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Technical Paper

Electronic Data Processing Center for Engine Dynamometers

1966-02-01
660751
The dynamometer evaluation of internal combustion engines has involved a great deal of tedious interpretation and presentation of results. In the past, engine test cells have not been fully utilized, and skilled test engineers have been occupied with routine work, time which could better be spent in actual development work. This paper describes steps taken by Robert Bosch GmbH in its new engine test laboratory, to streamline procedures for observation, computation, plotting, and presentation of results. Measurements from the engine test cell are delivered electrically to a central data processing center. These data are recorded, computed electronically, and plotted on an electric plotting machine functioning from punched paper tape.
Technical Paper

The Fuel Quantity Indicator - A New Measuring Device for Volumetric Evaluation of Individual Fuel Injection Quantities

1966-02-01
660750
The paper describes an instrument developed for the purpose of quantitatively evaluating and registering individual injections in diesel fuel injection systems, and “quantity versus-rack” deliveries by a volumetric measuring method and electronic display or registration. The operating principle and construction of this quantity indicator are explained and the results of pertinent experimental tests are discussed.
Journal Article

Next Generation Engine Start/Stop Systems: “Free-Wheeling”

2011-04-12
2011-01-0712
Engine Start/Stop systems reduce CO₂ emissions by turning off the combustion engine at vehicle standstill. This avoids the injection of fuel that would otherwise be needed simply to overcome internal combustion engine losses. As a next development step, engine losses at higher vehicle speeds are to be addressed. During deceleration, state-of-the-art engine technology turns off fuel injection as soon as the driver releases the gas pedal, thus the combustion engine is motored by the vehicle. The engine's drag torque could be desired by the driver, e.g., as a brake assist during downhill driving. However, quite frequently the driver wishes to coast at almost constant speed. Similar to Start/Stop operation, in such situations fuel is injected to simply overcome the combustion engine's drag torque. An operation mode referred to as "Free-Wheeling" reduces CO₂ emissions under such coasting conditions by disconnecting the combustion engine from the powertrain and by turning it off.
Technical Paper

A Thermodynamic Study on Boosted HCCI: Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0905
Stricter emissions legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with boosted air systems on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising, yet challenging, approach. Naturally aspirated (NA) HCCI has already shown considerable potential in combustion efficiency gains. Nevertheless, since the volumetric efficiency is limited in the NA HCCI operation range due to the hot residuals required to ignite the mixture and slow down reaction kinetics, only part-load operation is feasible in this combustion mode. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified in downsized gasoline engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of controlled, boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow Field / Spray Injection Interaction within a DISI IC Engine Using High-Speed PIV

2011-04-12
2011-01-1288
This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

J2716 SENT - Single Edge Nibble Transmission, Updates and Status

2011-04-12
2011-01-1034
The SAE J2716 SENT (Single Edge Nibble Transmission) Protocol has entered production with a number of announced products. The SENT protocol is a point-to-point scheme for transmitting signal values from a sensor to a controller. It is intended to allow for high resolution data transmission with a lower system cost than available serial data solution. The SAE SENT Task Force has developed a number of enhancements and clarifications to the original specification which are summarized in this paper.
Technical Paper

Model Based Engine Speed Evaluation for Single-Cylinder Engine Control

2012-10-23
2012-32-0044
In order to fulfil emission legislation and achieve good drivability of combustion-engine-powered vehicles, information about the air charge and feedback about the engine condition is necessary. In current systems, different sensors are used, e.g. the MAP (manifold air pressure) sensor and a lambda sensor. Aiming at reducing costs, efforts are being made to reduce the number of sensors while still retrieving the necessary information. Various engine speed based functions are state-of-the-art for automotive engines, e.g. for fuel-calibration, misfire-detection etc. Those functions evaluate the engine speed fluctuations during a working cycle induced by combustion. For multiple-cylinder engines, those influences are overlapping, therefore evaluation possibilities are limited. The work presented is based on the effect that at a single-cylinder engine, there is no overlap of combustion influences of various cylinders on the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Knock Control on Small Four-Two-Wheeler Engines

