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Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Momentum and Heat Transfer in Exhaust Gas Sensors

Modern zirconia oxygen sensors are heated internally to achieve an optimal detection of the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas and fast light off time. The temperature of the gas in the exhaust pipe varies in a wide range. The zirconia sensor is cooled by radiation and forced convection caused by cold exhaust gas. If the zirconia temperature falls, the oxygen detection capability of the sensor decreases. To minimize the cooling effects, protection tubes cover the zirconia sensor. However, this is in conflict with the aim to accelerate the dynamics of the lambda sensor. In this paper, the heat transfer at the surface of a heated planar zirconia sensor with two different double protection tubes of a Bosch oxygen sensor is examined in detail. The geometric configuration of the tubes forces different flow patterns in the inner protection tube around the zirconia sensor. The zirconia sensor is internally electrically heated by a platinum heater layer.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the 3D Flow-Pattern in Exhaust Gas Sensors

In new exhaust system specifications such as single cylinder balancing, closed coupled catalyst systems, sensor locations close to the engine, turbo applications, fast light off situations and diesel engine applications the dynamic behavior of the lambda sensor becomes more important. This demands a detailed knowledge and modeling of the relevant parameters. In former analysis of exhaust gas sensors the main focus has been the electrochemical processes in the sensor. The influence of flow structure and protection tubes had lower priority. In this paper we present the numerical and experimental analysis of cold air flowing in a pipe including mounted exhaust sensors. Two double-protection tubes from the Robert Bosch GmbH have been examined named (a) and (b). The predicted results have been compared with values measured with Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). The flow pattern in the protection tube type (a) depends on the geometric configuration of the sensor element and the tubes.