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Technical Paper

Identifying Critical Use Cases for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Pack from Thermal and Ageing Perspectives

2021-09-21
2021-01-1251
The current trend towards an increasing electrification of road vehicles brings to life a whole series of unprecedent design issues. Among these, the ageing process that affects the lifetime of lithium-ion based energy storage systems is of particular importance since it turns out to be extremely sensitive to the variation of battery operating conditions normally occurring especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This paper aims at analyzing the impact of operating conditions on the predicted lifetime of a parallel-through-the-road plug-in HEV battery both from thermal and ageing perspectives. The retained HEV powertrain architecture is presented first and modeled, and the related energy management system is implemented. Dedicated numerical models are also discussed for the high-voltage battery pack that allow predicting its thermal behavior and cyclic ageing.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Flow Noise Mitigation Potential of a Complex Aftertreatment System through a Hybrid Computational Aeroacoustics Methodology

2021-09-05
2021-24-0091
Flow noise produced by the turbulent motion of the exhaust gases is one of the main contributions to the noise generation for a heavy-duty vehicle. The exhaust system has therefore to be optimized since the early stages of the design to improve the engine’s Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) performance and to comply with legislation noise limits. In this context, the availability of reliable Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA) methodologies is crucial to assess the noise mitigation potential of different exhaust system designs. In the present work, a characterization of the sound generation in a heavy-duty exhaust system was carried out evaluating the noise attenuation potential of a design modification, by means of a hybrid CAA methodology.
Technical Paper

An Engine Parameters Sensitivity Analysis on Ducted Fuel Injection in Constant-Volume Vessel Using Numerical Modeling

2021-09-05
2021-24-0015
The use of Ducted Fuel Injection (DFI) for attenuating soot formation throughout mixing-controlled diesel combustion has been demonstrated impressively effective both experimentally and numerically. However, the last research studies have highlighted the need for tailored engine calibration and duct geometry optimization for the full exploitation of the technology potential. Nevertheless, the research gap on the response of DFI combustion to the main engine operating parameters has still to be fully covered. Previous research analysis has been focused on numerical soot-targeted duct geometry optimization in constant-volume vessel conditions. Starting from the optimized duct design, the herein study aims to analyze the influence of several engine operating parameters (i.e. rail pressure, air density, oxygen concentration) on DFI combustion, having free spray results as a reference.
Technical Paper

Development of a Numerical Methodology for the Assessment of Flow Noise in Complex Engine Exhaust Systems

2021-08-31
2021-01-1043
Worldwide regulations concerning noise emissions of road vehicles are constantly demanding further reductions of acoustic emissions, which are considered a major environmental health concern in several countries. Among the different sources contributing to noise generation in vehicles equipped with internal combustion engines, exhaust flow noise is one of the most significant, being generated by turbulence development in the exhaust gases, and robust and reliable numerical methodologies for its prediction in early design phases are currently still needed. To this extent, Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA) can be considered a valuable approach to characterize the physical mechanisms leading to flow noise generation and its propagation, and it could therefore be used to support exhaust system development prior to the execution of experimental testing campaigns.
Technical Paper

Tire Experimental Characterization Using Contactless Measurement Methods

2021-08-31
2021-01-1114
In the frame of automotive Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) evaluation, inner cabin noise is among the most important indicators. The main noise contributors can be identified in engine, suspensions, tires, powertrain, brake system, etc. With the advent of E-vehicles and the consequent absence of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), tire/road noise has gained more importance, particularly at mid-speed driving and in the spectrum up to 300 Hz. At the state of the art, the identification and characterization of Noise and Vibration sources rely on pointwise sensors (microphones, accelerometers, strain gauges). Optical methods such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) have recently received special attention in the NVH field because they can be used to obtain full-field measurements.
Technical Paper

Modular Transmission Family for Fuel Consumption Reduction Tailored for Indian Market Needs

