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Technical Paper

Domain Control Units - the Solution for Future E/E Architectures?

2010-04-12
2010-01-0686
In order to master the increasing complexity of electrical/electronic (E/E) systems in vehicles, E/E architecture design has become an established discipline. The task of the E/E architecture design is to come up with solutions to challenging and often contradictory requirements such as reduced cost and increased flexibility / scalability. One way to optimize the E/E architecture in terms of cost (electronics & wiring harness) is to integrate functions. This can be done by either combining functions from multiple ECUs into a single ECU or by introducing Domain Control Units. Domain Control Units provide the main software functionality for a vehicle domain, while relegating the basic functions of actuator control to connected intelligent actuators. Depending on the different market segments (low price, volume and premium) and the different vehicle domains, the actual usage of Domain Control Units can be quite different and sometimes questionable.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Combustion Mode Switch Between SI and Gasoline HCCI

2012-04-16
2012-01-1105
The worldwide stricter emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, challenging approach, especially regarding the combustion mode switch between spark-ignited (SI) and gasoline HCCI mode and vice-versa. Naturally aspirated (n.a.) HCCI shows considerable potential, but the operation range is air breathing limited due to hot residuals required for auto-ignition and to slow down reaction kinetics. Therefore it is limited to part-load operation. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized gasoline engines, it is imperative to investigate the synergies and challenges of boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

Application of ISO 26262 in Distributed Development ISO 26262 in Reality

2009-04-20
2009-01-0758
With its origin in the process industry, the IEC 61508 „Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems” is not fully applicable in the automotive industry, forcing the automotive industry to work on an automotive specific adaptation (ISO 26262 “Functional Safety – Road Vehicles”). This ISO 26262 describes an ideal development process that starts from scratch. In reality development activities are often split locally and in time. This can only be handled with a world wide standard as a basis of a common approach, wide enough to give enough freedom to adapt to diverse boundary conditions, but tight enough to hinder local interpretations to be that far, that a complete safety case becomes impossible. Therefore a strict world-wide standard which allows compatible interpretations is mandatory.
Journal Article

Avoiding Electrical Overstress for Automotive Semiconductors by New Connecting Concepts

2009-04-20
2009-01-0294
Bosch Automotive Semiconductor Unit investigated destroyed semiconductor devices (ASIC) from electronic control unit complaints, which failed due to electrical overstress. It turned out that failure fingerprints could only be reproduced by semiconductor operation far beyond spec limits. One main failure mechanism is caused by hot plugging and bad or late ground connection. In today’s cars some applications are still active for minutes after ignition switch off. So, currents of several amps are delivered and in a typical production or garage environment, hot plugging cannot be avoided completely. Bosch suggests introducing extended ground pins to get an enforced switch on/off sequence during plugging. This poka yoke protection principle is successfully used in other industries for a long time and should now come into cars.
Technical Paper

Active Pedestrian Protection - System Development

2004-03-08
2004-01-1604
Pedestrian protection is an upcoming field for research and development. Active pedestrian protection is described from a system perspective. In this view, the development of an active pedestrian protection system is shown. First an overview on statistics and legal requirements is given and the system requirements are discussed. Sensor concepts and realizations are shown, also different test methods and results are explained. FE-simulations to complete and later replace additional tests are developed, after cross check with the experimental results. In combination with the shown actuator concept this leads to a full functioning active pedestrian protection system.
Technical Paper

Safety Support by an Automotive Middleware

2005-04-11
2005-01-1530
The amount of software integrated into today's vehicles growths exponential and tends to be a patchwork of non interrelated applications. However the interrelationship gets more and more intensive as applications start to cooperate and therefore communicate with each other. By introducing a domain exceeding middleware concept we want applications to experience a high level of integration and enable outsourcing of features applications have in common.
Technical Paper

Luminance Measurement, Contrast Sensitivity, Homogeneity: New Approaches of Defining the Quality of Headlamps

1998-02-23
980324
The conventional measurements to describe the photometric quality of headlamps usually only comprise the luminous flux and the illuminance (resp. the luminous intensity) in several measuring points given by Type Approval Legislation. Practically, these photometric measurements do not describe the visual impression of a headlamp light distribution sufficiently, neither in lab nor in real street geometry. With the clear outer lens headlamps introduced recently, filament images are projected directly onto the screens or streets, thus giving new impulses to research. Starting from the established photometric practice, other types of measurements and physiological fundamentals will be discussed. The basic tools to make physical measurement and physiological impression comparable, e.g. in terms of homogeneity, are shown.
Technical Paper

