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Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

2006-10-16
2006-01-3401
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

IMEP-Estimation and In-Cylinder Pressure Reconstruction for Multicylinder SI-Engine by Combined Processing of Engine Speed and One Cylinder Pressure

2005-04-11
2005-01-0053
In order to optimize the performance and emission of engines, advanced control and diagnostic systems require detailed feedback information about the combustion process. In this context, cost-effective solutions are of interest. The contribution describes a method for reconstructing cylinder-individual features of each combustion cycle by processing the instantaneous fluctuations of the engine speed and the in-cylinder pressure of one cylinder. Model-based torque estimation, analyzing both of the signals simultaneously, provides an accurate estimation of the mean indicated pressure. Using this method, a new algorithm for advanced misfire detection is presented. Furthermore, a new pressure model with a feasible number of parameters is proposed. It is combined with the torque estimation in order to reconstruct the unknown pressure traces of the cylinders not equipped with sensors.
Technical Paper

Advanced Emission and Fuel Economy Concept Using Combined Injection of Gasoline and Hydrogen in SI-Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-1270
In order to meet future requirements for emission reduction and fuel economy a variety of concepts are available for gasoline engines. In the recent past new pathways have been found using alternative fuels and fuel combinations to establish cost optimized solutions. The presented concept for a SI-engine consists of combined injection of gasoline and hydrogen. A hydrogen enriched gas mixture is being injected additionally to gasoline into the engine manifold. The gas composition represents the output of an onboard gasoline reformer. The simulations and measurements show substantial benefits to improve the combustion process resulting in reduced cold start and warm up emissions and optimized part load operation. The replacement of gasoline by hydrogen-rich gas during engine start leads to zero hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Methods of On-Board Misfire Detection

1990-02-01
900232
Misfiring of the engine can cause damage to the catalyst within short time and increase emissions. Under misfiring conditions, unburned fuel and oxygen are pumped into the catalyst, where its combustion heavily increases the temperature. For this reason there is a demand for fast detection of misfiring. Once judged, one can take countermeasures to avoid further temperature rise. Two methods of misfire detection with the prospect of future use in series production are discussed. A first approach uses the trace shape of the λ-sensor signal for evaluation. The second approach uses the speed fluctuations of the engine for detection. Efficient algorithms give the possibility of misfire detection in the full load-speed range with reasonable effort to protect the catalyst. However there will remain some misfire conditions, increasing the emissions above regulation limits, that cannot be detected by those methods.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulations and Tracer-LIF Diagnostics of Wall Film Dynamics in an Optically Accessible GDI Research Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0131
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and tracer-based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements were performed to study the dynamics of fuel wall-films on the piston top of an optically accessible, four-valve pent-roof GDI research engine for a total of eight operating conditions. Starting from a reference point, the systematic variations include changes in engine speed (600; 1,200 and 2,000 RPM) and load (1000 and 500 mbar intake pressure); concerning the fuel path the Start Of Injection (SOI=360°, 390° and 420° CA after gas exchange TDC) as well as the injection pressure (10, 20 and 35 MPa) were varied. For each condition, 40 experimental images were acquired phase-locked at 10° CA intervals after SOI, showing the wall-film dynamics in terms of spatial extent, thickness and temperature.
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