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Technical Paper

Effects of Different Geometries of the Cylinder Head on the Combustion Characteristics of a VVA Gasoline Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0057
Two different modifications of the baseline cylinder head configuration have been designed and experimentally tested on a MultiAir turbocharged gasoline engine, in order to address the issue of the poor in-cylinder turbulence levels which are typical of the Early-Intake-Valve-Closing (EIVC) strategies which are adopted in Variable Valve Actuation systems at part load to reduce pumping losses. The first layout promotes turbulence by increasing the tumble motion at low valve lifts, while the second one allows the addition of a swirl vortex to the main tumble structure. The aim for both designs was to achieve a proper flame propagation speed at both part and full load. The experimental activity was initially focused on the part load analysis under high dilution of the mixture with internal EGR, which can allow significant further reductions in terms of pumping losses but, on the other hand, tends to adversely affect combustion stability and to increase cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption in ICE Lubricating Gear Pumps

2010-10-25
2010-01-2146
Scope of this work is the analysis of the energy consumed by lubricating gear pumps for automotive applications during a driving cycle. This paper presents the lumped parameter simulation model of gerotor lubricating pumps and the comparison between numerical outcomes and experimental results. The model evaluates the power required to drive the pump and the cumulative energy consumed in the driving cycle. The influence of temperature variations on leakage flows, viscous friction torque and lubricating circuit permeability is taken into account. The simulation model has been validated by means of a test rig for hydraulic pumps able to reproduce the typical speed, temperature and load profiles during a NEDC driving cycle. Experimental tests, performed on a crankshaft mounted pump for diesel engines, have confirmed a good matching with the simulation model predictions in terms of instantaneous quantities and overall energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Advanced Numerical Model for CR Piezo Indirect Acting Injection Systems

2010-05-05
2010-01-1503
A numerical model for simulating a Common Rail Piezo Indirect Acting fuel injection-system under steady state as well as transient operating conditions was developed using a commercial code. A 1D flow model of the main hydraulic system components, including the rail, the rail to injector connecting pipe and the injector, was applied in order to predict the influence of the injector layout and of each part of the hydraulic circuit on the injection system performance. The numerical code was validated through the comparison of the numerical results with experimental data obtained on a high performance test bench of the Moehwald-Bosch MEP2000/ CA4000 type. The developed injection-system mathematical model was applied to the analysis of transient flows in the hydraulic circuit paying specific attention to the fluid dynamics internal to the injector.
Technical Paper

Gearbox Design by means of Genetic Algorithm and CAD/CAE Methodologies

2010-04-12
2010-01-0895
The paper discusses a gearbox design method based on an optimization algorithm coupled to a fully integrated tool to draw 3D virtual models, in order to verify both functionality and design. The aim of this activity is to explain how the state of the art of the gear design may be implemented through an optimization software for the geometrical parameters selection of helical gears of a manual transmission, starting from torque and speed time histories, the required set of gear ratios and the material properties. This approach can be useful in order to use either the experimental acquisitions or the simulation results to verify or design all of the single gear pairs that compose a gearbox. Genetic algorithm methods are applied to solve the optimization problems of gears design, due to their capabilities of managing objective functions discontinuous, non-differentiable, stochastic, or highly non-linear.
Journal Article

Modelling and Simulation of Brake Booster Vacuum Pumps

2013-05-15
2013-01-9016
Aim of this work is the development of a lumped parameters simulation model of single-vane vacuum pumps for pneumatically actuated brake boosters. Kinematic and fluid-dynamic models are integrated in a simulation environment to create a tool aimed at evaluating the vacuum pump performance and at guiding the designer during the prototype development. The paper describes extensively the mathematical model, the time domain simulation and experimental analyses performed on a camshaft mounted unit. Great emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the geometric quantities of the control volumes into which the vacuum pump has been divided. For each control volume the mass and energy conservation equations lead to the determination of the instantaneous pressure. The volume of each variable chamber and the respective angular derivative are calculated as function of the shaft position starting from the stator track profile supplied as a generic closed polyline.
Technical Paper

Multi-objective Optimization of a Multifunctional Structure through a MOGA and SOM based Methodology

2013-09-17
2013-01-2207
A Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) problem concerning the thermal control problem of Multifunctional Structures (MFSs) is here addressed. In particular the use of Multi-Objective algorithms from an optimization tool and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) is proposed for the identification of the optimal topological distribution of the heating components for a multifunctional test panel, the Advanced Bread Board (ABB). MFSs are components that conduct many functions within a single piece of hardware, shading the clearly defined boundaries that identify traditional subsystems. Generally speaking, MFSs have already proved to be a disrupting technology, especially in aeronautics and space application fields. The case study exploited in this paper refers to a demonstrator breadboard called ABB. ABB belongs to a particular subset of an extensive family of MFS, that is, of thermo-structural panels with distributed electronics and a health monitoring network.
Technical Paper

A Commercial Excavator: Analysis, Modelling and Simulation of the Hydraulic Circuit

