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Technical Paper

The Role of Climatic Conditions on Disc Brake Noise

Since the brake colloquium in 2004 the role of climatic conditions and their relations to noise occurrence, sound pressure level and friction coefficient level is widely discussed in the US and European working groups on brake noise. A systematic study has been started to investigate the influence of relative humidity, absolute humidity and temperature on brake noise and the corresponding friction coefficient level. In this study an enormous effort was taken to keep the influences of the brake parameters, e.g. lining material, Eigenfrequencies and dimensions of the different components as small as possible to investigate the climatic influence only. Strategic humidity and temperature levels were tested according to the Mollier-Entropy-Enthalpy-Diagram which are corresponding to the seasons in the various international regions. A regression analysis evaluates the correlation and the influence of each parameter to noise and friction coefficient level.
Technical Paper

Common Rail - An Attractive Fuel Injection System for Passenger Car DI Diesel Engines

Passenger car DI Diesel engines need a flexible fuel injection system. Bosch develops a common rail system for this purpose. Besides variation of fuel quantity and start of injection, it permits to choosing freely injection pressure inthe rangeof 150 to 1400 barand injecting fuel in several portions. These new means will contribute to further improvements of DI engines concerning noise, exhaust emissions and engine torque.
Technical Paper

Secondary Air Injection with a New Developed Electrical Blower for Reduced Exhaust Emissions

Secondary air injection after cold start gives two effects for reduced exhaust emissions: An exothermic reaction at the hot exhaust valves occurs, which increases the temperature of the exhaust gas. It gives sufficient air to the catalyst during the cold start fuel enrichment that is necessary to prevent driveability problems. Handicaps for the wide use of air injection include space constraints, weight and price. An electrical air blower was choosen to best satisfy all these requirements. The development steps are described. The result is a three stage radialblower with extremly high revolutions of about 18000 rpm. The system configuration and the outcome are demonstrated on the new C-Class of Mercedes-Benz. The results show emission reductions higher than 50 %, while also satisfying the development goals of noise, volume, weight and cost requirements.
Technical Paper

Generic Methodology for Vibration and Wear Analysis to Understand Their Influences in an Electric Drivetrain

The prime factor which influences noise and vibrations of electro-mechanical drives is wear at the components. This paper discusses the numerical methods developed for abrasion, vibration calculations and the coupling between wear and Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) models of the drive unit. The vibration domain model, initially, focuses on the calculations of mechanical excitations at the gear shafts which are generated via a nonlinear dynamic model. Furthermore, the bearings are studied for the influences on their stiffness and eventually their impact on the harmonics of the drivetrain. Later, free and forced vibrations of the complete drivetrain are simulated via a steady-state dynamic model. Consequently, the paper concentrates on the abrasion calculations at the gears. Wear is a complex process and understanding it is essential for determining the vibro-acoustics characteristics.
Technical Paper

Multi Domain Modeling of NVH for Electro-Mechanical Drives

Acoustics and vibrations are amongst the foremost indicators in perceiving the quality of drive units. Analyzing these factors is vital for improve the performances of electro-mechanical systems. This paper deals with the study of vibro-acoustic behavior concerning the drivetrain components using system modeling and Finite Element calculations. A generic simulation methodology within system modeling is proposed enabling the vibro-acoustic simulation of electro-mechanical drivetrains. Excitations for these systems mostly arise from the electric motor and mechanical gears. The paper initially depicts the system model for gear whining considering the associated nonlinearities of the mesh. The results obtained from the gear mesh submodel, together with the excitations resulting from the motor, aid in the comprehension of the forces at the bearings and of the vibrations at the housings.