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Technical Paper

Assessment of Absorbers in Normal-Incidence Four- Microphone Transmission-Loss Systems to Measure Effectiveness of Materials in Lateral-Flow Configurations of Filled or Partially Filled Cavities

The four-microphone standing wave tube system has proven useful for measuring the absorption and transmission loss of various fibrous and non-fibrous absorbers. The system is fast, repeatable, accurate and compact. This paper discusses the advantages of the four-microphone system for measuring the transmission loss in lateral-flow absorber systems. The original four-microphone round impedance tube system and the migration to a four-microphone square tube system are discussed. The four-microphone square tube system allows effective study of filled and partially filled cavities.
Technical Paper

Sound Transmission Through Elastomeric Sealing Systems

The sound barrier performance of elastomeric vehicle weather seals was investigated. Experiments were performed for one bulb seal specimen following a reverberation room method. The seal wall vibration was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The acoustic pressure near the seal surface was measured simultaneously, allowing the sound intensities on both side of the seal, and the sound transmission loss to be evaluated. The vibration response of the bulb seal and its sound transmission loss were then computed using the finite element method. Model predictions for the same seal geometry were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data within the frequency range of interest, comprised between 500 Hz and 4000 Hz.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Crop-Waste Loads for Solid-Waste Processing

In long-duration, closed human habitats in space that include crop growth, one challenge that is faced while designing a candidate waste processor is the composition of solid-waste loads, which include human waste, packaging and food-processing materials, crop spoilage, and plant residues. In this work, a new modeling tool is developed to characterize crop residues and food wastes based on diet in order to support the design of solid-waste technologies for closed systems. The model predicts amounts of crop residues and food wastes due to food processing, crop harvests, and edible spoilage. To support the design of solid-waste technologies, the generation of crop residues and food wastes was characterized for a 600-day mission to Mars using integrated menu, crop, and waste models. The three sources of plant residues and food waste are identified to be food processors, crop harvests, and edible spoilage.
Technical Paper

1-D Dynamic Diesel Particulate Filter Model for Unsteady Pulsating Flow

A fast time-scale 1-D dynamic diesel particulate filter model capable of resolving the pressure pulsations due to individual cylinder firing events is presented. The purpose of this model is to investigate changes in the firing frequency component of the pulsating exhaust flow at different particulate loadings. Experimental validation data and simulation results clearly show that the magnitude and phase of the firing frequency components are directly correlated to the mass of particulate stored in a diesel particulate filter. This dynamic pressure signal information may prove particularly useful for monitoring particulate load during vehicle operation.
Technical Paper

Digital Electrohydraulic Control for Constant-Deceleration Emergency Braking

A digital electrohydraulic control system for emergency braking is designed, simulated, built, and tested. First, a dynamic model of the system was developed with Matlab Simulink. The parameters are obtained experimentally. Feedback gains are obtained by tuning the model. Then, the digital controller is implemented on an industrial personal computer programmed in Turbo C++. The control strategy is an improved digital version of the PID control. The key element in the control of the brake was an electro-hydraulic proportional pressure valve. Experiments show that the control system successfully realizes constant-deceleration emergency brake within mine safety rules. The same hardware can be reprogrammed for various hoists, different load conditions, and different control objectives. Although the test was conducted on a mine hoist brake, the control system can be applied to most vehicles.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of a Composite Model for Predicting Drop-Drop Collision Outcomes in Multidimensional Spray Computations

The standard model for predicting the outcome of drop-drop collisions in sprays is one developed based on measurements in rain drops under atmospheric pressure conditions. This model includes the possible outcomes of grazing collisions and coalescence. Recent measurements with hydrocarbon drops and at higher pressure (up to 12 bar) indicate the possibility of additional outcomes: bounce, reflexive separation and drop shattering. The measurements also indicate that the Weber number range over which bounce occurs is dependent on the gas pressure. The probability of a drop-drop collision resulting in bounce increases with gas pressure. A composite model that includes all these outcomes as possibilities is employed to carry out computations in a constant volume chamber and in a Diesel engine. A sub-model for bounce that includes the pressure effects is also part of the composite model.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Fuel-Air Mixing Characteristics on Injection Timing in an Early-Injection Diesel Engine

In recent years, there has been an interest in early-injection Diesel engines as it has the potential of achieving a more homogeneous and leaner mixture close to top-dead-center (TDC) compared to standard Diesel engines. The more homogeneous mixture may result in reduced NOx and soot emissions and higher efficiency. Diesel engines in which a homogeneous mixture is achieved close to TDC are known as Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion (PREDIC) engines in which the start of fuel injection is considerably advanced in comparison with that of the standard Diesel engine is an attempt to achieve a mode of operation close to HCCI. Earlier studies have shown that in a PREDIC engine, the fuel injection timing affects the mixture formation and hence influences combustion and pollutant formation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Switched Capacitive Machines for Aerospace Applications

