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Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow Field / Spray Injection Interaction within a DISI IC Engine Using High-Speed PIV

2011-04-12
2011-01-1288
This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Application of ISO 26262 in Distributed Development ISO 26262 in Reality

2009-04-20
2009-01-0758
With its origin in the process industry, the IEC 61508 „Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems” is not fully applicable in the automotive industry, forcing the automotive industry to work on an automotive specific adaptation (ISO 26262 “Functional Safety – Road Vehicles”). This ISO 26262 describes an ideal development process that starts from scratch. In reality development activities are often split locally and in time. This can only be handled with a world wide standard as a basis of a common approach, wide enough to give enough freedom to adapt to diverse boundary conditions, but tight enough to hinder local interpretations to be that far, that a complete safety case becomes impossible. Therefore a strict world-wide standard which allows compatible interpretations is mandatory.
Technical Paper

Active Pedestrian Protection - System Development

2004-03-08
2004-01-1604
Pedestrian protection is an upcoming field for research and development. Active pedestrian protection is described from a system perspective. In this view, the development of an active pedestrian protection system is shown. First an overview on statistics and legal requirements is given and the system requirements are discussed. Sensor concepts and realizations are shown, also different test methods and results are explained. FE-simulations to complete and later replace additional tests are developed, after cross check with the experimental results. In combination with the shown actuator concept this leads to a full functioning active pedestrian protection system.
Technical Paper

Safety Support by an Automotive Middleware

2005-04-11
2005-01-1530
The amount of software integrated into today's vehicles growths exponential and tends to be a patchwork of non interrelated applications. However the interrelationship gets more and more intensive as applications start to cooperate and therefore communicate with each other. By introducing a domain exceeding middleware concept we want applications to experience a high level of integration and enable outsourcing of features applications have in common.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Spray Characterisation in a Common Rail Direct-Injection Production Type Diesel Engine Using Combined Mie/LIF Laser Diagnostics

2003-03-03
2003-01-1040
This study reports on laser-based diagnostics to temporally track the evolution of liquid and gaseous fuel in the cylinder of a direct injection production type Diesel engine. A two-dimensional Mie scattering technique is used to record the liquid phase and planar laser-induced fluorescence of Diesel is used to track both liquid and vaporised fuel. LIF-Signal is visible in liquid and gas phase, Mie scattering occurs only in zones where fuel droplets are present. Distinction between liquid and gaseous phase becomes therefore possible by comparing LIF- and Mie-Signals. Although the information is qualitative in nature, trends of spray evolution are accessible. Within this study a parametric variation of injection pressure, in-cylinder conditions such as gas temperature and pressure as well as piston geometry are discussed. Observations are used to identify the most sensitive parameters and to qualitatively describe the temporal evolution of the spray for real engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Strategies to Reduce HC-Emissions During the Cold Starting of a Port Fuel Injected Gasoline Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0627
In view of tight emission standards, injection strategies to reduce raw HC-emissions during the cold starting of port fuel injected engines are evaluated in this study. The relevance of spray targeting and atomization is outlined in the first part of this paper. The foundation and performance of different injector concepts with respect to spray characteristics are discussed. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that concepts relying on auxiliary energy, such as air-assistance, fuel heating and injection at elevated system pressures, are capable of producing spray droplet sizes in the SMD-range of 25μm. For future injection strategies aimed at the compliance of SULEV emission levels, this target value is considered to be essential. In the second part of this paper, emission tests of selected injector concepts are carried out using a V6-3.2I ULEV engine operated both in a vehicle and on a test bench.
Technical Paper

Integration Strategy of Safety Systems - Status and Outlook

2016-04-05
2016-01-1499
On the way to automated driving, the installation rate of surround sensing systems will rapidly increase in the upcoming years. The respective technical progress in the areas of driver assistance and active safety leads to a numerous and valuable information and signals to be used prior to, during and even after an accident. Car makers and suppliers can make use of this new situation and develop integrated safety functions to further reduce the number of injured and even deaths in car accidents. Nevertheless, the base occupant safety remains the core of this integrated safety system in order to ensure at least a state-of-the-art protection even in vehicles including partial, high or full automation. Current networked safety systems comprehend a point-to-point connection between single components of active and safety systems. The optimal integration requires a much deeper and holistic approach.
Technical Paper

Using Patterns to Integrate Views in Open Automotive Systems

2001-10-01
2001-01-3396
Automotive product lines promote reuse of software artifacts such as architectures, designs and implementations. System architectures, and especially software architectures, are difficult to create due to the need to support variations. Traditional approaches emphasize the identification and description of generic components, which makes it difficult to support variations among products. The paper proposes an approach for transforming a software architecture to product design through using patterns in a four-way refinement and evolution process. The paper investigates how patterns may be used to verify the conceptual integrity in the view integration procedure to support software sharing in an open automotive system.
Technical Paper

