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Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Pressure Estimation from Structure-Borne Sound

We propose a novel method to real-time in-cylinder pressure estimation by processing structure-borne sound measurements. It has been shown that knowledge of the in-cylinder pressure opens the door to robust misfire detection and sophisticated closed loop engine control schemes. However, the costs of such sensors have inhibited their use in production engines. On the other hand, acceleration sensors are of low cost and already mounted on modern production engines for knock detection. Since structure-borne sound is measured on the surface of the engine, all cylinders are simultaneously observed by one sensor. A simple physically based model, describing the speed dependence of the transfer behavior from each in-cylinder pressure to structure-borne sound is developed. Based on this model, a method for identifying the parameterized transfer function speed independently is developed.
Technical Paper

Methods and Analysis of Fuel Injection, Mixture Preparation and Charge Stratification in Different Direct Injected SI Engines

Direct gasoline injection is one major approach in reducing fuel consumption to fulfill the stages of CO2 reduction commitments in Europe from today until 2008. One effort is to unthrottle the gasoline engine during idle and partial load utilizing charge stratification. This may be realized by using different combustion concepts. This paper shows the analysis of mixture preparation for three different types of direct injected gasoline engines. Each engine was driven with two injectors which have two different atomization concepts. The engine types draw a clear dividing line between their combustion concepts. The injectors were analyzed in a pressure chamber, in an optical engine, and in an actual 1-cylinder engine. The formation of wall-film in wall-guided combustion systems will be discussed. Several important injector and engine parameters for fuel direct injection are pointed out.
Technical Paper

Preparing for CARTRONIC - Interface and New Strategies for Torque Coordination and Conversion in a Spark Ignition Engine-Management System

A major trend in modern vehicle control is the increase of complexity and interaction of formerly autonomous systems. In order to manage the resulting network of more and more integrated (sub)systems Bosch has developed an open architecture called CARTRONIC for structuring the entire vehicle control system. Structuring the system in functionally independent components improves modular software development and allows the integration of new elements such as integrated starter/generator and the implementation of advanced control concepts as drive train management. This approach leads to an open structure on a high level for the design of advanced vehicle control systems. The paper describes the integration of the spark-ignition (SI) engine management system (EMS) into a CARTRONIC conform vehicle coordination requiring a new standard interface between the vehicle coordination and the EMS level.
Technical Paper

Human-Machine Interface: How to Make It Simple and Effective

We are faced with a rapidly increasing flood of information to the driver. In addition to established information systems (car radio, vehicle monitoring, mobile phones), high class vehicles feature navigation systems almost as standard. In the next decade, driver assistance and collision mitigation systems will appear in vehicles. Hence, there is an increasing demand for supplying the driver with more information that help him to drive safer and more economical. In parallel, the price decline in the computer market and the availability of powerful graphic hard- and software concepts make it possible to enhance the classical functions of the instrument board to an interactive multifunctional information panel, and the dashboard will be the main interface between car and driver.
Technical Paper

Information Technology - A Challenge for Automotive Electronics

In the automotive industry, a steadily growing number of mono-functional electronic control units (ECUs) with increasing complexity on the one hand and restrictive requirements for power consumption and mounting space on the other hand are forcing changes in car electronics. This tendency is enforced by increasing requirements on security, comfort, fuel consumption and emission. In luxury cars, we are now at up to 80 more or less independent electronic units with low potential for synergies between functions (pan-functional services). The actual assembly of electronic units is certainly easily expandable, has very low error propagation but it also involves lots of logistic and bulky cabling with unwanted weight as well as extensive space and power consumption. If trends are properly interpreted, synergies between functions for more comfort, additional safety and security as well as minor air pollution are required in the future at least at unchanged costs in the vehicle's electronics.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Assess the Accuracy of Service Timing Devices for Injection Pumps of Diesel Engines

The correct timing of the diesel injection pump on engine is of major importance for all functions of the engine and for its exhaust emissions, during production pass off as well as in the field. Within the diesel service workshops a variety of devices exist to test the timing of the injection pump on engine. Most of them operate by clamp-on transducer being fitted to the injection pipe. A large uncertainty exists concerning the accuracy of such timing systems. Most diesel engine manufacturers do not have confidence in the timing devices capability and, therefore, do not recommend their usage. A working group within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted a method for the validation of these measurement systems, which usually is used to judge the capability of measurement gauges for industrial production processes.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Sensing for Spark Ignition Engines