2021-09-22
2021-26-0049
Global warming is the driver for introduction of CO2 and fuel consumption legislation worldwide. Indian truck manufacturers are facing the introduction of Indian fuel efficiency norms. In the European Union the CO2 emission monitoring phase of the most relevant truck classes was completed in June 2020 by usage of the Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation TOol VECTO. Indian rule makers are currently considering an adaptation of VECTO for the usage in India, too. Indian truck market has always been very cost sensitive. Introduction of Bharat Stage VI Phase I has already led to a significant cost increase for emission compliance. Therefore, it will be of vital importance to keep the additional product costs for achievement of future fuel consumption legislation as low as possible as long as the real-world operation will not be promoted by the government.
Technical Paper

21SIAT-0638 - Fleet Analytics - A Data-Driven and Synergetic Fleet Validation Approach

2021-09-22
2021-26-0499
Current developments in automotive industry such as hybrid powertrains and the continuously increasing demands on emission control systems, are pushing complexity still further. Validation of such systems lead to a huge amount of test cases and hence extreme testing efforts on the road. At the same time the pressure to reduce costs and minimize development time is creating challenging boundaries on development teams. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to utilize testing and validation prototypes in the most efficient way. It is necessary to apply high levels of instrumentation and collect as much data as possible. And a streamlined data pipeline allows the fleet managers to get new insights from the raw data and control the validation vehicles as well as the development team in the most efficient way. In this paper we will demonstrate a data-driven approach for validation testing.
Technical Paper

HEV Evaluation in Simulation Phase Based on Predicted Sound Behavior

2020-09-30
2020-01-1511
Grown interest in complex modern Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) concepts has raised new challenges in the field of NVH. The switch between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Motor (EM) at low speeds produces undesirable vibrations and a sudden raise of noise levels that effects the sound quality and passenger comfort achieved by the close-to-silent electric powertrain operation. Starting the ICE in the most suitable driving situation to create a seamless transition between driving modes can be the key to minimize the NVH quality impact in driver and passenger’s perception in HEVs. To integrate this important aspect in the early stages of the development and design phase, simulation technologies can be used to address the customer acceptance. By analyzing NVH measurements, the different noise components of the vehicle operation can be separated into ICE-related noise, EM-related noise and driving noise.
Technical Paper

Hybrid-Powertrain Development Approach to Reduce Number of Prototype Vehicles by Taking Right Decision in Early Development Phases on Engine Testbeds

2021-09-22
2021-26-0449
Today’s automotive industry is changing rapidly towards environmentally friendly vehicle propulsion systems. All over the globe, legislative CO2 consumption targets are under discussion and partly already in force. Hybrid powertrain configurations are capable to lower fuel consumption and limit pollutant emissions compared to pure IC-Engine driven powertrains. Depending on boundary conditions a numerous of different hybrid topologies- and its control strategies are thinkable. Typical approach is to find the optimum hybrid layout and strategy, by performing certain technical design tasks in office simulation directly followed by vehicle prototype tests on the chassis dyno and road. This leads to a high number of prototype vehicles, overload on chassis dynos, time consuming road test and finally to tremendous costs. Our developed approach is using the engine testbed with simulation capabilities as bridging element between office and vehicle development environment.
Technical Paper

Advanced CAE Methods for NVH Development of High-Speed Electric Axle

2020-09-30
2020-01-1501
The rate in the electrification of vehicles has risen in recent years. With intensified development more and more attention is paid to the noise and vibration in such vehicles especially from the EDU (Electric Drive Unit). In this paper the main NVH simulation process of a high-speed E-axle up to 30,000 rpm for premium class vehicle application is presented. The high speed, high-power density and lightweight design introduces new challenges. Benchmarking of different EDUs and vehicles leads to targets which can be used at the early stage of development as subsystem targets. This paper shows the CAE methodology which can be used to verify the design and guarantee the target achievement. Using CAE both source and structure can be optimized to improve the NVH behavior.
Technical Paper

