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Technical Paper

Representativeness and Weighting Methods of Real Time Accident Data in India

2013-01-09
2013-26-0022
The 2011 Report of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India states that the total accidents with injuries is estimated about 497, 686 out of which the injuries are 511, 394 and fatalities are 142, 485, an average of one fatality per 3.5 [1]. Social losses on account of these crashes are estimated at over Rupees 100 000 Crores annually or 3% of our Gross Domestic Product (GDP) [2]. The irony is that these causalities are rising at 5.9 % annually. India accounts for 10% of the global road crash fatalities. Therefore traffic safety became very important in India. In order to understand the root causes of accidents data is needed in more detail which could be analyzed and points out the major issues to find solutions to stop this trend. Besides vehicle safety, infrastructure related issues and education skills can be derived out of accident data. Official statistics regarding accidents in India are available in national and state wise reports.
Technical Paper

Towards “Vision Zero”

2012-04-16
2012-01-0288
“Safe Driving” is an essential world-wide automotive requirement. The demand for “Safe Driving” is particularly high in industrialized countries, but it is also growing in the fast-developing nations. However, the annual reduction of serious traffic injuries and fatalities is still too low and the target to halve the number of people killed in traffic in the European Union from 2001 to 2010 has not been met. Essential influences to close this gap include legislation, road traffic regulations and monitoring, technical improvement of vehicles including active and passive safety systems, the increase of the equipment rate for safety functions and the re-design of traffic infrastructure for safety reasons. During the last years several countries in Europe started to consider these aspects combined in an integrated and general traffic safety policy, i.e. “Vision Zero” in Sweden.
Technical Paper

More Safety with Vehicle Stability Control

2007-11-28
2007-01-2759
Since introduction of safety belts in the 70s and airbags in the early 80s, these passive safety technologies have become standard in many markets. Remarkable improvement in passive safety, efforts to alter driver behaviour and infrastructural programmes have led to substantial reductions of fatalities in many regions, although the absolute number of highway fatalities increased e.g. in the USA in 2002 to the highest level since 1990. Electronic Stability Control (ESC) as an active safety technology assists the driver to keep the vehicle on the intended track and thereby actively prevents accidents. In 1995 Bosch was the first supplier to introduce ESC for the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, where it is marketed as ESP® - Electronic Stability Program. Since then, Bosch has produced more than 30 million systems worldwide. Many studies have now confirmed that ESC can prevent a vehicle from skidding or rolling over in nearly all driving situations.
Technical Paper

Safety and Performance Enhancement: The Bosch Electronic Stability Control (ESP)

2004-10-18
2004-21-0060
In spite of improvements in passive safety and efforts to alter driver behavior, the absolute number of highway fatalities in 2002 increased to the highest level since 1990 in the US. ESP is an active safety technology that assists the driver to keep the vehicle on the intended path and thereby helps to prevent accidents. ESP is especially effective in keeping the vehicle on the road and mitigating rollover accidents which account for over 1/3 of all fatalities in single vehicle accidents. In 1995 Bosch was the first supplier to introduce electronic stability control (ESC) for the Mercedes-Benz S-Class sedan. Since then, Bosch has produced more than 10 million systems worldwide which are marketed as ESP - Electronic Stability Program. In this report Bosch will present ESP contributions to active safety and the required adaptations to support four wheel driven vehicles and to mitigate rollover situations.
Technical Paper

Benefit Estimation of Anti-Lock Braking System for Powered Two Wheeler On Indian Highways

2015-01-14
2015-26-0167
Motorized two wheelers, also known as powered two wheelers (PTW) are the most common mode of transportation in India. Around one in four deaths that occurred on the roads in India in 2012 involved a motorcyclist, according to Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. This constitutes the highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. The European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) analysis shows the risk of a motorcyclist having a fatal accident is 20 times greater than for a car driver travelling the same route [2]. An investigation conducted by Bosch looked at the accident database of Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). This investigation revealed interesting facts about the Indian motorcycle accident situation, such as root causes of powered two wheeler collisions and riders behaviour including their braking patterns during the pre-crash phase of the accident.
Technical Paper

Behaviour of Car Drivers in Accidents used to Estimate the Benefit of Car Antilock Brake System on Indian Highways

2015-01-14
2015-26-0172
In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway with 490,383 out of which injured people are 509,667 and fatalities are 138,258 [1]. Nearly 17% of the fatalities are occupants of passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. In order to understand the root causes for car accidents in India, Bosch accident research carried out a study based on in-depth accidents collected in India. Apart from other accident contributing factors e.g. infrastructure the driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the understanding of accident causation. Further on it supports also the development of modern automotive safety functions. Hence this research was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of the state-of-the art vehicle safety systems known as Antilock Braking System (ABS).
Technical Paper

Loss of Control Car Accidents on Indian Roads - Benefit Estimation of ESC

2019-01-09
2019-26-0009
India has one of the highest growth rates of individual mobility in the world, as well as one of the largest numbers of road casualties. Modern active safety systems are slowly becoming established in the Indian passenger car market. The intension of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the car safety feature Electronic Stability Control (ESC) for India. The Indian accidents has to be analysed to identify the reliable root cause. For this purpose, passenger car Loss of Control accidents were investigated in more detail with the aim of estimating the safety potential of ESC for India. A methodology is developed to extrapolate the in-depth accident database of Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI) to the entire accident situation in India. Loss of Control accidents are analysed with regard to their root causes, crash consequences and contributing factors.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Study on Crashes with Pedestrians on Indian Roads

2019-01-09
2019-26-0004
Pedestrian crashes are a major safety concern worldwide, especially in India. About one of every ten traffic-related fatalities in the country is a pedestrian. In 2016 nearly 15,800 pedestrians were killed in India. They were mainly exposed to risk when crossing and walking on the road in urban and rural areas. The aim of the study was to understand the pedestrian behavior on the road and to identify characteristics of pedestrian crashes in India. Many unique behavior was observed like pedestrian crossed half way and stopped in middle of road. Nearly 10% of pedestrians are fatal each year involving in ~5% of overall accidents in India, This study revels every second pedestrian accident occurred while walking and crossing the road straight.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Non-Police Reported Accidents on Indian Highways

2017-01-10
2017-26-0005
The official Indian accident statistics show that the number of road accidents and fatalities are one of the highest worldwide. These official statistics provide important facts about the current accident situation. It is suspected that for various reasons not all accidents are reported to the official statistic. This study estimates the degree of underreporting of traffic accidents with casualties in India. In order to get a national overview of the traffic accident situation it is necessary to improve the knowledge about underreported accidents. Therefore, the in-depth accident database of “Road Accident Sampling System India” (RASSI) was analyzed [1]. This project is organized by a consortium that has collected traffic accidents scientifically in four different regions since 2011 on the spot which have been reported either by police or by local hospitals and own patrol by RASSI engineers.
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