2012-10-23
2012-32-0052
Today, knock control is part of standard automotive engine management systems. The structure-borne noise of the knock sensor signal is evaluated in the electronic control unit (ECU). In case of knocking combustions the ignition angle is first retarded and then subsequently advanced again. The small-sized combustion chamber of small two-wheeler engines, uncritical compression ratios and strong enrichment decrease the knock tendency. Nevertheless, knock control can effectuate higher performance, lower fuel consumption, compliance with lower legally demanded emission limits, and the possibility of using different fuel qualities. The Knock-Intensity-Detector 2 (KID2) and the Bosch knock control tool chain, based on many years of experience gained on automotive engines, provides an efficient calibration method that can also be used for two-wheeler engines. The raw signal of the structure-borne noise is used for signal analysis and simulation of different filter settings.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Fuel Economy for 125cc Motorcycles with Carburetor or Electronic Port Fuel Injection Based on Different Drive Cycles

2012-10-23
2012-32-0067
Based on the fuel consumption analysis methods published on last year's SETC [1], we compared fuel economies of a typical 125cc production motorcycle equipped with either electronic (port) fuel injection (EFI/PFI) engine management system (EMS) or constant vacuum carburetor (Carb). In addition to earlier discussed PFI results, stationary engine map measurements of fuel consumption on an engine dynamometer (dyno) were conducted for the Carb engine. The powerful development tool of fuel consumption test cycle simulation uses these stationary engine dyno results to calculate fuel consumption of real transient vehicle operation. Here it was employed to assess economy of both fuel system configurations under different driving conditions. Besides the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC) and the World Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC), we investigated real world drive patterns typical for emerging markets in terms of a Bangalore urban cycle and a Malaysian suburban cycle.
Journal Article

A Representative Testing Methodology for System Influence on Automotive Fuel Filtration

2013-04-08
2013-01-0891
Filtration of diesel and gasoline fuel in automotive applications is affected by many external and internal parameters, e.g. vibration, temperature, pressure, flow pulsation, and engine start-stop. Current test procedures for automotive fuel filters, proposed by most of the researchers and organizations including Society for Automotive Engineers (SAE) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), do not apply the previously mentioned real-world-conditions. These operating conditions, which are typical for an automotive fueling system, have a significant effect on fuel filtration and need to be considered for the accurate assessment of the filter. This requires the development of improved testing procedures that will simulate the operating conditions in a fuel system as encountered in the real world.
Technical Paper

Challenge Determining a Combustion System Concept for Downsized SI-engines - Comparison and Evaluation of Several Options for a Boosted 2-cylinder SI-engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1730
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance in the SI engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so new challenges arise concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor GmbH and Robert Bosch GmbH. The design process was described in detail in last year's paper SAE 2012-01-0832. Since the engine design is very modular it allows for several different engine layouts which can be examined and evaluated.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Fuel Impingement and Spray-Cooling on the Piston of a GDI Engine via Instantaneous Surface Temperature Measurements

2014-04-01
2014-01-1447
In order to comply with more and more stringent emission standards, like EU6 which will be mandatory starting in September 2014, GDI engines have to be further optimized particularly in regard of PN emissions. It is generally accepted that the deposition of liquid fuel wall films in the combustion chamber is a significant source of particulate formation in GDI engines. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction [1]. In order to quantify this temperature drop at combustion chamber surfaces, surface temperature measurements on the piston of a single-cylinder engine were conducted. Therefore, eight fast-response thermocouples were embedded 0.3 μm beneath the piston surface and the signals were transmitted from the moving piston to the data acquisition system via telemetry.
Journal Article

Gasoline Wall Films and Spray/Wall Interaction Analyzed by Infrared Thermography

2014-04-01
2014-01-1446
Due to the principle of direct injection, which is applied in modern homogeneously operated gasoline engines, there are various operation points with significant particulate emissions. The spray droplets contact the piston surface during the warm-up and early injections, in particular. The fuel wall films and the resulting delayed evaporation of the liquid fuel is one of the main sources of soot particles. It is therefore necessary to carry out investigations into the formation of wall film. The influence of the spray impact angle is of special interest, as this is a major difference between engines with side-mounted injectors and centrally positioned injectors. This paper describes an infrared thermography-based method, which we used to carry out a systematic study of fuel deposits on the walls of the combustion chamber. The boundary conditions of the test section were close to those of real GDI engines operated with homogeneous charge.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnostics (OBD) of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)

