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Technical Paper

Methods and Analysis of Fuel Injection, Mixture Preparation and Charge Stratification in Different Direct Injected SI Engines

Direct gasoline injection is one major approach in reducing fuel consumption to fulfill the stages of CO2 reduction commitments in Europe from today until 2008. One effort is to unthrottle the gasoline engine during idle and partial load utilizing charge stratification. This may be realized by using different combustion concepts. This paper shows the analysis of mixture preparation for three different types of direct injected gasoline engines. Each engine was driven with two injectors which have two different atomization concepts. The engine types draw a clear dividing line between their combustion concepts. The injectors were analyzed in a pressure chamber, in an optical engine, and in an actual 1-cylinder engine. The formation of wall-film in wall-guided combustion systems will be discussed. Several important injector and engine parameters for fuel direct injection are pointed out.
Technical Paper

High-Pressure Injection Pumps with Electronic Control for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Within the Robert Bosch Diesel Injection Pump Program, the MW and P pumps have a fundamental significance concerning medium-duty and heavy- duty engines. These engines have developed considerably in the last years with regard to combustion efficiency and emission reduction. In order to reach these new targets, specific developments of the pump were necessary to realize injection pressure of 900 bar and 1200 bar for the MW and P pumps, respectively. A further development emphasis of the past years was the development of a robust electronic governor concept to take advantage of this new technology. The topics of the paper are: Further development of the pump drivetrain and housing to cope with the difficulties inherent in producing 1000 bar. Development of constant-pressure valves. Preparation of the electronic governor concept for commercial vehicles. Development results of the electro-magnetic and electro-hydraulic actuators.
Technical Paper

Methods of On-Board Misfire Detection

Misfiring of the engine can cause damage to the catalyst within short time and increase emissions. Under misfiring conditions, unburned fuel and oxygen are pumped into the catalyst, where its combustion heavily increases the temperature. For this reason there is a demand for fast detection of misfiring. Once judged, one can take countermeasures to avoid further temperature rise. Two methods of misfire detection with the prospect of future use in series production are discussed. A first approach uses the trace shape of the λ-sensor signal for evaluation. The second approach uses the speed fluctuations of the engine for detection. Efficient algorithms give the possibility of misfire detection in the full load-speed range with reasonable effort to protect the catalyst. However there will remain some misfire conditions, increasing the emissions above regulation limits, that cannot be detected by those methods.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Control at Engine Management System MOTRONIC

Engine management control systems basically consist of injection and ignition control. Additionally, closed loop control systems incorporating air fuel ratio control, automatic idle speed control and cylinder selective knock control have proven to be essential. To keep the performance stable during the car's lifetime, extensive use is made of self-adaptive strategies. As a new feature of engine management control, the self-adaptive canister purge control improves driveability and prevents the leakage of fuel vapors. To simplify the closed loop control algorithms primarily during transient operation conditions a sophisticated sequential fuel injection is added. The paper presents the aforementioned self-adaptive closed loop control strategies and the MOTRONIC MI. 3 ECU. Future development trends in engine management and drive train control demand powerful communication links like the Controller Area Network (CAN). This requirement and its planned realisation is discussed.
Technical Paper

Advanced Engine Misfire Detection for SI-Engines

This paper presents a system concept for detecting combustion misfire. The relevant research grew out of the more stringent requirements for On-Board Diagnostic systems (OBDII) mandated by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), effective as of model year 1997 onward. The system concept is based on evaluation of variations in crankshaft speed. Processes using engine roughness are applied in non-critical operating areas and/or on engines with a small number of cylinders. The modulation process is used in more critical areas. Research was done using a 12-cylinder engine and indicated the potential to comply with the California Air Resources Board's regulations for the model year (MY) 1997 and later.
Technical Paper

Common Rail Injection System for Commercial Diesel Vehicles

Common Rail provides additional flexibility for the design and application of a diesel injection system. Contrary to conventional injection systems pressure generation and injection are decoupled in the common rail system. The injection pressure can be selected independent of engine speed and injected fuel quantity within certain limits. The fuel combustion and the corresponding noise can be improved by increasing the fuel pressure up to 1400 bar and introducing pilot injection or multiple injection. Furthermore the common rail system can replace conventional injection systems without requiring major engine modifications. BOSCH will provide this new injection system for the whole range of applications from light duty (30 kW per cylinder) to heavy duty vehicles (50 kW per cylinder).
Technical Paper

