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Technical Paper

Evaluating Different Measures to Improve the Numerical Simulation of the Mixture Formation in a Spark-Ignition CNG-DI-Engine

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines as its combustion is fuel-efficient and lean in carbon dioxide compared to gasoline. The high octane number of methane gives rise to significant increase of the thermodynamic efficiency due to higher possible compression ratios. In order to use this potential, new stratified mixture formation concepts for CNG are investigated by means of numerical fluid simulations. For decades RANS methods have been the industry standard to model three-dimensional flows. Indeed, there are well-known deficiencies of the widely used eddy viscosity turbulence models based on the applied Boussinesq hypothesis. Reynolds stress turbulence models as well as scale resolving simulation approaches can be appealing alternative choices since they offer higher accuracy. However, due to their large computing effort, they are still mostly impractical for the daily use in industrial product development processes.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Geometry-Dependent Spray Hole Individual Mass Flow Rates of Multi-Hole High-Pressure GDI-Injectors Utilizing a Novel Measurement Setup

In order to optimize spray layouts of commonly used high-pressure injectors for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines featuring multi-hole valve seats, a detailed understanding of the cause-effect relation between inner spray hole geometries and inner flow conditions, initializing the process of internal mixture formation, is needed. Therefore, a novel measurement setup, capable of determining spray hole individual mass flow rates, is introduced and discussed. To prove its feasibility, a 2-hole configuration is chosen. The injected fuel quantities are separated mechanically and guided to separate pressure tight measurement chambers. Each measurement chamber allows for time resolved mass flow rate measurements based on the HDA measurement principle (German: “Hydraulisches Druck-Anstiegsverfahren”).