Electric machinery is typically based upon the interaction of magnetic fields and current to produce electromagnetic force or torque. However, force and torque can also be produced through the use of electric fields. The purpose of this investigation is to briefly analyze the use of a switched capacitance electric field based machine to see if it may have aerospace applications for use as either propulsion motor for unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV) or lightweight flywheel applications for aerospace applications. It is shown that although its use as a hub propulsion motor is not feasible, it may be a candidate for use in a power flywheel energy storage system.
Technical Paper

Predictions of On-Engine Efficiency for the Radial Turbine of a Pulse Turbocharged Engine

Modern pulse-turbocharged systems produce a turbine operating environment that is dominated by unsteady flow. Effective utilization of the unsteady exhaust gas energy content at the turbine inlet is critical to achieving optimum system efficiency. This work presents predictions for turbocharger unsteady performance from a model based on the Euler equations with source terms (EEST). This approach allows the time-accurate performance of the turbine to be determined, allowing comparisons of actual energy utilization and that estimated from steady flow performance maps.
Technical Paper

Swirl-Spray Interactions in a Diesel Engine

Swirl in Diesel engines is known to be an important parameter that affects the mixing of the fuel jets, heat release, emissions, and overall engine performance. The changes may be brought about through interactions of the swirling flow field with the spray and through modifications of the flow field. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interaction of the swirl with sprays in a Diesel engine through a computational study. A multi-dimensional model for flows, sprays, and combustion in engines is employed. Results from computations are reported with varying levels of swirl and initial turbulence in two typical Diesel engine geometries. It is shown that there is an optimal level of swirl for each geometry that results from a balance between increased jet surface area and, hence, mixing rates and utilization of air in the chamber.
Technical Paper

Indirect Measurement of Tire Slip and Understeer/Oversteer

This paper presents a method for indirect measurement of tire slip angles from chassis acceleration, yaw rate, and steer angle measurements. The chassis is assumed to be rigid so that acceleration data can be integrated to estimate velocities of the front and rear of the vehicle, from which slip angles can be predicted. The difference in front and rear slip angles is indicative of vehicle oversteer/understeer. Understeer data can then be correlated with position on the track to better understand vehicle handling behavior, aiding the tuning process. The technique is presented, and shown to work well with simulated data, even when the data is corrupted with up to 20% noise. Therefore, the inversion process presented here is theoretically sound. However, when the technique is applied to measured data from race cars, it is shown to be inaccurate. One suspected problem is the difficulty of getting accurate yaw rate data.
Technical Paper

A Novel Suspended Liner Test Apparatus for Friction and Side Force Measurement with Corresponding Modeling

An experimental apparatus and a numerical model have been designed and developed to examine the lubrication condition and frictional losses at the piston and cylinder interface. The experimental apparatus utilizes components from a single cylinder, ten horsepower engine in a novel suspended liner arrangement. The test rig has been specifically designed to reduce the number of operating variables while utilizing actual components and geometry. A mixed lubrication model for the complete ring-pack and piston skirt was developed to correlate with experimental measurements and provide further insight into the sources of frictional losses. The results demonstrate the effects of speed and viscosity on the overall friction losses at the piston and cylinder liner interface. Comparisons between the experimental and analytical results show good agreement.
Technical Paper

Correlating Dynamic Pressure Signal Features to Diesel Particulate Filter Load

The firing frequency components of the dynamic diesel particulate filter pressure signals carry significant information about the particulate load. Specifically, the normalized magnitude and relative phase of the firing frequency components exhibit clear dependence on the particulate load in a filter. Further, the test-to-test variation and back-to-back repeatability in this work was better for the dynamic pressure signal features than for the mean value pressure drop. This work provides a promising extension or alternative to the mean value pressure drop correlation to particulate load through Darcy's Law. The results may be particularly useful for filter monitoring and control.
Technical Paper

Education and Outreach Program Designed for NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advance Life Support (ALS/NSCORT)

The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (ALS/NSCORT) Education and Outreach Program is designed to engage audiences through concepts and technologies highlighted in the NSCORT research program. The outreach program is composed of three thrust areas. These areas are technical outreach (graduate education, technology transfer, presentations to industry, etc.), educational outreach (professional development, undergraduate, K-12), and public outreach (museums, state fairs, etc.) Program design of the technical and educational outreach began in January 2003. This paper reports anecdotal data on one ALS/NSCORT outreach program and gives a brief description of the other programs in their pilot stages. Technical and educational outreach programs developed to date include: 1) Summer Fellowship Research Program, 2) Distance Learning Course, 3) Key Learning Community Collaborative Project and 4) Mission to Mars.
Technical Paper

