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Technical Paper

Using Patterns to Integrate Views in Open Automotive Systems

2001-10-01
2001-01-3396
Automotive product lines promote reuse of software artifacts such as architectures, designs and implementations. System architectures, and especially software architectures, are difficult to create due to the need to support variations. Traditional approaches emphasize the identification and description of generic components, which makes it difficult to support variations among products. The paper proposes an approach for transforming a software architecture to product design through using patterns in a four-way refinement and evolution process. The paper investigates how patterns may be used to verify the conceptual integrity in the view integration procedure to support software sharing in an open automotive system.
Technical Paper

Preparing for CARTRONIC - Interface and New Strategies for Torque Coordination and Conversion in a Spark Ignition Engine-Management System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0268
A major trend in modern vehicle control is the increase of complexity and interaction of formerly autonomous systems. In order to manage the resulting network of more and more integrated (sub)systems Bosch has developed an open architecture called CARTRONIC for structuring the entire vehicle control system. Structuring the system in functionally independent components improves modular software development and allows the integration of new elements such as integrated starter/generator and the implementation of advanced control concepts as drive train management. This approach leads to an open structure on a high level for the design of advanced vehicle control systems. The paper describes the integration of the spark-ignition (SI) engine management system (EMS) into a CARTRONIC conform vehicle coordination requiring a new standard interface between the vehicle coordination and the EMS level.
Technical Paper

Integration of a Structuring Concept for Vehicle Control Systems into the Software Development Process using UML Modelling Methods

2001-03-05
2001-01-0066
The demand for more security, economy, and comfort as well as for a reduced environmental impact increases the importance of electronic components for vehicles. The development of such systems is determined by the requirement of an improved functionality and co-requisite the demand for limited costs. In order to fulfil these demands and taking into consideration the increase of complexity and the melting together to a car wide web, Bosch is developing a structuring concept called CARTRONIC®. This concept is supposed to be open and neutral regarding automotive manufactures and suppliers. The analysis of vehicle control systems via this method is based on formal rules for structuring and modelling. The function-related aspect of CARTRONIC® was represented already at the SAE'98 World Congress. Furthermore the safety-related feature was introduced in more detail at the SAE'99 World Congress. The result of the analysis is an object structure of logical components with defined interfaces.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Applying a Product Line Approach for Car Periphery Supervision Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0025
Car Periphery Supervision (CPS) systems comprise a family of automotive systems that are based on sensors installed around the vehicle to monitor its environment. The measurement and evaluation of sensor data enables the realization of several kinds of higher level applications such as parking assistance or blind spot detection. Although a lot of similarity can be identified among CPS applications, these systems are traditionally built separately. Usually, each single system is built with its own electronic control unit, and it is likely that the application software is bound to the controller's hardware. Current systems engineering therefore often leads to a large number of inflexible, dedicated systems in the automobile that together consume a large amount of power, weight, and installation space and produce high manufacturing and maintenance costs.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Assess the Accuracy of Service Timing Devices for Injection Pumps of Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0823
The correct timing of the diesel injection pump on engine is of major importance for all functions of the engine and for its exhaust emissions, during production pass off as well as in the field. Within the diesel service workshops a variety of devices exist to test the timing of the injection pump on engine. Most of them operate by clamp-on transducer being fitted to the injection pipe. A large uncertainty exists concerning the accuracy of such timing systems. Most diesel engine manufacturers do not have confidence in the timing devices capability and, therefore, do not recommend their usage. A working group within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted a method for the validation of these measurement systems, which usually is used to judge the capability of measurement gauges for industrial production processes.
Technical Paper

Software Controlled Homogeneity Analysis of Headlamp Light Distribution

1999-03-01
1999-01-0700
This paper will describe the procedures that will enhance the possibilities of qualitative evaluation of headlamp light distributions. A basis will be the description of a light distribution coming only from reflector geometries, i.e. headlamps with clear outer lens design. Further steps of evaluation, as visualization and homogeneity analysis become more and more important for a headlamp evaluation. The recently developed tools can support both the headlamp manufacturer and the car manufacturer in finding a common understanding in headlamp performance of a projected car at a very early stage of development.
Technical Paper

