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Technical Paper

New Approaches to Electronic Throttle Control

1991-02-01
910085
An electronic control of throttle angle is required for safety systems like traction control (ASR) and for advanced engine management systems with regard to further improvements of driving comfort and fuel economy. For applications, in which only ASR is required, two versions of a new traction control actuator (TCA) have been developed. Their function is based on controlling the effective length of the bowden cable between the accelerator pedal and the throttle. Besides retaining the mechanical linkage to the throttle, the concept has no need for a pedal position sensor, which is necessary for a drive-by-wire system. Design and performance of both actuators are described and their individual advantages are compared. Moreover, the communication of the system with ASR and its behaviour with regard to vehicle dynamics are illustrated.
Technical Paper

Methods of On-Board Misfire Detection

1990-02-01
900232
Misfiring of the engine can cause damage to the catalyst within short time and increase emissions. Under misfiring conditions, unburned fuel and oxygen are pumped into the catalyst, where its combustion heavily increases the temperature. For this reason there is a demand for fast detection of misfiring. Once judged, one can take countermeasures to avoid further temperature rise. Two methods of misfire detection with the prospect of future use in series production are discussed. A first approach uses the trace shape of the λ-sensor signal for evaluation. The second approach uses the speed fluctuations of the engine for detection. Efficient algorithms give the possibility of misfire detection in the full load-speed range with reasonable effort to protect the catalyst. However there will remain some misfire conditions, increasing the emissions above regulation limits, that cannot be detected by those methods.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Equipment for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines for U. S. 1991/1994 Emission Limits

1989-02-01
890851
The particulate emissions can be reduced by increasing injection pressure. The NOx-emission can be lowered to the required amount with a retarded injection-begin. These measures raise fuel consumption by approximately 8-10 %. To avoid blue smoke from the cold engine, it is advantageous that the fuel injection is advanced during the warm-up period. These statements apply for injection systems with unit injectors as well as for pump-line-nozzle-systems. In this paper, the pump-line-nozzle-system will be described. With this system, injection pressures of 1200 to 1400 bar at the injection nozzle are reached. The injection-begin can be changed with a control-sleeve in-line pump. The injection-begin and fuel quantity can be flexibly and accurately adjusted by means of an electronic governor.
Technical Paper

Advanced Engine Misfire Detection for SI-Engines

1997-02-24
970855
This paper presents a system concept for detecting combustion misfire. The relevant research grew out of the more stringent requirements for On-Board Diagnostic systems (OBDII) mandated by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), effective as of model year 1997 onward. The system concept is based on evaluation of variations in crankshaft speed. Processes using engine roughness are applied in non-critical operating areas and/or on engines with a small number of cylinders. The modulation process is used in more critical areas. Research was done using a 12-cylinder engine and indicated the potential to comply with the California Air Resources Board's regulations for the model year (MY) 1997 and later.
Technical Paper

Methods for the Efficient Development and Optimization of Automotive Electrical Systems

1997-02-24
970301
In the last years, the requirements for electrical energy systems in motor vehicles have increased considerably. In the past, many studies were focused on single components of the electrical system. However, to shorten the development process, reduce costs, improve reliability and also to optimize the fuel consumption due to the electrical system, the electrical system must be regarded as a whole. The Robert Bosch GmbH has developed a simulation environment, which is intended to improve the development process of new vehicle electrical systems by means of computer simulation. On the basis of a freely selectable driving cycle and various driver models, it is possible to simulate the behavior of electrical energy supply structures. The model of the electrical system is coupled to a dynamic model of the drivetrain. The characteristics of this drivetrain can also be modified and various vehicle models can be selected for simulation.
Technical Paper

Common Rail Injection System for Commercial Diesel Vehicles

1997-02-24
970345
Common Rail provides additional flexibility for the design and application of a diesel injection system. Contrary to conventional injection systems pressure generation and injection are decoupled in the common rail system. The injection pressure can be selected independent of engine speed and injected fuel quantity within certain limits. The fuel combustion and the corresponding noise can be improved by increasing the fuel pressure up to 1400 bar and introducing pilot injection or multiple injection. Furthermore the common rail system can replace conventional injection systems without requiring major engine modifications. BOSCH will provide this new injection system for the whole range of applications from light duty (30 kW per cylinder) to heavy duty vehicles (50 kW per cylinder).
Technical Paper