2012-09-24
2012-01-2040
The paper addresses some aspects of an ongoing research on a commercial compact excavator. The interest is focused on the analysis and modelling of the whole hydraulic circuit that, beside a load sensing variable displacement pump, features a stack of nine proportional directional control valves modules of which seven are of the load sensing type. Loads being sensed are the boom swing, boom, stick and bucket, right and left track motors and work tools; instead, the blade and the turret swing users do not contribute to the load sensing signal. Of specific interest are the peculiarities that were observed in the stack. In fact, to develop an accurate AMESim modelling, the stack was dismantled and all modules analysed and represented in a CAD environment as 3D parts. The load sensing flow generation unit was replaced on the vehicle by another one whose analysis and modelling have been developed using available design and experimental data.
Technical Paper

Common Feeding Injection System Equipped with Reduced-Leakage Solenoid Injectors

2014-10-13
2014-01-2735
A numerical-experimental analysis of a new generation Common Feeding (CF) fuel injection system, equipped with last generation solenoid injectors that feature pressure-balanced pilot-valves, has been developed. The main feature of the CF system is that it removes the accumulator from the high-pressure layout of the standard Common Rail (CR). In the CF apparatus, the high-pressure pump is connected directly to the injectors, and a small accumulation volume is integrated in the pump high-pressure circuit. The hydraulic performance of the CF system, including the injectors with the pressure-balanced pilot-valve, has been compared with that of the standard CR system in terms of injected masses, fuel leakages, high-pressure and injected flow-rate time histories. A previously developed advanced one-dimensional code for CR type systems has been adapted for the simulation of the CF high-pressure layout.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Time-Resolved Mass Injection Rates for a Multi-Hole and an Outward Opening Piezo GDI Injector

2015-04-14
2015-01-0929
Time-resolved mass injection rates of an outward opening piezo-actuated and a solenoid actuated multi-hole GDI injector were measured to investigate (1) the influence of both hardware and software settings and (2) the influence on the injection rates from a wide range of operational parameters and (3) discuss limitations and issues with this measurement technique. The varied operating parameters were fuel pressure, back-pressure, electrical pulse width, single/double injection and injection frequency. The varied hardware/software parameters were injector protrusion, upstream fuel pressure condition and the cut-off frequency of the software's low-pass filter. Signal quality was found to be dependent on both hardware and software settings, especially the cut-off frequency of the low-pass filter. Measurements with high signal quality were not possible for back-pressures lower than 0.5 MPa.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Investigate the Dynamic Characteristics of ESP and EHB Hydraulic Units

2006-04-03
2006-01-1281
The paper deals with the Hardware-In-the-Loop based methodology which was adopted to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of Electronic Stability Program (ESP) and Electro-Hydraulic Brake (EHB) components. Firstly, it permits the identification of the time delays due to the hardware of the actuation system. Secondly, the link between the hardware of the hydraulic unit and a vehicle model running in real time permits the objective evaluation of the performance induced by the single components of different hydraulic units in terms of vehicle dynamics. The paper suggests the main parameters and tests which can help the car manufacturer in evaluating ESP hydraulic units, without expensive road tests.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Light Aircraft Spark-Ignition Engine

2006-08-30
2006-01-2420
The aim of this study was to find a convenient set-up for an innovative engine dedicated to light aircraft through a numerical one-dimensional simulation. Six different engine layouts were analyzed in order to find the highest power/weight ratio and the least voluminous configuration. The first was a four cylinder, four stroke, horizontally opposed, naturally aspirated, water cooled engine with 16 valves that delivered 75 kW (∼100 bhp) at 2400 rpm for an estimated weight of 65 kg. A gearbox was also used in the naturally aspirated model to decrease the displacement, the weight and the overall dimensions. The other solutions involved these two engines in a turbocharged layout in order to gain a further downsizing. The supercharging was obtained through a centrifugal compressor driven by an exhaust-gas driven turbine, which also allows the power to be restored at cruising altitude.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Exhaust Manifold Gasket

2006-04-03
2006-01-1210
The paper presents experimental investigation and numerical simulation of a commercial exhaust manifold gasket. Non-linearities in geometric and material behavior make exhaust manifold gasket modeling quite complicated. In the paper, two different FE modeling techniques are compared in order to suggest the best modeling way. Experimental data are collected in order to validate the numerical models. Differences between the two modeling techniques are emphasized and a choice criterion is suggested.
Technical Paper

An Objective Evaluation of the Comfort During the Gear Change Process

2007-04-16
2007-01-1584
This paper presents the methodology adopted by Politecnico di Torino Vehicle Dynamics Research Team to obtain objective indices for the evaluation of the comfort during the gear change process. Some test drivers and different passengers traveled on a test vehicle and assigned marks on the basis of their subjective feeling of comfort during the gearshifts. The comparison between the most significant subjective evaluations and the experimental values obtained by the instruments located on the vehicle is presented. As a consequence, some indices (based on physical parameters) to evaluate the efficiency and the comfort of the gearshift process are obtained. They are in good agreement with the subjective evaluations of the drivers and the passengers. The second part of the paper presents a driveline and vehicle model which was conceived to reproduce the phenomena experimented on the vehicle. The experimental validation of the model is presented.
Technical Paper

