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Technical Paper

Standardization and Cost Optimization of ABS Ecus

1998-10-19
98C004
ABS has proven to be a contribution to active safety. The introduction of traction control (TC) in 1986 and even more significantly, the introduction of vehicle dynamics control (VDC) in 1995 have been further milestones in this field. The functionality of these systems (ABS, TC, VDC) is mainly determined by the electronic control unit (ECU). A system supplier who is to provide an ECU-platform concept including a large functionality, while meeting customer specific requirements at an optimized price, needs standardization strategies. This paper describes a standardization concept for an ABS ECU, beginning with the basic ABS HW and SW design and the extension to TC and VDC. It also shows the degree of flexibility, the benefits for the vehicle manufacturer and the possible cost optimization for the system supplier.
Journal Article

Sensor Data Fusion for Active Safety Systems

2010-10-19
2010-01-2332
Active safety systems will have a great impact in the next generation of vehicles. This is partly originated by the increasing consumer's interest for safety and partly by new traffic safety laws. Control actions in the vehicle are based on an extensive environment model which contains information about relevant objects in vehicle surroundings. Sensor data fusion integrates measurements from different surround sensors into this environment model. In order to avoid system malfunctions, high reliability in the interpretation of the situation, and therefore in the environment model, is essential. Hence, the main idea of data fusion is to make use of the advantages of using multiple sensors and different technologies in order to fulfill these requirements, which are especially high due to autonomous interventions in vehicle dynamics (e. g. automatic emergency braking).
Journal Article

Motorcycle Stability Control - The Next Generation of Motorcycle Safety and Riding Dynamics

2015-11-17
2015-32-0834
Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) for motorcycles have already contributed significantly to the safety of powered two-wheelers (PTW) on public roads by improving bike stability and controllability in emergency braking situations. In order to address further riding situations, another step forward has been achieved with Motorcycle Stability Control (MSC) system. By combining ABS, electronically combined braking system (eCBS), traction control and inertial sensors even in situations like braking and accelerating in corners the riders' safety can be improved. The MSC system controls the distribution of braking and traction forces using an algorithm that takes into account all available vehicle information from wheels, power train and vehicle attitude. With its ability to control fundamental vehicle dynamics, the MSC system will be a basis for further development and integration of comprehensive safety systems.
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Electronic Throttle Control

1991-02-01
910085
An electronic control of throttle angle is required for safety systems like traction control (ASR) and for advanced engine management systems with regard to further improvements of driving comfort and fuel economy. For applications, in which only ASR is required, two versions of a new traction control actuator (TCA) have been developed. Their function is based on controlling the effective length of the bowden cable between the accelerator pedal and the throttle. Besides retaining the mechanical linkage to the throttle, the concept has no need for a pedal position sensor, which is necessary for a drive-by-wire system. Design and performance of both actuators are described and their individual advantages are compared. Moreover, the communication of the system with ASR and its behaviour with regard to vehicle dynamics are illustrated.
Technical Paper

More Safety with Vehicle Stability Control

2007-11-28
2007-01-2759
Since introduction of safety belts in the 70s and airbags in the early 80s, these passive safety technologies have become standard in many markets. Remarkable improvement in passive safety, efforts to alter driver behaviour and infrastructural programmes have led to substantial reductions of fatalities in many regions, although the absolute number of highway fatalities increased e.g. in the USA in 2002 to the highest level since 1990. Electronic Stability Control (ESC) as an active safety technology assists the driver to keep the vehicle on the intended track and thereby actively prevents accidents. In 1995 Bosch was the first supplier to introduce ESC for the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, where it is marketed as ESP® - Electronic Stability Program. Since then, Bosch has produced more than 30 million systems worldwide. Many studies have now confirmed that ESC can prevent a vehicle from skidding or rolling over in nearly all driving situations.
Technical Paper

Future Electrical Steering Systems: Realizations with Safety Requirements

2000-03-06
2000-01-0822
Additional future requirements for automobiles such as improved vehicle dynamics control, enhanced comfort, increased safety and compact packaging are met by modern electrical steering systems. Based on these requirements the new functionality is realized by various additional electrical components for measuring, signal processing and actuator control. However, the reliability of these new systems has to meet the standard of today's automotive steering products. To achieve the demands of the respective components (e.g. sensors, bus systems, electronic control units, power units, actuators) the systems have to be fault-tolerant and/or fail-silent. The realization of the derived safety structures requires both expertise and experience in design and mass production of safety relevant electrical systems. Beside system safety and system availability the redundant electrical systems also have to meet economic and market requirements.
Technical Paper