Object-Oriented Software Technology for Body Electronics Applications

1999-03-01
1999-01-1101
The role of the software in automobile electronics is gaining increasing importance. New software technologies are needed in order to increase the efficiency of software development as well as the quality of software products. The reuse of constituents of existing systems is the central technique to raise efficiency and quality. Nevertheless, the property of a system of being suitable for reuse does not arise automatically but should be considered as a goal of software architecture design. With the help of examples of body electronics systems the following paper describes an object-oriented, tool-based software technology including mechanisms to design a reusable software architecture. The introduced software technology is used for the software development of a set of electronic control units which are networked via CAN bus. The approach covers an efficient implementation concept to convert object-oriented models into executable software for electronic control units.
Technical Paper

Application of the Object-Oriented Modeling Concept OMOS for Signal Conditioning of Vehicle Control Units

2000-03-06
2000-01-0717
In recent times, the software portion and the complexity of software within automotive electronic control units have grown noticeably and continue to grow. In order to get a grip on the software complexity and the amount of customer-specific software variants, a modeling concept for a structured and easily extensible software architecture is needed. This concept should efficiently support the formation of variants and code reuse without increasing runtime and memory space overhead. In this paper, we present our approach to such a modeling concept: The object-oriented modeling concept OMOS and its application to signal conditioning of vehicle control systems.
Technical Paper

Tool Support for Analyzing and Optimization Methods in Early Brake System Sizing Phases

2000-03-06
2000-01-0442
The manufacturers of passenger cars increasingly assign development and production of complete subsystems to the supplying industry. A brake system supplier has to give predictions about system quality and performance long time before the first prototypical system is built or even before the supplier gets the order for system development. Nowadays, the usage of computer-aided system design and simulation is essential for that task. This article presents a tool designed to support the development process. A special focus will be on how to define quality. A formal definition of quality is provided, illustrated and motivated by two examples.
Technical Paper

High-Pressure Injection Pumps with Electronic Control for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

1985-02-01
850170
Within the Robert Bosch Diesel Injection Pump Program, the MW and P pumps have a fundamental significance concerning medium-duty and heavy- duty engines. These engines have developed considerably in the last years with regard to combustion efficiency and emission reduction. In order to reach these new targets, specific developments of the pump were necessary to realize injection pressure of 900 bar and 1200 bar for the MW and P pumps, respectively. A further development emphasis of the past years was the development of a robust electronic governor concept to take advantage of this new technology. The topics of the paper are: Further development of the pump drivetrain and housing to cope with the difficulties inherent in producing 1000 bar. Development of constant-pressure valves. Preparation of the electronic governor concept for commercial vehicles. Development results of the electro-magnetic and electro-hydraulic actuators.
Technical Paper

A User-Friendly Program System for Digital Simulation of Hydraulic Equipment

1985-02-01
850532
Mathematical modelling has proved to be a valuable tool for understanding the performance of diesel injection systems. There are several programs for the simulation of conventional injection equipment, but up to now it has been very expensive to simulate new concepts of injection equipment. Therefore a general program system for simulation of transient hydraulic processes - especially in diesel injection systems - has been developped. By this system, any new injection equipment can be simulated user-friendly and without needing to write new programs. The differential equations are solved by mathematical methods, which promise stability in all conditions and offer short calculation times. Since 1983 the program system has been applied to a lot of non-conventional and conventional injection systems and has proved its reliability.
Technical Paper

Physical Layer for Multiplex Networks

1990-02-01
900694
A new physical layer for automobile class B communication networks is based on simple galvanic connections. Only ten passive external components per node are needed to perform reliable data transmission inside the hostile car environment. Every single fault related to the bus will be detected and diagnosed by every node, where a software controlled logic assures continuous data flow.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Equipment for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines for U. S. 1991/1994 Emission Limits

1989-02-01
890851
The particulate emissions can be reduced by increasing injection pressure. The NOx-emission can be lowered to the required amount with a retarded injection-begin. These measures raise fuel consumption by approximately 8-10 %. To avoid blue smoke from the cold engine, it is advantageous that the fuel injection is advanced during the warm-up period. These statements apply for injection systems with unit injectors as well as for pump-line-nozzle-systems. In this paper, the pump-line-nozzle-system will be described. With this system, injection pressures of 1200 to 1400 bar at the injection nozzle are reached. The injection-begin can be changed with a control-sleeve in-line pump. The injection-begin and fuel quantity can be flexibly and accurately adjusted by means of an electronic governor.
Technical Paper