This paper describes an ion current measurement system with a new, modified inductive ignition system and evaluates the detection quality for misfire and knock detection. The System uses an ignition circuit with adjustable spark duration limitation. The measurement circuit is located at the low tension side of the secondary ignition coil. Due to the fact that a lot of influencing factors on misfire detection have been investigated, the estimation of the signal-to-noise-ratio is possible as well as the detection of critical operation points. Results of a closed-loop knock control with ion current are presented and are compared with the structure borne noise method.
Technical Paper

Advances in Design and Implementation of OBD Functions for Diesel Injection Based on a Qualitative Approach to Diagnosis

This paper reports on the application of model-based diagnosis techniques to diesel engine management systems within the Brite-EuRam project “Vehicle Model Based Diagnosis”. We discuss some major requirements that have been identified in this application. In particular, it is essential to solve the inherent variant problem, to reason across different physical domains and to fulfill real-time needs for on-board diagnosis. The main foundation of our approach is to use qualitative models, especially qualitative deviation models, which serve as a coherent modeling paradigm for the different domains. In the project, this technology has been implemented and evaluated for on-board diagnosis on two demonstrator vehicles. The paper also discusses further perspectives of the technology for tools supporting the development and implementation of on-board diagnosis.
Technical Paper

High-Pressure Injection Pumps with Electronic Control for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Within the Robert Bosch Diesel Injection Pump Program, the MW and P pumps have a fundamental significance concerning medium-duty and heavy- duty engines. These engines have developed considerably in the last years with regard to combustion efficiency and emission reduction. In order to reach these new targets, specific developments of the pump were necessary to realize injection pressure of 900 bar and 1200 bar for the MW and P pumps, respectively. A further development emphasis of the past years was the development of a robust electronic governor concept to take advantage of this new technology. The topics of the paper are: Further development of the pump drivetrain and housing to cope with the difficulties inherent in producing 1000 bar. Development of constant-pressure valves. Preparation of the electronic governor concept for commercial vehicles. Development results of the electro-magnetic and electro-hydraulic actuators.
Technical Paper

Physical Layer for Multiplex Networks

A new physical layer for automobile class B communication networks is based on simple galvanic connections. Only ten passive external components per node are needed to perform reliable data transmission inside the hostile car environment. Every single fault related to the bus will be detected and diagnosed by every node, where a software controlled logic assures continuous data flow.
Technical Paper

ASR-Traction Control, State of the Art and Some Prospects

Closed loop vehicle control comprising of the driver, the vehicle and the environment is now achieved by the automatic wheel slip control combination of ABS and ASR. To improve directional control during acceleration, the Robert Bosch Corporation has introduced five ASR-Systems into series production. In one system, the electronic control unit works exclusively with the engine management system to assure directional control. In two other systems, brake intervention works in concert with throttle intervention. For this task, it was necessary to develop different highly sophisticated hydraulic units. The other systems improve traction by controlling limited slip differentials. The safety concept for all five systems includes two redundant micro controllers which crosscheck and compare input and output signals. A Traction Control System can be achieved through a number of torque intervention methods.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Equipment for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines for U. S. 1991/1994 Emission Limits

The particulate emissions can be reduced by increasing injection pressure. The NOx-emission can be lowered to the required amount with a retarded injection-begin. These measures raise fuel consumption by approximately 8-10 %. To avoid blue smoke from the cold engine, it is advantageous that the fuel injection is advanced during the warm-up period. These statements apply for injection systems with unit injectors as well as for pump-line-nozzle-systems. In this paper, the pump-line-nozzle-system will be described. With this system, injection pressures of 1200 to 1400 bar at the injection nozzle are reached. The injection-begin can be changed with a control-sleeve in-line pump. The injection-begin and fuel quantity can be flexibly and accurately adjusted by means of an electronic governor.
Technical Paper