An Integrated View on Automotive SPICE, Functional Safety and Cyber-Security

2020-04-14
2020-01-0145
The automotive domain has seen safety engineering at the forefront of the industry’s priorities for the last decade. Therefore, additional safety engineering efforts, design approaches, and well-established safety processes have been stipulated. Today many connected and automated vehicles are available and connectivity features and information sharing are increasingly used. This increases the attractiveness of an attack on vehicles and thus introduces new risks for vehicle cybersecurity. Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. Aware of this fact, the automotive industry has, therefore, recently taken multiple efforts in designing and producing safe and secure connected and automated vehicles.
Technical Paper

Functionality Analysis of Thermoplastic Composite Material to Design Engine Components

2020-04-14
2020-01-0774
Developing of innovative technologies and materials to meet the requirements of environmental legislation on vehicle emissions has paramount importance for researchers and industries. Therefore, improvement of engine efficiency and fuel saving of modern internal combustion engines (ICEs) is one of the key factors, together with the weight reduction. Thermoplastic composite materials might be one of the alternative materials to be employed to produce engine components to achieve these goals as their properties can be engineered to meet application requirements. Unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced PolyEtherImide (CF/PEI) thermoplastic composite is used to design engine connecting rod and wrist pin, applying commercial engine data and geometries. The current study is focused on some elements of the crank mechanism as the weight reduction of these elements affects not only the curb weight of the engine but the overall structure.
Technical Paper

Localization Method for Autonomous Vehicles with Sensor Fusion Using Extended and Unscented Kalman Filters

2021-09-15
2021-01-5089
This paper presents the design and experimental validation of a localization method for autonomous driving. The investigated method proposes and compares the application of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) to the sensor fusion of onboard data streaming from a Global Positioning System (GPS) sensor and an Inertial Navigation System (INS). In the paper, the design of the hardware layout and the proposed software architecture is presented. The method is experimentally validated in real time by using a properly instrumented all-wheel-drive electric racing vehicle and a compact Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV). The proposed algorithm is deployed on a high-performance computing platform with an embedded Graphical Processing Unit that is mounted on board the considered vehicles.
Technical Paper

Experimental Ride Comfort Analysis of an Electric Light Vehicle in Urban Scenario

2020-04-14
2020-01-1086
Urban mobility represents one of the most critical global challenges nowadays. Several options regarding design and power sources technologies were recently proposed; among which electric and hybrid vehicles are quite successful to meet the increasingly restrictive environmental targets. This significant goal may affect the perceived vehicle comfort and drivability, especially in everyday urban scenarios. The purpose of this paper is to carry out a comparison in terms of comfort between vehicles belonging to different categories, but all designed for urban mobility: an electric 2-passenger quadricycle used during the demonstration phase of the European project STEVE, an internal combustion engine 2-passenger car (Smart Fortwo), an electric 4-passenger car (Bolloré Bluecar) and an internal combustion engine 4-passenger car (Fiat 500). Leading European car-sharing services use the last three car models.
Journal Article

Multi-Objective Optimization of Fuel Injection Pattern for a Light-Duty Diesel Engine through Numerical Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1124
Development trends in modern common rail fuel injection systems (FIS) show dramatically increasing capabilities in terms of optimization of the fuel injection strategy through a constantly increasing number of injection events per engine cycle as well as through the modulation and shaping of the injection rate. In order to fully exploit the potential of the abovementioned fuel injection strategy optimization, numerical simulation can play a fundamental role by allowing the creation of a kind of a virtual test rig, where the input is the fuel injection rate and the optimization targets are the combustion outputs, such as the burn rate, the pollutant emissions, and the combustion noise (CN).
Journal Article

Use of a Catalytic Stripper as an Alternative to the Original PMP Measurement Protocol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1563
The Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) developed an exhaust particle number measurement protocol that has been adopted by current light duty vehicle emission regulations in Europe. This includes thermal treatment of the exhaust aerosol to isolate solid particles only and a number counting device with a lower cutpoint of 23 nm to avoid measurement of smaller particles that may affect the repeatability of the measurement. In this paper, we examine a potential alternative to the PMP system, where the thermal treatment is replaced by a catalytic stripper (CS). This offers oxidation and not just evaporation of the volatile components. Alternative sampling systems, either fulfilling the PMP recommendations or utilizing a CS, have been explored in terms of their volatile particle removal efficiency. Tests have been conducted on diesel exhaust, diesel equipped with DPF and gasoline direct injection emissions.
Journal Article

EU6c Particle Number on a Full Size SUV - Engine Out or GPF?