A New Combustion Pressure Sensor for Advanced Engine Management

A new combustion pressure sensor (CPS) for advanced engine management is presented, which is designed to carry out the functions: misfire detection, knock control, ignition control, camshaft phase detection and engine roughness control. For small size and high accuracy at a reasonable cost the piezoresistive effect, which is realized within an integrated circuit device and delivers low impedance output signals, has been chosen. Due to the optimized sensor housing, membrane and force transfer design, the sensor shows little offset drift when affected by flame front and environmental thermal stress. This paper describes the CPS and its performance in comparison with a well-known highly accurate reference sensor.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Flame-Wall-Impingement and Near-Wall Combustion on the Piston Temperature of a Diesel Engine Using Instantaneous Surface Temperature Measurements

The heat transfer process in a reciprocating engine is dominated by forced convection, which is drastically affected by mean flow, turbulence, flame propagation and its impingement on the combustion chamber walls. All these effects contribute to a transient heat flux, resulting in a fast-changing temporal and spatial temperature distribution at the surface of the combustion chamber walls. To quantify these changes in combustion chamber surface temperature, surface temperature measurements on the piston of a single cylinder diesel engine were taken. Therefore, thirteen fast-response thermocouples were installed in the piston surface. A wireless microwave telemetry system was used for data transmission out of the moving piston. A wide range of parameter studies were performed to determine the varying influences on the surface temperature of the piston.
Technical Paper

The Impact of a Combustion Chamber Optimization on the Mixture Formation and Combustion in a CNG-DI Engine in Stratified Operation

A previous study by the authors has shown an efficiency benefit of up to Δηi = 10 % for stratified operation of a high pressure natural gas direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine compared to the homogeneous stoichiometric operation with port fuel injection (PFI). While best efficiencies appeared at extremely lean operation at λ = 3.2, minimum HC emissions were found at λ = 2. The increasing HC emissions and narrow ignition time frames in the extremely lean stratified operation have given the need for a detailed analysis. To further investigate the mixture formation and flame propagation und these conditions, an optically accessible single-cylinder engine was used. The mixture formation and the flame luminosity have been investigated in two perpendicular planes inside the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Impact of the Injection and Gas Exchange on the Particle Emission of a Spark Ignited Engine with Port Fuel Injection

This study presents a methodology to predict particle number (PN) generation on a naturally aspirated 4-cylinder gasoline engine with port fuel injection (PFI) from wall wetting, employing numerical CFD simulation and fuel film analysis. Various engine parameters concerning spray pattern, injection timing, intake valve timing, as well as engine load/speed were varied and their impact on wall film and PN was evaluated. The engine, which was driven at wide open throttle (WOT), was equipped with soot particle sampling technology and optical access to the combustion chamber of cylinder 1 in order to visualise non-premixed combustion. High-speed imaging revealed a notable presence of diffusion flames, which were typically initiated between the valve seats and cylinder head. Their size was found to match qualitatively with particulate number measurements. A validated CFD model was employed to simulate spray propagation, film transport and droplet impingement.
Journal Article

Fuel-Independent Particulate Emissions in an SIDI Engine

The fuel-independent particulate emissions of a direct injection gasoline engine were investigated. This was done by running the engine with reference gasoline at four different loads and then switching to hydrogen or methane port fuel operation and comparing the resulting particulate emissions and their size distribution. Differences in the combustion characteristics of hydrogen and gasoline were accounted for by diluting the inlet air with nitrogen and matching the pressure or heat release traces to those of gasoline operation. Methane operation is expected to generate particulate emissions lower by several orders of magnitude compared to gasoline and hydrogen does not contribute to carbon soot formation because of the lack of carbon atoms in the molecule. Thus, any remaining particulate emissions at hydrogen gas operation must arise from non fuel related sources, e.g. from lubrication oil, metal abrasion or inlet air.
Technical Paper

Electronic Data Processing Center for Engine Dynamometers

The dynamometer evaluation of internal combustion engines has involved a great deal of tedious interpretation and presentation of results. In the past, engine test cells have not been fully utilized, and skilled test engineers have been occupied with routine work, time which could better be spent in actual development work. This paper describes steps taken by Robert Bosch GmbH in its new engine test laboratory, to streamline procedures for observation, computation, plotting, and presentation of results. Measurements from the engine test cell are delivered electrically to a central data processing center. These data are recorded, computed electronically, and plotted on an electric plotting machine functioning from punched paper tape.
Journal Article

