finally, EHB wheel pressure sensors were used to improve both ABS performance, increasing the adherence estimation, and Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) performance, through a more precise actuation.