Application Specific Microcontroller for Multiplex Wiring

1987-02-01
870515
The new aerial communication protocol “Controller Area Network” (CAN) efficiently supports distributed realtime control in automotive applications. In order to unload CPUs from high-speed message transfer, dedicated CAN hardware handles messages up to the communication object level. In multiplex wiring message rates are one to two orders of magnitude lower, allowing to implement the upper communication level more cost-effectively in software. This reduces CAN interface hardware to bitwise protocol handling only. It may be incorporated even into low-end microcontrollers without significantly increasing chip size. Thus the same CAN protocol supports the entire range of serial automotive communication, matching implementation costs to requirements at each performance level.
Technical Paper

Network Architecture for CAN

1993-03-01
930004
Serial communication by means of CAN is being used more and more for data transfer between in-vehicle control units to link components of the drive train, body electronics and mobile communication electronics. In order to design distributed electronic systems, software engineers today must not only develop the application software but also supply the communication software to handle the communication hardware, thereby reinventing the wheel with each new application software package. This procedure is inefficient as it leads to hardly reusable special solutions. To avoid incompatibilities between the modules of a distributed system a lot of additional coordination work must be done during the design phase. As a consequence, each new software package is faced with additional costs for the indispensible tests of the communication software. This paper describes a network architecture that has been designed for CAN systems.
Technical Paper

Solenoid-Valve Controlled Diesel Distributor Injection Pump

1993-03-01
930327
The electronically-governed diesel distributor injection pump, with the proven sleeve control of injection quantity, has been in production at Bosch since 1987. Long-term development resulted in a solenoid-valve controlled injection pump. The function and component assemblies, consisting of the injection pump, solenoid valve and control unit, provide an even more flexible injection system. Of particular advantage with this type of system are the high dynamics of the fuel quantity, matching of each individual injection and the exact pump-specific fuel quantity compensation at numerous map points. Further advantages are the selection of timing and fuel injection rate independent of each other, as well as the ability to provide the correct timing even at cranking speeds. The entire system, with emphasis on the injection pump and the solenoid valve, are described for IDI engines in this paper.
Technical Paper

Electronic Control Units of Bosch EDC Systems

1988-02-01
880185
Todays injection systems for diesel engines work with highly sophisticated mechanical governors. But only by electronic control of diesel injection systems will it be possible to comply with the emission regulations and to achieve better performance. In 1986 BOSCH started volume production of Electronic Diesel Control (EDC). This paper will concentrate on the electronic control unit (ECU) as it was designed for use in passenger cars. The production ECU and the planned next-step ECU are outlined, explaining hardware and software. An outlook of development goals of the future EDC control-units is given.
Technical Paper

Information Technology Restructures Car Electronics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0485
In the automotive industry a growing number of mono-functional control units with increasing complexity on one hand and requirements for reduced power con-sumption and mounting space on the other hand are enforcing an architectural change of the car electronics. Computer platforms with a client/server architecture are candidates to reduce the number of control units drastically followed by a reduction of costs, space and better integration possibilities for enhanced func-tionalities as well as additional services. The problem which comes up now if those architectures are coming to the cars is to cope with software complexity and reliability issues under the aspect of continuously evolving hardware infrastructure. To understand the problems better, the Corporate Engineering within Robert Bosch GmbH has build a multifunctional look-and-feel demonstrator in a first step using a component-based software architecture on a standard PC-platform. Experiences are reported.
Technical Paper

The Robert Bosch In-Line Pump for Diesel Engines, Type MW, Design, Application and Further Development

1979-02-01
790901
The range of Robert Bosch in-line pumps is designed for engines with cylinder outputs of up to 200 kW. Within this family of pumps the MW pump is used in small IDI engines and medium-sized DI engines with cylinder outputs in the region of 30 kW. More stringent exhaust emission legislation and the need to ensure optimum fuel economy call for efficient fuel-injection systems for diesel engines. In both of its designs the new MW pump meets these more exacting requirements and forms the contribution of Robert Bosch GmbH toward developing advanced diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurement Techniques to Optimize Design of Gasoline Injection Valves

1992-02-01
920520
In order to reduce the spark-ignition engine exhaust-gas emission and fuel consumption, it is essential that the required air/fuel ratio is maintained under all operating conditions. An important contribution to this claim is delivered by the injection valve by metering the fuel precisely and producing fine atomization. In this report experimental methods to get specific measuring information and methods for optimizing flow in injection valves are described. Original valves as well as large-scale models were used for the investigations concerning the steady and unsteady-flow characteristics, and were equipped with a number of different sensors. Holograms of the short-time recording of the spray cone are generated and used for the quantification of the atomization quality when injecting into atmospheric pressure and into vacuum, thus complying with the conditions encountered in the engine intake-manifold.
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