Bus System for Wiring Actuators of Restraint Systems

1997-02-24
971053
The continuing increase in the performance of restraint systems has led to a drastic increase in the number of actuator devices. The individual wiring of the igniters becomes more and more problematic through the accompanied large number of plug connections and cables. Along with demands for weight and volume reduction, there are requirements for EMI and short circuit protection to eliminate erroneous deployment and misuse. As a solution, a new multi-protocol dual wire bus system is described that has the capability to supply energy and address multiple peripheral output stages to simultaneously fire any combination of actuators.
Technical Paper

Strategies to Reduce HC-Emissions During the Cold Starting of a Port Fuel Injected Gasoline Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0627
In view of tight emission standards, injection strategies to reduce raw HC-emissions during the cold starting of port fuel injected engines are evaluated in this study. The relevance of spray targeting and atomization is outlined in the first part of this paper. The foundation and performance of different injector concepts with respect to spray characteristics are discussed. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that concepts relying on auxiliary energy, such as air-assistance, fuel heating and injection at elevated system pressures, are capable of producing spray droplet sizes in the SMD-range of 25μm. For future injection strategies aimed at the compliance of SULEV emission levels, this target value is considered to be essential. In the second part of this paper, emission tests of selected injector concepts are carried out using a V6-3.2I ULEV engine operated both in a vehicle and on a test bench.
Technical Paper

Integration of Time Triggered CAN (TTCAN_TC)

2002-03-04
2002-01-0263
Time Triggered CAN (TTCAN) is an extension of the well-known CAN protocol, introducing to CAN networks time triggered communication and a system wide global network time with high precision. Time Triggered CAN has been accepted as international standard ISOCD11898-4. The time triggered communication is built upon the unchanged standard CAN protocol. This allows a software implementation of the time triggered function of TTCAN, based on existing CAN ICs. The high precision global time however requires a hardware implementation. A hardware implementation also offers additional functions like time mark interrupts, a stopwatch, and a synchronization to external events, all independent of software latency times. The TTCAN testchip (TTCAN_TC) is a standalone TTCAN controller and has been produced as a solution to the hen/egg problem of hardware availability versus tool support and research.
Technical Paper

Flex Fuel Software Maintainability Improvement: A Case Study

2016-10-25
2016-36-0214
Many software functions currently available in the engine control units have been developed for several years (decades in some cases), reengineered or adapted due to new requirements, what may add to their inherent complexity an unnecessary complication. This paper deals with the study and implementation of a software reengineering strategy for the embedded domain, which is in transfer from research department to product development, here applied to improve maintainability of flex fuel functions. The strategy uses the SCODE “Essential Analysis”, an approach for the embedded system domain. The method allows to reduce the system complexity to the unavoidable inherent problem complexity, by decomposing the system into smaller sub problems based on its essential physics. A case study was carried out to redesign a function of fuel adaptation. The analysis was performed with the support of a tool, which covers all the phases of the method.
Technical Paper

Integration Strategy of Safety Systems - Status and Outlook

2016-04-05
2016-01-1499
On the way to automated driving, the installation rate of surround sensing systems will rapidly increase in the upcoming years. The respective technical progress in the areas of driver assistance and active safety leads to a numerous and valuable information and signals to be used prior to, during and even after an accident. Car makers and suppliers can make use of this new situation and develop integrated safety functions to further reduce the number of injured and even deaths in car accidents. Nevertheless, the base occupant safety remains the core of this integrated safety system in order to ensure at least a state-of-the-art protection even in vehicles including partial, high or full automation. Current networked safety systems comprehend a point-to-point connection between single components of active and safety systems. The optimal integration requires a much deeper and holistic approach.
Technical Paper

Future Electrical Steering Systems: Realizations with Safety Requirements

2000-03-06
2000-01-0822
Additional future requirements for automobiles such as improved vehicle dynamics control, enhanced comfort, increased safety and compact packaging are met by modern electrical steering systems. Based on these requirements the new functionality is realized by various additional electrical components for measuring, signal processing and actuator control. However, the reliability of these new systems has to meet the standard of today's automotive steering products. To achieve the demands of the respective components (e.g. sensors, bus systems, electronic control units, power units, actuators) the systems have to be fault-tolerant and/or fail-silent. The realization of the derived safety structures requires both expertise and experience in design and mass production of safety relevant electrical systems. Beside system safety and system availability the redundant electrical systems also have to meet economic and market requirements.
Technical Paper

Preparing for CARTRONIC - Interface and New Strategies for Torque Coordination and Conversion in a Spark Ignition Engine-Management System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0268
A major trend in modern vehicle control is the increase of complexity and interaction of formerly autonomous systems. In order to manage the resulting network of more and more integrated (sub)systems Bosch has developed an open architecture called CARTRONIC for structuring the entire vehicle control system. Structuring the system in functionally independent components improves modular software development and allows the integration of new elements such as integrated starter/generator and the implementation of advanced control concepts as drive train management. This approach leads to an open structure on a high level for the design of advanced vehicle control systems. The paper describes the integration of the spark-ignition (SI) engine management system (EMS) into a CARTRONIC conform vehicle coordination requiring a new standard interface between the vehicle coordination and the EMS level.
Technical Paper