Linear Approach to ESP Control Logic Design

2006-04-03
2006-01-1017
An Electronic Stability Program (ESP) control logic is designed. It is devoted to stabilize vehicle during cornering maneuvers. The aim of the activity is to obtain a feed forward (FF) control structure, capable of better performance than a previously developed closed loop one. The efficiency of ESP intervention is determined observing yaw rate peak reduction and oscillation damping time during step steer maneuver, together with vehicle side slip angle containment and longitudinal speed loss. A single track vehicle model is used to obtain two transfer functions describing vehicle and active system behavior. A third transfer function is derived from active vehicle frequency response that is the designer's target. The interaction between the transfer functions permits to design a feed forward control logic, which is then merged in a closed loop control structure in order to ensure fail safe conditions and control robustness.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Size and Weight Reduction Due to Innovative Metallic Bipolar Plates: Technical Process Details and Improvements

2009-04-20
2009-01-1009
In the automotive field the application of electric propulsion systems based on fuel cells requires a constant and continuing research of several optimized solutions, especially in terms of weight and size reduction. These key-factors tend to influence significantly the performance of the vehicle where the system is installed on. The main objective of the paper is to obtain breakthroughs in designing, manufacturing and assembling a fuel cell stack through the development of innovative metallic bipolar plates, that allows to set up high power density stacks, by lowering sensibly weight and size. The research activity carried out by the aforementioned authors is focused on the choice of suitable materials and the development of optimized tools, processes and techniques, in order to be able to move rapidly towards thinner bipolar plates, with new compact geometries that ensure the required stack output power.
Technical Paper

Gerotor Lubricating Oil Pump for IC Engines

1998-10-19
982689
This paper documents an extensive study aimed at a better understanding of the peculiarities and performance of crankshaft mounted gerotor pumps for IC engines lubrication. At different extents, the modelling, simulation and testing of a specific unit are all considered. More emphasis, at the modelling phase, is dedicated to the physical and mathematical description of the flow losses mechanisms; the often intricate aspects of kinematics being deliberately left aside. The pressure relief valve is analysed at a considerable extent as is the modelling of the working fluid, a typically aerated subsystem in such applications. Simulation is grounded on AMESim, a relatively novel tool in the fluid power domain, that proves effective and compliant with user deeds and objectives. Testing, at steady-state conditions, forms the basis for the pro!gressive tuning of the simulation model and provides significant insight into this type of volumetric pump.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Simulation of Variable Displacement Vane Pumps for IC Engine Lubrication

2004-03-08
2004-01-1601
The paper presents geometric, kinematic and fluid-dynamic modelling of variable displacement vane pumps for low pressure applications in internal combustion engines lubrication. All these fundamental aspects are integrated in a simulation environment and form the core of a design tool leading to the assessment of performance, critical issues, related influences and possible solutions in a well grounded engineering support to decision.
Technical Paper

Displacement vs Flow Control in IC Engines Lubricating Pumps

2004-03-08
2004-01-1602
Scope of this work is to analyse potentials in terms of efficiency of two pump units belonging to two families: the first intervening on the maximum volume generated by variable volume chambers (e.g. a vane pump where eccentricity is varied), the second that changes the quantity of fluid being sucked or delivered (e.g. a gear pump with variable timing). In more detail the comparison will be established between a vane pump where displacement is varied through eccentricity and an internal gear pump of Gerotor type where flow rate is controlled through a rotating sector that alters the effective geometry of kidney ports. A detailed simulation of the two solutions brings to evidence the advantages of the first approach with respect to the second as confirmed by experimental investigations.
Technical Paper

FEM and Experimental Analysis of Industrial Forming Processes

2001-10-01
2001-01-3218
This paper deals with implementing process simulation in the developing of the manufacturing process for automobile panels and body parts. Starting from FEM analysis of material behaviour, suggestions about punch and die design can be obtained bringing direct and indirect benefits to other routing steps, thus saving time and resources. In order to point out these relationship and enhance these benefits, some real cases are presented and analysed for which a comparison among simulated and experimental results is given, using both circle grid and thickness analysis of the deformed blank sheet. Suggestions for part design modifications have been obtained that lead to a net improvement in formability and quality.
Technical Paper

Modal Analysis as a Design Tool for Dynamical Optimization of Common Rail Fuel Injection Systems

2015-09-06
2015-24-2467
A challenging task that is required to modern injection systems is represented by the enhanced control of the injected quantities, especially when small injections are considered, such as, pilot and main shots in the context of multiple injections. The propagation of the pressure waves triggered by the nozzle opening and closure events through the high-pressure hydraulic circuit can influence and alter the performance of the injection apparatus. For this reason, an investigation of the injection system fluid dynamics in the frequency domain has been proposed. A complete lumped parameter model of the high-pressure hydraulic circuit has been applied to perform a modal analysis. The visualization of the main vibration modes of the apparatus allows a detailed and deep comprehension of the system dynamics. Furthermore, the possible resonances, which are induced by the action of the external forcing terms, have been identified.
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