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Journal Article

Online Engine Speed based Altitude Adaptation of Air Charge and Limp Home for Two-Wheelers

2014-11-11
2014-32-0067
Cost reduction of engine management systems (EMS) for two-wheeler applications is the key to utilize their potentials compared to carburetor bikes regarding emissions, fuel economy and system robustness. In order to reduce the costs of a system with port fuel injection (PFI) Bosch is developing an EMS without a manifold air pressure (MAP) sensor. The pressure sensor is usually used to compensate for different influences on the air mass, which cannot be detected via the throttle position sensor (TPS) and mean engine speed. Such influences are different leakage rates of the throttle body and changing ambient conditions like air pressure. Bosch has shown in the past that a virtual sensor relying on model based evaluation of engine speed can be used for a detection of leakage air mass in idling to improve the pre-control of the air-fuel ratio. This provides a functionality which so far was only possible with an intake pressure sensor.
Technical Paper

Electronic Throttle Control (ETC): A Cost Effective System for improved Emissions, Fuel Economy, and Driveability

1996-02-01
960338
This paper shows that the functional integration of Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) into the engine control strategy allows improvements of emissions and fuel economy without making compromises in respect of driveability. A cost effective way for realizing ETC is the integration of the control electronics into the engine control unit (ECU). The paper describes the consequences of such an integration for the ECU hardware and software. Special attention is given to the ETC related safety aspects. Another chapter discusses different technologies for the throttle actuator drive. This is followed by a brief description of a suitable control strategy for a throttle actuator. Finally the paper gives also an overview about current status and development trends of accelerator pedal sensors necessary for ETC.
Technical Paper

Sensor Vision and Collision Warning Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C001
Due to an earlier analysis of the interrelation between collisions and advanced driver reaction a significant number of accidents could be avoided through timely threat recognition and appropriate maneuvers for collision avoidance. This may be achieved either by suitable warning to the driver or by automatic support to longitudinal or lateral control of the vehicle. A precondition for the registration of the dangerous situation is the incorporation of appropriate sensors. This leads to an surround sensor vision system accompanied by a matched human machine interface. Many vehicles readily offer ultrasonic reversing aids as add-on systems. Furthermore, long-range radar systems for adaptive cruise control are now coming on the market. New sensor technologies, such as short-range radar and video, which are currently under development, open up a plurality of novel functions thus enhancing driving safety and comfort.
Technical Paper

ASR-Traction Control, State of the Art and Some Prospects

1990-02-01
900204
Closed loop vehicle control comprising of the driver, the vehicle and the environment is now achieved by the automatic wheel slip control combination of ABS and ASR. To improve directional control during acceleration, the Robert Bosch Corporation has introduced five ASR-Systems into series production. In one system, the electronic control unit works exclusively with the engine management system to assure directional control. In two other systems, brake intervention works in concert with throttle intervention. For this task, it was necessary to develop different highly sophisticated hydraulic units. The other systems improve traction by controlling limited slip differentials. The safety concept for all five systems includes two redundant micro controllers which crosscheck and compare input and output signals. A Traction Control System can be achieved through a number of torque intervention methods.
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Electronic Throttle Control

1991-02-01
910085
An electronic control of throttle angle is required for safety systems like traction control (ASR) and for advanced engine management systems with regard to further improvements of driving comfort and fuel economy. For applications, in which only ASR is required, two versions of a new traction control actuator (TCA) have been developed. Their function is based on controlling the effective length of the bowden cable between the accelerator pedal and the throttle. Besides retaining the mechanical linkage to the throttle, the concept has no need for a pedal position sensor, which is necessary for a drive-by-wire system. Design and performance of both actuators are described and their individual advantages are compared. Moreover, the communication of the system with ASR and its behaviour with regard to vehicle dynamics are illustrated.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Transient Behavior of a Two-Wheeler Single Cylinder Engine Close to Idling with Electronic Throttle Control