ASR - Traction Control - A Logical Extension of ABS

Control of a car is lost, or considerably reduced, whenever one or more of the wheels exceed the stability limit during braking or accelerating due to excessive brake or drive slip. The problem of ensuring optimum stability, steerability and brake distance of a car during hard braking is solved by means of the well-known Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). The task to guarantee stability, steerability and optimum traction during acceleration, particularly on asymmetrical road surfaces and during cornering maneuvers, is being performed by the traction control system (ASR). Several means to provide an optimum traction control are described, e. g the control of engine torque by influencing the throttle plate and/or the ignition and/or the fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Methods of On-Board Misfire Detection

Misfiring of the engine can cause damage to the catalyst within short time and increase emissions. Under misfiring conditions, unburned fuel and oxygen are pumped into the catalyst, where its combustion heavily increases the temperature. For this reason there is a demand for fast detection of misfiring. Once judged, one can take countermeasures to avoid further temperature rise. Two methods of misfire detection with the prospect of future use in series production are discussed. A first approach uses the trace shape of the λ-sensor signal for evaluation. The second approach uses the speed fluctuations of the engine for detection. Efficient algorithms give the possibility of misfire detection in the full load-speed range with reasonable effort to protect the catalyst. However there will remain some misfire conditions, increasing the emissions above regulation limits, that cannot be detected by those methods.
Technical Paper

A New MOTRONIC System with 16 Bit Micro Controller

The functionality of engine management systems has grown rapidly over the last few years. The paper presents a new Motronic concept, the engine management control M3. The Motronic family M3 is a modular design destined to control engines with up to eight cylinders individually. The main features of this system and the ECU's concept are discussed.
Technical Paper

Engine Management Systems in Hybrid Technology

Increasingly stringent requirements regarding exhaust emission, fuel consumption, driveability and comfort have led to an accelerated introduction of electronically controlled systems, the complexity of which can best be handled by microcomputers, these being the basis of all modern electronic control units. These electronic control units are usually installed in the passenger compartment, due to the need for moderate conditions in respect of temperature, vibration, moisture and dust. However because of the increasing variety of systems the available space for the installation of these control boxes has become smaller and smaller whilst the complexity of the wire harness has led to increased costs and electromagnetic interference problems. As a result there is an increasing demand for electronic control units (ECU) which can be installed in the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

New Electronic Systems Worldwide - The Supplier's View

Despite the tough environmental conditions facing electronic systems in commercial vehicles, electronics is gaining ground also in these applications. In the drive sector it improves the operation of the main and auxiliary drives, upgrades fuel efficiency and reduces emission pollutant levels. It enhances safety by preventing wheel spinning in braking and acceleration. Electronic displays reduce the number of single indications otherwise needed, thus making for more clarity in information for the driver and facilitating the driver's task. Self-diagnosing and integrated emergency operation (“limp home”) capabilities are to ensure availability, a factor of special importance in commercial vehicles. A data interface standardized as widely as possible would allow add-on systems to be coupled easily and flexibly.
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Electronic Throttle Control

An electronic control of throttle angle is required for safety systems like traction control (ASR) and for advanced engine management systems with regard to further improvements of driving comfort and fuel economy. For applications, in which only ASR is required, two versions of a new traction control actuator (TCA) have been developed. Their function is based on controlling the effective length of the bowden cable between the accelerator pedal and the throttle. Besides retaining the mechanical linkage to the throttle, the concept has no need for a pedal position sensor, which is necessary for a drive-by-wire system. Design and performance of both actuators are described and their individual advantages are compared. Moreover, the communication of the system with ASR and its behaviour with regard to vehicle dynamics are illustrated.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Control at Engine Management System MOTRONIC

Engine management control systems basically consist of injection and ignition control. Additionally, closed loop control systems incorporating air fuel ratio control, automatic idle speed control and cylinder selective knock control have proven to be essential. To keep the performance stable during the car's lifetime, extensive use is made of self-adaptive strategies. As a new feature of engine management control, the self-adaptive canister purge control improves driveability and prevents the leakage of fuel vapors. To simplify the closed loop control algorithms primarily during transient operation conditions a sophisticated sequential fuel injection is added. The paper presents the aforementioned self-adaptive closed loop control strategies and the MOTRONIC MI. 3 ECU. Future development trends in engine management and drive train control demand powerful communication links like the Controller Area Network (CAN). This requirement and its planned realisation is discussed.