Derivation of the Three-Dimensional Installation Ratio for Dual A-Arm Suspensions

Conventional suspension analysis of three-dimensional suspensions typically use two-dimensional analyses. This is done by projecting suspension components onto two-dimensional planes and then performing a two-dimensional analysis in each of these orthogonal planes or neglecting motions in one of the planes entirely. This requires multiple iterations because changes in one plane require a checking of their effects on motion in the other orthogonal planes. In doing so, much of the insight and accuracy gained from a three-dimensional analysis can be lost. A three-dimensional kinematic analysis approach is presented and applied to a dual A-Arm suspension system. All motions are considered instantaneously about a screw axis instead of a point as used by the usual two-dimensional modeling approach. The model predicts deflections of suspension components in response to the three-dimensional forces present at the contact patch.
Technical Paper

Novel Force-Based High-Speed Three-Dimensional NASCAR Vehicle Model

Typical vehicle dynamics simulations demand a trade-off between short computation times and accuracy. Many of the more simple models are based on the kinematic roll center and the more accurate models tend to be multi-body dynamics simulation programs. There is a need for a model that improves the accuracy of the kinematic roll center models while still maintaining short computation times. Such a model could be used track-side during races to guide race teams toward improved handling. The model presented in this paper removes many of the assumptions and limitations of the kinematic roll center model. The model accounts for three-dimensional forces present at the contact patch and predicts deflections of suspension components. The modeling approach is applied to a NASCAR Craftsman Truck to predict the effects of suspension design and tuning on steady-state understeer characteristics of the vehicle. Braking and acceleration forces can also be applied to the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Predicting Driving Postures and Seated Positions in SUVs Using a 3D Digital Human Modeling Tool

3D digital human modeling (DHM) tools for vehicle packaging facilitate ergonomic design and evaluation based on anthropometry, comfort, and force analysis. It is now possible to quickly predict postures and positions for drivers with selected anthropometry based on ergonomics principles. Despite their powerful visual representation technology for human movements and postures, these tools are still questioned with regard to the validity of the output they provide, especially when predictions are made for different populations. Driving postures and positions of two populations (i.e. North Americans and Koreans) were measured in actual and mock-up SUVs to investigate postural differences and evaluate the results provided by a DHM tool. No difference in driving postures was found between different stature groups within the same population. Between the two populations, however, preferred angles differed for three joints (i.e., ankle, thigh, and hip).
Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Analysis of Automotive Exhaust Structures

Experimental modal analysis (EMA) provides many parameters that are required in numerical modeling of dynamic and vibratory behavior of structures. This paper discusses EMA on an exhaust system of an off-road car. The exhaust structure is tested under three boundary conditions: free-free, supported with two elastomeric mounts, and mounted to the car. The free-free modal parameters are compared to finite element results. The two-mount tests are done with the mounts fixed to a rigid and heavy frame. The rigidity of the frame is verified experimentally. The on-car test is done with realistic boundary conditions, where the exhaust structure is fixed to the engine manifold as well as the two elastomeric mounts. The two-mount and the on-car tests result in highly complex mode shapes.
Technical Paper

Influence of Line Length Concerning Noise Source Generation in Hydrostatic Transmissions

The objective of this work is to demonstrate the influence of line length concerning noise source generation using a coupled pump-motor-line model predicting superimposed pulsations of a hydrostatic transmission. This transmission model predicts superimposed flow pulsations throughout the connecting lines as well as oscillating forces dependant on system pressure variances; such oscillations are the primary sources of noise in hydrostatic transmissions which are known as FBN and SBN (Fluid Borne Noise and Structure Borne Noise), respectively. This study is a part of novel research where the prediction of superimposed noise sources considering interrelating dynamics of the pump/motor and connecting lines is accomplished and can potentially be used to develop noise source reduction strategies. An investigation considering the influence of line length demonstrates the potential to further reduce noise source generation in hydrostatic transmissions.
Technical Paper

Externally Electro-Pneumatically Shifting System (E.P.S) to Install on Manual Transmissions

In this study, an Electro-pneumatic shifting system (E.P.S) has been designed to install on manual transmissions to make the selecting and shifting process faster and more reliable compared to manual systems. Shifting mechanism of a six speed gear box has been improved by using two tandem pneumatic cylinders, position sensors, pneumatic valves, and a controlling board based on AVR microcontroller. The central processing unit uses an electronic control system to provide the optimized operation of shift mechanism. This system can be easily adjusted in order to install externally on manual transmission systems without any changes on housing and transmission shift links.