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Journal Article

Estimation of Cylinder-Wise Combustion Features from Engine Speed and Cylinder Pressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0290
Advanced engine control and diagnosis strategies for internal combustion engines need accurate feedback information from the combustion engine. The feedback information can be utilized to control combustion features which allow the improvement of engine's efficiency through real-time control and diagnosis of the combustion process. This article describes a new method for combustion phase and IMEP estimation using one in-cylinder pressure and engine speed. In order to take torsional deflections of the crankshaft into account a gray-box model of the crankshaft is identified by subspace identification. The modeling accuracy is compared to a stiff physical crankshaft model. For combustion feature estimation, the identified MISO (multiple input single output) system is inverted. Experiments for a four-cylinder spark-ignition engine show the superior performance of the new method for combustion feature estimation compared to a stiff model approach.
Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

2006-10-16
2006-01-3401
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

IMEP-Estimation and In-Cylinder Pressure Reconstruction for Multicylinder SI-Engine by Combined Processing of Engine Speed and One Cylinder Pressure

2005-04-11
2005-01-0053
In order to optimize the performance and emission of engines, advanced control and diagnostic systems require detailed feedback information about the combustion process. In this context, cost-effective solutions are of interest. The contribution describes a method for reconstructing cylinder-individual features of each combustion cycle by processing the instantaneous fluctuations of the engine speed and the in-cylinder pressure of one cylinder. Model-based torque estimation, analyzing both of the signals simultaneously, provides an accurate estimation of the mean indicated pressure. Using this method, a new algorithm for advanced misfire detection is presented. Furthermore, a new pressure model with a feasible number of parameters is proposed. It is combined with the torque estimation in order to reconstruct the unknown pressure traces of the cylinders not equipped with sensors.
Technical Paper

Advanced Emission and Fuel Economy Concept Using Combined Injection of Gasoline and Hydrogen in SI-Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-1270
In order to meet future requirements for emission reduction and fuel economy a variety of concepts are available for gasoline engines. In the recent past new pathways have been found using alternative fuels and fuel combinations to establish cost optimized solutions. The presented concept for a SI-engine consists of combined injection of gasoline and hydrogen. A hydrogen enriched gas mixture is being injected additionally to gasoline into the engine manifold. The gas composition represents the output of an onboard gasoline reformer. The simulations and measurements show substantial benefits to improve the combustion process resulting in reduced cold start and warm up emissions and optimized part load operation. The replacement of gasoline by hydrogen-rich gas during engine start leads to zero hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

FEM Approximation of Internal Combustion Chambers for Knock Investigations

2002-03-04
2002-01-0237
The resonances of SI engine combustion chambers are slightly excited during normal combustion but strongly excited by knock. In order to avoid knocking combustions extensive knowledge about knock and its effects is necessary. In this paper the combustion chamber of a serial production engine is modeled by finite elements. Modal analyses are performed in order to gain information about the resonances, their frequencies, and their frequency and amplitude modulations. Simulation results are compared to measured data using a high-resolution time-frequency method. Furthermore, a connection between knock origin and the excitation of the resonances is postulated applying transient analyses.
Technical Paper

Methods of On-Board Misfire Detection

1990-02-01
900232
Misfiring of the engine can cause damage to the catalyst within short time and increase emissions. Under misfiring conditions, unburned fuel and oxygen are pumped into the catalyst, where its combustion heavily increases the temperature. For this reason there is a demand for fast detection of misfiring. Once judged, one can take countermeasures to avoid further temperature rise. Two methods of misfire detection with the prospect of future use in series production are discussed. A first approach uses the trace shape of the λ-sensor signal for evaluation. The second approach uses the speed fluctuations of the engine for detection. Efficient algorithms give the possibility of misfire detection in the full load-speed range with reasonable effort to protect the catalyst. However there will remain some misfire conditions, increasing the emissions above regulation limits, that cannot be detected by those methods.
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