2014-10-13
2014-01-2848
This paper describes the findings of a design, simulation and test study into how to reduce particulate number (Pn) emissions in order to meet EU6c legislative limits. The objective of the study was to evaluate the Pn potential of a modern 6-cylinder engine with respect to hardware and calibration when fitted to a full size SUV. Having understood this capability, to redesign the combustion system and optimise the calibration in order to meet an engineering target value of 3×1011 Pn #/km using the NEDC drive cycle. The design and simulation tasks were conducted by JLR with support from AVL. The calibration and all of the vehicle testing was conducted by AVL, in Graz. Extensive design and CFD work was conducted to refine the inlet port, piston crown and injector spray pattern in order to reduce surface wetting and improve air to fuel mixing homogeneity. The design and CFD steps are detailed along with the results compared to target.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Oxidation of Soot and Volatile Organic Compounds over Cu and Fe Doped Manganese Oxides Prepared via Sol-Gel Synthesis

2021-09-05
2021-24-0088
A set of manganese oxide catalysts was synthesized and doped with Cu and/or Fe by means of the citric acid sol-gel preparation method. The samples were studied by means of several characterization techniques: field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), N2-physisorption at -196 °C, H2 and soot temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR, soot-TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalytic performance of the prepared catalysts was investigated in the oxidation of a probe VOC molecule (propylene) and carbon soot singularly and simultaneously. The catalytic performances were studied as well assuring a content of 5 vol.% of water in the gaseous reactive mix. The investigations evidenced that the best soot catalytic oxidation rates occurred over the Mn2O3 sample, while the copper-doped manganese oxide (i.e. the MnCu15) showed the best performance in the decomposition of propylene.
Journal Article

A Miniature Catalytic Stripper for Particles Less Than 23 Nanometers

2013-04-08
2013-01-1570
The European Emissions Stage 5b standard for diesel passenger cars regulates particulate matter to 0.0045 g/km and non-volatile part/km greater than 23 nm size to 6.0x10₁₁ as determined by the PMP procedure that uses a heated evaporation tube to remove semi-volatile material. Measurement artifacts associated with the evaporation tube technique prevents reliable extension of the method to a lower size range. Catalytic stripper (CS) technology removes possible sources of these artifacts by effectively removing all hydrocarbons and sulfuric acid in the gas phase in order to avoid any chemical reactions or re-nucleation that may cause measurement complications. The performance of a miniature CS was evaluated and experimental results showed solid particle penetration was 50% at 10.5 nm. The sulfate storage capacity integrated into the CS enabled it to chemically remove sulfuric acid vapor rather than rely on dilution to prevent nucleation.
Journal Article

Immersion Quenching Simulation of Realistic Cylinder Head Geometry

2014-04-01
2014-01-0641
In this paper, a recently improved Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology for virtual prototyping of the heat treatment of cast aluminum parts, above most of cylinder heads of internal combustion engines (ICE), is presented. The comparison between measurement data and numerical results has been carried out to simulate the real time immersion quenching cooling process of realistic cylinder head structure using the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE®. The Eulerian multi-fluid modeling approach is used to handle the boiling flow and the heat transfer between the heated structure and the sub-cooled liquid. While for the fluid region governing equations are solved for each phase separately, only the energy equation is solved in the solid region. Heat transfer coefficients depend on the boiling regimes which are separated by the Leidenfrost temperature.
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