Speech-Controlled Wearable Computers for Automotive Shop Workers

2001-03-05
2001-01-0606
Vehicle inspection in repair shops is often still based on paper forms. Information Technology (IT) does not yet support the entire inspection process. In this paper, we introduce a small wearable IT device that is controlled by speech and enables service technicians to wirelessly access relevant data and to perform on-site communication. Users can carry this device in a pocket and use a small headset to enter speech and receive audio feedback. This system provides a completely speech-enabled functionality and thus offers a hands-free operation. After showing the applicability of wearable computers in this environment, we developed a proprietary hardware system consisting of a thin-client connected via a Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) link to a standard Personal Computer (PC) that runs a speech engine and hosts a database. Several field tests in garages helped us during the evolution of our prototypes where service technicians critiqued the prototypes.
Technical Paper

Preparing for CARTRONIC - Interface and New Strategies for Torque Coordination and Conversion in a Spark Ignition Engine-Management System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0268
A major trend in modern vehicle control is the increase of complexity and interaction of formerly autonomous systems. In order to manage the resulting network of more and more integrated (sub)systems Bosch has developed an open architecture called CARTRONIC for structuring the entire vehicle control system. Structuring the system in functionally independent components improves modular software development and allows the integration of new elements such as integrated starter/generator and the implementation of advanced control concepts as drive train management. This approach leads to an open structure on a high level for the design of advanced vehicle control systems. The paper describes the integration of the spark-ignition (SI) engine management system (EMS) into a CARTRONIC conform vehicle coordination requiring a new standard interface between the vehicle coordination and the EMS level.
Technical Paper

Pre-crash Sensing - Its Functional Evolution Based on a Platform Radar Sensor

2000-10-03
2000-01-2718
Pre-crash functionality is defined in three functional steps: PRESET, PREFIRE and PREACT. The functional steps are described in the order of growing situation analysis performance requirements and an increasing amount of necessary system application effort. Each functional step defines its own range of view, the so-called virtual barrier. The definition of the virtual barrier is subject to various constraints in respect to sensor configuration and pre-crash performance. A more detailed description of PRESET functionality for frontal pre-crash is given together with a test example. Pre-crash sensing technology uses platform radar sensors. The platform sensors are designed for the integration of all possible functions that rely on sensor information from the close surroundings of the vehicle. This development approach guarantees a high cost efficiency, flexibility and modularity of the sensor system while still guaranteeing the full pre-crash functionality.
Technical Paper

Automotive Application of Biometric Systems and Fingerprint

2000-03-06
2000-01-0171
Until now, the use of biometric systems has not been in the public eye. The high cost of sensors and processing has meant that biometrics was previously restricted to high security access, financial transaction and law enforcement applications. However, as a result of improvements in technology, biometric sensor price and reliability have achieved levels where biometrics is being seriously considered for automotive systems. This paper introduces the field of biometrics, the key terms and processes. Fingerprint Technology and Identification by Fingerprint are discussed, as are the use and applicability of biometrics in automotive applications, including Personal Profiling, Keyless Engine Start and vehicle access authorization. The key findings of investigations over the last years are discussed.
Technical Paper

Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) for Commercial Vehicles - Status 1990 and Future Prospects

1990-10-01
901177
The paper begins with an overview of the history of ABS for commercial vehicles followed by a brief description of the technology of the BOSCH ABS at the time it went into mass production in 1981. Subsequently it describes the field experiences with ABS including the experiences of drivers and operators. These experiences are reflected in the equipment which BOSCH offers today. Additional functions such as ASR (traction control) have been integrated. The paper provides an overview of the functions available today and their implementation. The paper concludes with a discussion on potential continued developments and an attempt to describe the systems which will be required by the mid 9os.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Nonlinear Dynamics and Unsteady Flow in Fuel Injectors

1992-02-01
920621
Rapid opening, closing and rebounds of needle from seat and stopper plate give rise to fluid transients in fuel injectors, which are strongly coupled to the dynamics of needle and body motions. A mathematical model, based on unsteady compressible flow in the injector and steady incompressible flow in inlet and outlet section in conjunction with the equation of motion for needle and body, allows the quantitative description of the injector operation cycle. Agreement between prediction and experiment in terms of needle motion, needle velocity and pressure history is good. The mathematical model is used to show the effects, which various contributions to the hydrodynamic interaction force have on the needle motion, on pressure history and on injected mass.
Technical Paper

Methods for the Efficient Development and Optimization of Automotive Electrical Systems