Simulation for the Development of the Bosch-VDC

1996-02-01
960486
A new automotive active safely system, the Vehicle Dynamics Control System (VDC) of BOSCH was introduced on the market in 1995. Besides improving the ABS/ASR functions, VDC will also actively support the driver in critical situations of lateral vehicle dynamics. This system includes new ABS/ASR-control algorithms and a superimposed control algorithm, the vehicle dynamics controller. Furthermore, an extension of the standard ABS/ASR-hydraulic system was necessary as well as the development of new automotive sensors. During all phases of the interdisciplinary system development, tests on experimental cars and extensive computer simulations were used in parallel. In order to provide adequate simulation models for different tasks, a modular concept for the simulation tool is important. Furthermore, a transparent and portable application of the control algorithm for both, experiment and simulation, is required.
Technical Paper

Safety and Performance Enhancement: The Bosch Electronic Stability Control (ESP)

2004-10-18
2004-21-0060
In spite of improvements in passive safety and efforts to alter driver behavior, the absolute number of highway fatalities in 2002 increased to the highest level since 1990 in the US. ESP is an active safety technology that assists the driver to keep the vehicle on the intended path and thereby helps to prevent accidents. ESP is especially effective in keeping the vehicle on the road and mitigating rollover accidents which account for over 1/3 of all fatalities in single vehicle accidents. In 1995 Bosch was the first supplier to introduce electronic stability control (ESC) for the Mercedes-Benz S-Class sedan. Since then, Bosch has produced more than 10 million systems worldwide which are marketed as ESP - Electronic Stability Program. In this report Bosch will present ESP contributions to active safety and the required adaptations to support four wheel driven vehicles and to mitigate rollover situations.
Technical Paper

Yaw Rate Sensor for Vehicle Dynamics Control System

1995-02-01
950537
From the beginning of 1995 on, RB will start the production of the Vehicle Dynamics Control System. A key part of this system is the Yaw Rate Sensor described in this paper. The basic requirements for this sensor for automotive applications are: mass producibility, low cost, resistance against environmental influences (such as temperature, vibrations, EMI), stability of all characteristics over life time, high reliability and designed-in safety. Bosch developed a sensor on the basis of the “Vibrating Cylinder”. The sensor will be introduced into mass production in beginning of 1995.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Control for Commercial Vehicles

1997-11-17
973284
This paper presents the Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) for commercial vehicles developed by BOSCH. The underlying physical concept is discussed in the second section after a short introduction. The third section shows the computer simulation used in the development process. Section four describes the controller structure of the VDC system. In Section five the use and effectiveness of VDC for commercial vehicles is shown in different critical driving situations. This is done by using measured data collected during testing (lane change, circular track) and it demonstrates that the safety improvements achieved for passenger cars are also possible for commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

A New Sensing Concept for Tripped Rollovers

2004-03-08
2004-01-0340
This paper describes a new system for early detection of tripped rollover crashes. The main goal of this system is to improve the protection of restraint devices, such as curtain window bags, in these rollover situations. This is achieved by a new rollover sensing (RoSe) algorithm in the airbag controller which produces a very early and robust deployment decision. Based on the analysis of tripped rollover test data, this paper shows how improved rollover sensing performance can be achieved by considering information about the vehicle's driving state before the rollover occurs. The results of this new approach are discussed in terms of deployment times. Finally a combined active and passive safety system architecture for the realization of the approach is suggested.
Technical Paper

Sensor Vision and Collision Warning Systems

2000-11-01
2000-01-C001
Due to an earlier analysis of the interrelation between collisions and advanced driver reaction a significant number of accidents could be avoided through timely threat recognition and appropriate maneuvers for collision avoidance. This may be achieved either by suitable warning to the driver or by automatic support to longitudinal or lateral control of the vehicle. A precondition for the registration of the dangerous situation is the incorporation of appropriate sensors. This leads to an surround sensor vision system accompanied by a matched human machine interface. Many vehicles readily offer ultrasonic reversing aids as add-on systems. Furthermore, long-range radar systems for adaptive cruise control are now coming on the market. New sensor technologies, such as short-range radar and video, which are currently under development, open up a plurality of novel functions thus enhancing driving safety and comfort.
Technical Paper

VDC, The Vehicle Dynamics Control System of Bosch

1995-02-01
950759
VDC is a new active safety system for road vehicles which controls the dynamic vehicle motion in emergency situations. From the steering angle, the accelerator pedal position and the brake pressure the desired motion is derived while the actual vehicle motion is derived from the yaw rate and the lateral acceleration. The system regulates the engine torque and the wheel brake pressures using traction control components to minimize the difference between the actual and the desired motion. Included is also a safety concept which supervises the proper operation of the components and the software.
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