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Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation Techniques for Steering of Tracked Agricultural and Forestry Vehicles

A procedure for simulating the dynamics of agricultural and forestry machines using mechanical system simulation software is presented. A soil/track interface model including rubber-track and steel-track was introduced as well as equations that can be used to model mechanical and hydraulic power trains commonly found in tracked vehicles. Two rubber-tracked vehicles (agricultural tractors) and two steel-tracked machines (forestry vehicles) were simulated to illustrate the technique, and some analysis results are presented. The examples given in this paper are based on the author’s research over the past several years.
Technical Paper

Adoption Patterns for Precision Agriculture

Early experience with precision farming technology suggests that some hardware and software may follow a rapid S curve adoption path, but that the use of integrated precision farming systems may take longer to develop and be subject to false starts and periods of stagnation. Yield monitors appear to be following a classic S curve adoption path. Precision farming adoption is like that of hybrid corn because changes in organizations will be required to use it effectively. It is like motorized mechanization because it is coming on the market in an immature form and lends itself to farmer tinkering.
Technical Paper

Frequency Conversion Controlled Vapor Recovery System by Temperature and Flow Signals: Model Design and Parameters Optimization

Current gasoline-gas vapor recovery system is incomplete, for it cannot adjust the vapor-liquid ratio automatically due to the change of working temperature. To solve this problem, this paper intends to design a new system and optimize its parameters. In this research, variables control method is used for tests while linear regression is used for data processing. This new system moves proportion valve away and adds a DSP control module, a frequency conversion device, and a temperature sensor. With this research, it is clearly reviewed that the vapor-liquid ratio should remains 1.0 from 0 °C to 20 °C as its working temperature, be changed into 1.1 from 20 °C to 25 °C, be changed into 1.2 from 25 °C to 30 °C, and be changed into 1.3 when the working temperature is above 30 °C.
Journal Article

A Novel Pressure-Feedback Based Adaptive Control Method to Damp Instabilities in Hydraulic Machines

Excessive vibration and poor controllability occur in many mobile fluid power applications, with negative consequences as concerns operators' health and comfort as well as machine safety and productivity. This paper addresses the problem of reducing oscillations in fluid power machines presenting a novel control technique of general applicability. Strong nonlinearities of hydraulic systems and the unpredictable operating conditions of the specific application (e.g. uneven ground, varying loads, etc.) are the main challenges to the development of satisfactory general vibration damping methods. The state of the art methods are typically designed as a function of the specific application, and in many cases they introduce energy dissipation and/or system slowdown. This paper contributes to this research by introducing an energy efficient active damping method based on feedback signals from pressure sensors mounted on the flow control valve block.
Technical Paper

Digital Electrohydraulic Control for Constant-Deceleration Emergency Braking

A digital electrohydraulic control system for emergency braking is designed, simulated, built, and tested. First, a dynamic model of the system was developed with Matlab Simulink. The parameters are obtained experimentally. Feedback gains are obtained by tuning the model. Then, the digital controller is implemented on an industrial personal computer programmed in Turbo C++. The control strategy is an improved digital version of the PID control. The key element in the control of the brake was an electro-hydraulic proportional pressure valve. Experiments show that the control system successfully realizes constant-deceleration emergency brake within mine safety rules. The same hardware can be reprogrammed for various hoists, different load conditions, and different control objectives. Although the test was conducted on a mine hoist brake, the control system can be applied to most vehicles.
Journal Article

Adaptive Robust Motion Control of an Excavator Hydraulic Hybrid Swing Drive

Over the last decade, a number of hybrid architectures have been proposed with the main goal of minimizing energy consumption of off-highway vehicles. One of the architecture subsets which has progressively gained attention is hydraulic hybrids for earth-moving equipment. Among these architectures, hydraulic hybrids with secondary-controlled drives have proven to be a reliable, implementable, and highly efficient alternative with the potential for up to 50% engine downsizing when applied to excavator truck-loading cycles. Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) robust linear control strategies have been developed by the authors' group with notable improvements on the control of the state of charge of the high pressure accumulator. Nonetheless, the challenge remains to improve the actuator position and velocity tracking.
Technical Paper

Novel Mode-Switching Hydraulic Hybrid - A Study of the Architecture and Control

With the need for improvement in the fuel economy along with reduction in emissions due to stringent regulations, powertrain hybridization has become the focal point of research for the automotive sector. Hydraulic hybrids have progressively gained acceptance due to their high power density and low component costs relative to their electric counterpart and many different architectures have been proposed and implemented on both on and off-highway applications. The most commonly used architecture is the series hybrid which offers great flexibility for implementation of power management strategies. But the direct connection of the high pressure accumulator to the system often results in operation of the hydraulic units in high pressure and low displacement mode. However, in this operating mode the hydraulic units are highly inefficient. Also, the accumulator renders the system highly compliant and makes the response of the transmission sluggish.
Technical Paper

Externally Electro-Pneumatically Shifting System (E.P.S) to Install on Manual Transmissions

In this study, an Electro-pneumatic shifting system (E.P.S) has been designed to install on manual transmissions to make the selecting and shifting process faster and more reliable compared to manual systems. Shifting mechanism of a six speed gear box has been improved by using two tandem pneumatic cylinders, position sensors, pneumatic valves, and a controlling board based on AVR microcontroller. The central processing unit uses an electronic control system to provide the optimized operation of shift mechanism. This system can be easily adjusted in order to install externally on manual transmission systems without any changes on housing and transmission shift links.
Technical Paper

Case Study of an Electric-Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion System for a Heavy Duty Electric Vehicle

In order to improve efficiency and increase the operation of electric vehicles, assistive energy regeneration systems can be used. A hydraulic energy recovery system is modeled to be used as a regenerative system for supplementing energy storage for a pure electric articulated passenger bus. In this study a pump/motor machine is modeled to transform kinetic energy into hydraulic energy during braking, to move the hydraulic fluid from the low pressure reservoir to the hydraulic accumulator. The simulation of the proposed system was used to estimate battery savings. It was found that on average, approximately 39% of the battery charge can be saved when using a real bus driving cycle.