1997-02-24
970301
In the last years, the requirements for electrical energy systems in motor vehicles have increased considerably. In the past, many studies were focused on single components of the electrical system. However, to shorten the development process, reduce costs, improve reliability and also to optimize the fuel consumption due to the electrical system, the electrical system must be regarded as a whole. The Robert Bosch GmbH has developed a simulation environment, which is intended to improve the development process of new vehicle electrical systems by means of computer simulation. On the basis of a freely selectable driving cycle and various driver models, it is possible to simulate the behavior of electrical energy supply structures. The model of the electrical system is coupled to a dynamic model of the drivetrain. The characteristics of this drivetrain can also be modified and various vehicle models can be selected for simulation.
Technical Paper

Secondary Air Injection with a New Developed Electrical Blower for Reduced Exhaust Emissions

1994-03-01
940472
Secondary air injection after cold start gives two effects for reduced exhaust emissions: An exothermic reaction at the hot exhaust valves occurs, which increases the temperature of the exhaust gas. It gives sufficient air to the catalyst during the cold start fuel enrichment that is necessary to prevent driveability problems. Handicaps for the wide use of air injection include space constraints, weight and price. An electrical air blower was choosen to best satisfy all these requirements. The development steps are described. The result is a three stage radialblower with extremly high revolutions of about 18000 rpm. The system configuration and the outcome are demonstrated on the new C-Class of Mercedes-Benz. The results show emission reductions higher than 50 %, while also satisfying the development goals of noise, volume, weight and cost requirements.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Non-Police Reported Accidents on Indian Highways

2017-01-10
2017-26-0005
The official Indian accident statistics show that the number of road accidents and fatalities are one of the highest worldwide. These official statistics provide important facts about the current accident situation. It is suspected that for various reasons not all accidents are reported to the official statistic. This study estimates the degree of underreporting of traffic accidents with casualties in India. In order to get a national overview of the traffic accident situation it is necessary to improve the knowledge about underreported accidents. Therefore, the in-depth accident database of “Road Accident Sampling System India” (RASSI) was analyzed [1]. This project is organized by a consortium that has collected traffic accidents scientifically in four different regions since 2011 on the spot which have been reported either by police or by local hospitals and own patrol by RASSI engineers.
Technical Paper

Laser-Based Measurements of Surface Cooling Following Fuel Spray Impingement

2018-04-03
2018-01-0273
A major source for soot particle formation in Gasoline-Direct-Injection (GDI) engines are fuel-rich zones near walls as a result of wall wetting during injection. To address this problem, a thorough understanding of the wall film formation and evaporation processes is necessary. The wall temperature before, during and after fuel impingement is an important parameter in this respect, but is not easily measured using conventional methods. In this work, a recently developed laser-based phosphor thermography technique is implemented for investigations of spray-induced surface cooling. This spatially and temporally resolved method can provide surface temperature measurements on the wetted side of the surface without being affected by the fuel-film. Zinc oxide (ZnO) particles, dispersed in a chemical binder, were deposited onto a thin steel plate obtaining a coating thickness of 17 μm after annealing.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulations and Tracer-LIF Diagnostics of Wall Film Dynamics in an Optically Accessible GDI Research Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0131
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and tracer-based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements were performed to study the dynamics of fuel wall-films on the piston top of an optically accessible, four-valve pent-roof GDI research engine for a total of eight operating conditions. Starting from a reference point, the systematic variations include changes in engine speed (600; 1,200 and 2,000 RPM) and load (1000 and 500 mbar intake pressure); concerning the fuel path the Start Of Injection (SOI=360°, 390° and 420° CA after gas exchange TDC) as well as the injection pressure (10, 20 and 35 MPa) were varied. For each condition, 40 experimental images were acquired phase-locked at 10° CA intervals after SOI, showing the wall-film dynamics in terms of spatial extent, thickness and temperature.
Technical Paper

A Review of the Requirements for Injection Systems and the Effects of Fuel Quality on Particulate Emissions from GDI Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1710
Particulate emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been an important topic of recent research interest due to their known environmental effects. This review paper will characterise the influence of different gasoline direct injection fuel systems on particle number (PN) emissions. The findings will be reviewed for engine and vehicle measurements with appropriate driving cycles (especially real driving cycles) to evaluate effects of the fuel injection systems on PN emissions. Recent technological developments alongside the trends of the influence of system pressure and nozzle design on injector tip wetting and deposits will be considered. Besides the engine and fuel system it is known that fuel composition will have an important effect on GDI engine PN emissions. The evaporation qualities of fuels have a substantial influence on mixture preparation, as does the composition of the fuel itself.
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