Electroformed Multilayer Orifice Plate for Improved Fuel Injection Characteristics

1997-02-24
971070
A new orifice plate (OP) for advanced fuel injection characteristics is presented. The OP is designed to optimize the air-fuel mixture generation and transportation within individually shaped manifold geometries of spark-ignition engines. To generate the suitable spray characteristics, the basic OP design and its flow characteristics have some features originating from the well known turbulence nozzle principle: Turbulence generating flow deflections within the OP are achieved by superimposing layers containing flow cavities, which are displaced from one another. The flow deflections effect atomization and define the spatial spray beam orientation. A great variety and a high volume of precisely structured, low cost OPs can be produced daily by micromachining the layers in electroformed nickel. The flow cavities and outer dimensions of each layer are shaped by photo-resist structures.
Technical Paper

ASR-Traction Control, State of the Art and Some Prospects

1990-02-01
900204
Closed loop vehicle control comprising of the driver, the vehicle and the environment is now achieved by the automatic wheel slip control combination of ABS and ASR. To improve directional control during acceleration, the Robert Bosch Corporation has introduced five ASR-Systems into series production. In one system, the electronic control unit works exclusively with the engine management system to assure directional control. In two other systems, brake intervention works in concert with throttle intervention. For this task, it was necessary to develop different highly sophisticated hydraulic units. The other systems improve traction by controlling limited slip differentials. The safety concept for all five systems includes two redundant micro controllers which crosscheck and compare input and output signals. A Traction Control System can be achieved through a number of torque intervention methods.
Technical Paper

Physical Layer for Multiplex Networks

1990-02-01
900694
A new physical layer for automobile class B communication networks is based on simple galvanic connections. Only ten passive external components per node are needed to perform reliable data transmission inside the hostile car environment. Every single fault related to the bus will be detected and diagnosed by every node, where a software controlled logic assures continuous data flow.
Technical Paper

Yaw Rate Sensor for Vehicle Dynamics Control System

1995-02-01
950537
From the beginning of 1995 on, RB will start the production of the Vehicle Dynamics Control System. A key part of this system is the Yaw Rate Sensor described in this paper. The basic requirements for this sensor for automotive applications are: mass producibility, low cost, resistance against environmental influences (such as temperature, vibrations, EMI), stability of all characteristics over life time, high reliability and designed-in safety. Bosch developed a sensor on the basis of the “Vibrating Cylinder”. The sensor will be introduced into mass production in beginning of 1995.
Technical Paper

Integrated Silicon Pressure Sensor for Automotive Application with Electronic Trimming

1995-02-01
950533
An integrated manifold pressure sensor using bulk silicon micromachining techniques is presented. The sensor incorporates the entire signal amplification, temperature compensation, and circuitry for electronic trimming of the sensor chip. The chip circuitry and the manufacturing and assembly process will be discussed. Trimming of the sensitivity and offset production tolerances as well as the temperature coefficients of sensitivity and offset is performed using an electrical trim method. A binary coded digital compensation information is serially fed into an on-chip control unit. The individual bits are decoded and sent to the gates of a bank of trimming thyristors. Once the correct binary code has been selected so that the sensor characteristic is centered in the specified range, the programming voltage is increased and the data is irreversibely stored similarly to the zener zapping method.
Technical Paper

Network Architecture for CAN

1993-03-01
930004
Serial communication by means of CAN is being used more and more for data transfer between in-vehicle control units to link components of the drive train, body electronics and mobile communication electronics. In order to design distributed electronic systems, software engineers today must not only develop the application software but also supply the communication software to handle the communication hardware, thereby reinventing the wheel with each new application software package. This procedure is inefficient as it leads to hardly reusable special solutions. To avoid incompatibilities between the modules of a distributed system a lot of additional coordination work must be done during the design phase. As a consequence, each new software package is faced with additional costs for the indispensible tests of the communication software. This paper describes a network architecture that has been designed for CAN systems.
Technical Paper