2010-04-12
2010-01-0307
The emissions legislation in the US and Europe introduces the need for the application of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in most diesel vehicles. In order to fulfill future OBD legislations, which include more stringent requirements on monitoring the functionality of those particulate filters, new sensors besides the differential pressure sensor are necessary. The new sensors need to directly detect the soot emission after DPF and withstand the harsh exhaust gas environment. Based on multi layer ceramic sensor technology, an exhaust gas sensor for particulate matter (EGS-PM) has been developed. The soot-particle-sensing element consists of two inter-digitated comb-like electrodes with an initially infinite electrical resistance. During the sensor operation, soot particles from the exhaust gas are collected onto the inter-digital electrodes and form conductive paths between the two electrode fingers leading to a drop of the electrical resistance.
Technical Paper

Low Cost Battery Sensor Algorithm

2011-10-06
2011-28-0021
With the development of start stop technology to improve fuel economy and to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the information of State of Charge (SOC) of the battery is highly desirable. Recent days the battery sensors are used in mid-segment and luxury automobiles that monitors the current, voltage and temperature of the battery and calculates the charge model and sends the information via CAN or LIN. These dedicated sensors are intended to perform various functions other than basic start stop. Hence these sensors are proven to be expensive for emerging market, which is intended to perform only basic start stop as the market is looking for a low cost solution. Bosch- India has developed and implemented a novel idea of bringing a low cost and reliable battery charge detection algorithm that can be realized within the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) without a dedicated sensor.
Journal Article

Novel Transient Wall Heat Transfer Approach for the Start-up of SI Engines with Gasoline Direct Injection

2010-04-12
2010-01-1270
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions limits require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. But with a fraction of nearly 45% of the burned fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis.
Journal Article

A Thermodynamic Study on Boosted HCCI: Motivation, Analysis and Potential

2010-04-12
2010-01-1082
Due to the increasingly stricter emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption, there have been significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission requirements. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with turbo/supercharging on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, a challenging approach. Naturally aspirated (n.a.) HCCI has already shown a considerable potential of about 14% in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) compared with a conventional 4-cylinder 2.0 liter gasoline Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engine without any advanced valve-train technology. The HCCI n.a. operation range is air breathing limited due to the hot residuals required for the self-ignition and to slow down reaction kinetics, and therefore is limited to a part-load operation area.
Journal Article

Start/Stop Strategies for Two-Wheelers in the Emerging Markets

2013-10-15
2013-32-9125
Fuel economy of two-wheelers is an important factor influencing the purchasing psychology of the consumer within the emerging markets. Additionally, air pollution being a major environmental topic, there is a rising concern about vehicle emissions, especially in the big cities and their metropolitan areas. Potentially, the relatively expensive engine management systems are providing more features and value in comparison to the carburettor counterpart. The combustion system analysis is carried out on a 125 cm3 motorcycle engine and the subsequent numerical simulation comparing the carburettor and the Electronic (Port) Fuel Injection which provides a basis to establish the fuel consumption benefit for the electronic injection systems [1].
Technical Paper

Desktop Simulation and Calibration of Diesel Engine ECU Software using Software-in-the-Loop Methodology

2014-04-01
2014-01-0189
Current exhaust gas emission regulations can only be well adhered to through optimal interplay of combustion engine and exhaust gas after-treatment systems. Combining a modern diesel engine with several exhaust gas after-treatment components (DPF, catalytic converters) leads to extremely complex drive systems, with very complex and technically demanding control systems. Current engine ECUs (Electronic Control Unit) have hundreds of functions with thousands of parameters that can be adapted to keep the exhaust gas emissions within the given limits. Each of these functions has to be calibrated and tested in accordance with the rest of the ECU software. To date this task has been performed mostly on engine test benches or in Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) setups. In this paper, a Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) approach, consisting of an engine model and an exhaust gas treatment (EGT) model, coupled with software from a real diesel engine ECU, will be described in detail.
Technical Paper

Energy Management - A Key Approach to Design The System Structure of Powertrain Control: Technology Leadership Brief

2012-10-08
2012-01-9007
The electrification of the powertrain, the diversity and the complexity of the more or less individual technical solutions which are preferred by different car manufacturers, create a steadily increasing challenge for the whole automotive industry. Missing standards and sales volumes still below the market expectations on the one hand, and the increasing interaction of the main powertrain domains (engine, transmission, e-drive) caused by upcoming cross domain functions on the other hand, lead to increasing development costs and non-optimal solutions concerning fuel economy improvement. Within the domain of engine management systems Bosch established in the mid-nineties the so called torque structure as the solution to a similar situation addressing the coordination of air management, fuel injection and ignition.
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