Next Generation Engine Start/Stop Systems: “Free-Wheeling”

Engine Start/Stop systems reduce CO₂ emissions by turning off the combustion engine at vehicle standstill. This avoids the injection of fuel that would otherwise be needed simply to overcome internal combustion engine losses. As a next development step, engine losses at higher vehicle speeds are to be addressed. During deceleration, state-of-the-art engine technology turns off fuel injection as soon as the driver releases the gas pedal, thus the combustion engine is motored by the vehicle. The engine's drag torque could be desired by the driver, e.g., as a brake assist during downhill driving. However, quite frequently the driver wishes to coast at almost constant speed. Similar to Start/Stop operation, in such situations fuel is injected to simply overcome the combustion engine's drag torque. An operation mode referred to as "Free-Wheeling" reduces CO₂ emissions under such coasting conditions by disconnecting the combustion engine from the powertrain and by turning it off.
Technical Paper

A Thermodynamic Study on Boosted HCCI: Experimental Results

Stricter emissions legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with boosted air systems on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising, yet challenging, approach. Naturally aspirated (NA) HCCI has already shown considerable potential in combustion efficiency gains. Nevertheless, since the volumetric efficiency is limited in the NA HCCI operation range due to the hot residuals required to ignite the mixture and slow down reaction kinetics, only part-load operation is feasible in this combustion mode. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified in downsized gasoline engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of controlled, boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow Field / Spray Injection Interaction within a DISI IC Engine Using High-Speed PIV

This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Model Based Engine Speed Evaluation for Single-Cylinder Engine Control

In order to fulfil emission legislation and achieve good drivability of combustion-engine-powered vehicles, information about the air charge and feedback about the engine condition is necessary. In current systems, different sensors are used, e.g. the MAP (manifold air pressure) sensor and a lambda sensor. Aiming at reducing costs, efforts are being made to reduce the number of sensors while still retrieving the necessary information. Various engine speed based functions are state-of-the-art for automotive engines, e.g. for fuel-calibration, misfire-detection etc. Those functions evaluate the engine speed fluctuations during a working cycle induced by combustion. For multiple-cylinder engines, those influences are overlapping, therefore evaluation possibilities are limited. The work presented is based on the effect that at a single-cylinder engine, there is no overlap of combustion influences of various cylinders on the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Fuel Economy for 125cc Motorcycles with Carburetor or Electronic Port Fuel Injection Based on Different Drive Cycles

Based on the fuel consumption analysis methods published on last year's SETC [1], we compared fuel economies of a typical 125cc production motorcycle equipped with either electronic (port) fuel injection (EFI/PFI) engine management system (EMS) or constant vacuum carburetor (Carb). In addition to earlier discussed PFI results, stationary engine map measurements of fuel consumption on an engine dynamometer (dyno) were conducted for the Carb engine. The powerful development tool of fuel consumption test cycle simulation uses these stationary engine dyno results to calculate fuel consumption of real transient vehicle operation. Here it was employed to assess economy of both fuel system configurations under different driving conditions. Besides the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC) and the World Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC), we investigated real world drive patterns typical for emerging markets in terms of a Bangalore urban cycle and a Malaysian suburban cycle.
Technical Paper

Challenge Determining a Combustion System Concept for Downsized SI-engines - Comparison and Evaluation of Several Options for a Boosted 2-cylinder SI-engine

To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance in the SI engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so new challenges arise concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor GmbH and Robert Bosch GmbH. The design process was described in detail in last year's paper SAE 2012-01-0832. Since the engine design is very modular it allows for several different engine layouts which can be examined and evaluated.
Journal Article

Novel Transient Wall Heat Transfer Approach for the Start-up of SI Engines with Gasoline Direct Injection

The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions limits require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. But with a fraction of nearly 45% of the burned fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis.
Journal Article

A Thermodynamic Study on Boosted HCCI: Motivation, Analysis and Potential

Due to the increasingly stricter emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption, there have been significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission requirements. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with turbo/supercharging on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, a challenging approach. Naturally aspirated (n.a.) HCCI has already shown a considerable potential of about 14% in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) compared with a conventional 4-cylinder 2.0 liter gasoline Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engine without any advanced valve-train technology. The HCCI n.a. operation range is air breathing limited due to the hot residuals required for the self-ignition and to slow down reaction kinetics, and therefore is limited to a part-load operation area.