The Steer-By-Wire Prototype Implementation: Realizing Time Triggered System Design, Fail Silence Behavior and Active Replication with Fault-Tolerance Support

1999-03-01
1999-01-0400
Actual research results in the automotive field show that there is a big potential in increasing active and passive safety by implementing intelligent driver assisting systems. Realizing such safety related system functions requires an electronic system without mechanical or hydraulic backup to de-couple the human interface from the vehicle functions, e.g., steering and braking. Safety critical functions without mechanical backup enforce new requirements in system design. Any faulty behavior of a component within the system must not lead to a malfunction of the overall system. Consequently in the system design fault-tolerance mechanisms in real time must be introduced. Active replication of a functional node is a proper solution to guarantee this real time fault-tolerance. Redundancy management of the functional nodes can be implemented by fail-silent replicas, i.e. a node behaves correctly or does not produce any output at all.
Technical Paper

Automotive Application of Biometric Systems and Fingerprint

2000-03-06
2000-01-0171
Until now, the use of biometric systems has not been in the public eye. The high cost of sensors and processing has meant that biometrics was previously restricted to high security access, financial transaction and law enforcement applications. However, as a result of improvements in technology, biometric sensor price and reliability have achieved levels where biometrics is being seriously considered for automotive systems. This paper introduces the field of biometrics, the key terms and processes. Fingerprint Technology and Identification by Fingerprint are discussed, as are the use and applicability of biometrics in automotive applications, including Personal Profiling, Keyless Engine Start and vehicle access authorization. The key findings of investigations over the last years are discussed.
Technical Paper

Application Specific Microcontroller for Multiplex Wiring

1987-02-01
870515
The new aerial communication protocol “Controller Area Network” (CAN) efficiently supports distributed realtime control in automotive applications. In order to unload CPUs from high-speed message transfer, dedicated CAN hardware handles messages up to the communication object level. In multiplex wiring message rates are one to two orders of magnitude lower, allowing to implement the upper communication level more cost-effectively in software. This reduces CAN interface hardware to bitwise protocol handling only. It may be incorporated even into low-end microcontrollers without significantly increasing chip size. Thus the same CAN protocol supports the entire range of serial automotive communication, matching implementation costs to requirements at each performance level.
Technical Paper

The ABS 6S/4K - A Modular System for Simplified Installation in Tractors, Semi-trailers and Trailers

1990-10-01
902213
Today's ABS sytems for commercial vehicles and trailers reflect specific solutions for individual vehicle model wiring and control features. In addition, the chassis mounting requirements for trailer applications uses a separate sealed housing for the relay and other sensitive components. A logical progression of design development resulted in the new ABS 6S/4K open system with the ability of being adaptable to specific vehicle control requirements. A variety of different component arrangements can be accommodated. Accordingly, it does not require a standard wiring harness. Wiring is left optional for the specific vehicle configuration. The housing may be frame mounted without any special protection and therefore can cover both trailer and tractor applications. The housing is designed to provide necessary protection from water and dirt. The electronic senses the peripheral component configuration via a simple “learning” procedure.
Technical Paper

Advanced Engine Misfire Detection for SI-Engines

1997-02-24
970855
This paper presents a system concept for detecting combustion misfire. The relevant research grew out of the more stringent requirements for On-Board Diagnostic systems (OBDII) mandated by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), effective as of model year 1997 onward. The system concept is based on evaluation of variations in crankshaft speed. Processes using engine roughness are applied in non-critical operating areas and/or on engines with a small number of cylinders. The modulation process is used in more critical areas. Research was done using a 12-cylinder engine and indicated the potential to comply with the California Air Resources Board's regulations for the model year (MY) 1997 and later.
Technical Paper

Methods for the Efficient Development and Optimization of Automotive Electrical Systems

1997-02-24
970301
In the last years, the requirements for electrical energy systems in motor vehicles have increased considerably. In the past, many studies were focused on single components of the electrical system. However, to shorten the development process, reduce costs, improve reliability and also to optimize the fuel consumption due to the electrical system, the electrical system must be regarded as a whole. The Robert Bosch GmbH has developed a simulation environment, which is intended to improve the development process of new vehicle electrical systems by means of computer simulation. On the basis of a freely selectable driving cycle and various driver models, it is possible to simulate the behavior of electrical energy supply structures. The model of the electrical system is coupled to a dynamic model of the drivetrain. The characteristics of this drivetrain can also be modified and various vehicle models can be selected for simulation.
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