2018-10-30
2018-32-0074
The introduction of new emission legislation and the demand of increased power for small two-wheelers lead to an increase of technical requirements. Especially for single cylinder engines with high compression ratio the transient behavior close to idling is challenging. The demand for two-wheeler specific responsiveness of the vehicle requires low overall rotational inertia as well as small intake manifold volumes. The combination with high compression ratio can lead to a stalling of the engine if the throttle opens and closes very quickly in idle operation. The fast opening and closing of the throttle is called a throttle blip. Fast, in this context, means that the blipping event can occur in one to two working cycles. Previous work was focused on the development of a procedure to apply reproducible blipping events to a vehicle in order to derive a deeper physical understanding of the stalling events.
Technical Paper

Impact of the Injection and Gas Exchange on the Particle Emission of a Spark Ignited Engine with Port Fuel Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0652
This study presents a methodology to predict particle number (PN) generation on a naturally aspirated 4-cylinder gasoline engine with port fuel injection (PFI) from wall wetting, employing numerical CFD simulation and fuel film analysis. Various engine parameters concerning spray pattern, injection timing, intake valve timing, as well as engine load/speed were varied and their impact on wall film and PN was evaluated. The engine, which was driven at wide open throttle (WOT), was equipped with soot particle sampling technology and optical access to the combustion chamber of cylinder 1 in order to visualise non-premixed combustion. High-speed imaging revealed a notable presence of diffusion flames, which were typically initiated between the valve seats and cylinder head. Their size was found to match qualitatively with particulate number measurements. A validated CFD model was employed to simulate spray propagation, film transport and droplet impingement.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Cruise Control System Aspects and Development Trends

1996-02-01
961010
This paper is based on the experiences with Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems at BOSCH. Necessary components (especially range sensor, curve sensors, actuators and display) are described, roughly specified, and their respective strength and weaknesses are addressed. The system overview contains the basic structure, the main control strategy and the concept for driver-ACC interaction. Afterwards the principal as well as the current technical limits of ACC systems are discussed. The consequences on traffic flow, safety and driver behavior are emphasized. As an outlook, development trends for extended functionality are given for the next generation of driver assistance systems.
Journal Article

Investigation on the Transient Behavior of a High Compression Two-Wheeler Single Cylinder Engine Close to Idling

2017-01-10
2017-26-0330
The introduction of stricter emission legislation and the demand of increased power for small two-wheelers lead to an increase of technical requirements. Especially the introduction of liquid-cooling over air-cooling allows the introduction of higher compression ratios, which improves power output as well as thermodynamic efficiencies and thereby fuel consumption. But an increase in compression ratio also introduces further challenges during transient behavior especially close to idling. In order to keep the two-wheeler specific responsiveness of the vehicle, the overall rotational inertia of the engine must be kept low. But the combination of low inertia and high compression ratio can lead to a stalling of the engine if the throttle is opened and closed very quickly in idle operation. The fast opening and closing of the throttle is called a throttle blip.
Technical Paper

Driving Course Prediction Using Distance Sensor Data

1999-03-01
1999-01-1234
The assignment of vehicles detected by distance sensors to lanes relative to the own vehicle is an important and necessary task for future driver assistance systems like Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). The collective motion of objects driving in front of the vehicle allows a prediction of the vehicle's own driving course. The method uses not only data of the host vehicle to determine its own trajectory but as well data from a distance sensor supplying distances and angles of objects ahead of the vehicle to determine the trajectories of these objects. Algorithms were developed using an off-line simulation, which was fed with recorded data obtained from a real ACC vehicle. The results show a significant improvement in the quality of the predicted driving course compared to other methods solely based on data of the host vehicle. Particularly in situations of changing curvature, e.g. the beginning of a bend, the algorithm helps to improve the overall system performance of ACC.
Technical Paper

A Small, Light Radar Sensor and Control Unit for Adaptive Cruise Control

1998-02-23
980607
The first generation of radar-sensor-based ACC-Systems will be available in 1998/1999 in Europe. As a first step high end car manufacturers will sell ACC as optional equipment in their top models for a significant add-on price. For this generation good performance was the most important development goal. For the future, however, small, highly integrated systems are needed which easily can be fitted into the body of small cars. High performance and low cost are essential to allow the car manufacturers to sell ACC as standard equipment. A first step in that direction is the “Sensor and Control Unit” developed by Bosch which integrates a FMCW-radar sensor and the ACC-controller in one housing. It is designed for easy manufacturing on existing equipment with standard processes. The design meets the requirements of an early phase with low production figures as well as a phase characterized by increasing numbers and decreasing prices.
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