A New Combustion Pressure Sensor for Advanced Engine Management

1994-03-01
940379
A new combustion pressure sensor (CPS) for advanced engine management is presented, which is designed to carry out the functions: misfire detection, knock control, ignition control, camshaft phase detection and engine roughness control. For small size and high accuracy at a reasonable cost the piezoresistive effect, which is realized within an integrated circuit device and delivers low impedance output signals, has been chosen. Due to the optimized sensor housing, membrane and force transfer design, the sensor shows little offset drift when affected by flame front and environmental thermal stress. This paper describes the CPS and its performance in comparison with a well-known highly accurate reference sensor.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurement Techniques to Optimize Design of Gasoline Injection Valves

1992-02-01
920520
In order to reduce the spark-ignition engine exhaust-gas emission and fuel consumption, it is essential that the required air/fuel ratio is maintained under all operating conditions. An important contribution to this claim is delivered by the injection valve by metering the fuel precisely and producing fine atomization. In this report experimental methods to get specific measuring information and methods for optimizing flow in injection valves are described. Original valves as well as large-scale models were used for the investigations concerning the steady and unsteady-flow characteristics, and were equipped with a number of different sensors. Holograms of the short-time recording of the spray cone are generated and used for the quantification of the atomization quality when injecting into atmospheric pressure and into vacuum, thus complying with the conditions encountered in the engine intake-manifold.
Technical Paper

A New MOTRONIC System with 16 Bit Micro Controller

1989-08-01
891648
The functionality of engine management systems has grown rapidly over the last few years. The paper presents a new Motronic concept, the engine management control M3. The Motronic family M3 is a modular design destined to control engines with up to eight cylinders individually. The main features of this system and the ECU's concept are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Hydro Grinding at VCO Nozzles on the Mixture Preparation in a DI Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960867
The hydro grinding process can be used for valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle production. A comprehensive numerical and experimental investigation was performed to determine the influence of hydro grinding (HG) at VCO nozzles on the mixture preparation in pressure charged high speed direct injection diesel engines. Samples of five hole VCO nozzles with defined grades of HG and different sprayhole diameters were selected to ensure a constant mass flow at a fixed feeding pressure for comparable engine tests. The simulation of the internal flow shows a more symmetrical velocity profile indicating less shear flow and lower turbulence intensities at the orifice with increased HG grade. From these results an enhanced atomization at further penetration depth and reduced atomization close to the nozzle could be expected. This was confirmed by measuring the spray momentum distribution and spray tip speed by mechanical and optical probes in high pressure vessels.
Technical Paper

Common Rail - An Attractive Fuel Injection System for Passenger Car DI Diesel Engines

1996-02-01
960870
Passenger car DI Diesel engines need a flexible fuel injection system. Bosch develops a common rail system for this purpose. Besides variation of fuel quantity and start of injection, it permits to choosing freely injection pressure inthe rangeof 150 to 1400 barand injecting fuel in several portions. These new means will contribute to further improvements of DI engines concerning noise, exhaust emissions and engine torque.
Technical Paper

ERCOS: An Operating System for Automotive Applications

1996-02-01
960623
This paper describes the concept of the operating system ERCOS (Embedded Real-time Control Operating System). ERCOS has been specially designed to meet the functionality and performance requirements in the area of automotive applications. The ever increasing functional requirements for modern electronic control units are introducing considerable complexity in the area of software development. It is well known that real-time operating systems provide powerful means to handle complex functions under real-time constraints. Past experience, however, has shown that the efficiency and flexibility of operating systems was very often inadequate for automotive applications. To overcome these insufficiencies the operating system ERCOS has been designed with dedicated support for automotive requirements. This has been achieved by supplementing the run-time part of the operating system by powerful off-line tools.
Technical Paper

Electronic Throttle Control (ETC): A Cost Effective System for improved Emissions, Fuel Economy, and Driveability

1996-02-01
960338
This paper shows that the functional integration of Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) into the engine control strategy allows improvements of emissions and fuel economy without making compromises in respect of driveability. A cost effective way for realizing ETC is the integration of the control electronics into the engine control unit (ECU). The paper describes the consequences of such an integration for the ECU hardware and software. Special attention is given to the ETC related safety aspects. Another chapter discusses different technologies for the throttle actuator drive. This is followed by a brief description of a suitable control strategy for a throttle actuator. Finally the paper gives also an overview about current status and development trends of accelerator pedal sensors necessary for ETC.
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