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Technical Paper

A Thermodynamic Study on Boosted HCCI: Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0905
Stricter emissions legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with boosted air systems on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising, yet challenging, approach. Naturally aspirated (NA) HCCI has already shown considerable potential in combustion efficiency gains. Nevertheless, since the volumetric efficiency is limited in the NA HCCI operation range due to the hot residuals required to ignite the mixture and slow down reaction kinetics, only part-load operation is feasible in this combustion mode. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified in downsized gasoline engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of controlled, boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow Field / Spray Injection Interaction within a DISI IC Engine Using High-Speed PIV

2011-04-12
2011-01-1288
This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Challenge Determining a Combustion System Concept for Downsized SI-engines - Comparison and Evaluation of Several Options for a Boosted 2-cylinder SI-engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1730
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance in the SI engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so new challenges arise concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor GmbH and Robert Bosch GmbH. The design process was described in detail in last year's paper SAE 2012-01-0832. Since the engine design is very modular it allows for several different engine layouts which can be examined and evaluated.
Journal Article

Novel Transient Wall Heat Transfer Approach for the Start-up of SI Engines with Gasoline Direct Injection

2010-04-12
2010-01-1270
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions limits require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. But with a fraction of nearly 45% of the burned fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Combustion Mode Switch Between SI and Gasoline HCCI

2012-04-16
2012-01-1105
The worldwide stricter emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, challenging approach, especially regarding the combustion mode switch between spark-ignited (SI) and gasoline HCCI mode and vice-versa. Naturally aspirated (n.a.) HCCI shows considerable potential, but the operation range is air breathing limited due to hot residuals required for auto-ignition and to slow down reaction kinetics. Therefore it is limited to part-load operation. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized gasoline engines, it is imperative to investigate the synergies and challenges of boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

Design of a Boosted 2-Cylinder SI-Engine with Gasoline Direct Injection to Define the Needs of Future Powertrains

2012-04-16
2012-01-0832
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance to the SI-engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so leads to new challenges concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine with gasoline direct injection was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor and Bosch. This paper wants to offer an insight in the design process. The mechanical design as well as the combustion system concept process will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Study on Boosted Direct Injection SI Combustion with Ethanol Blends and the Influence on the Ignition System

2011-10-04
2011-36-0196
The stricter worldwide emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption and CO2-emission require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Ethanol fuel combined with boosting on direct injection gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, a challenging approach. Brazil is one of the main Ethanol fuel markets with its E24 and E100 fuel availability, which covers a large volume of the national needs. Additionally, worldwide Ethanol availability is becoming more and more important, e.g., in North America and Europe. Considering the future flex-fuel engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized spark ignition engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of Ethanol boosted operation. Main topic of the present work focuses on the operation of Ethanol blends up to E100 at high loads up to 30 bar imep.
Journal Article

Engine Start-Up Optimization using the Transient Burn Rate Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0125
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emission legislation require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. Therefore, adaptations to the start-up conditions of the known models by Woschni, Hohenberg and Bargende were introduced for calculation of the wall heat transfer coefficient in SI engines with gasoline direct injection. This paper shows how the indicated values can be measured during the engine start-up.
Journal Article

Optical Investigations of the Ignition-Relevant Spray Characteristics from a Piezo-Injector for Spray-Guided Spark-Ignited Engines

2015-01-01
2014-01-9053
The spray-guided combustion process offers a high potential for fuel savings in gasoline engines in the part load range. In this connection, the injector and spark plug are arranged in close proximity to one another, as a result of which mixture formation is primarily shaped by the dynamics of the fuel spray. The mixture formation time is very short, so that at the time of ignition the velocity of flow is high and the fuel is still largely present in liquid form. The quality of mixture formation thus constitutes a key aspect of reliable ignition. In this article, the spray characteristics of an outward-opening piezo injector are examined using optical testing methods under pressure chamber conditions and the results obtained are correlated with ignition behaviour in-engine. The global spray formation is examined using high-speed visualisation methods, particularly with regard to cyclical fluctuations.
Journal Article

Estimation of Cylinder-Wise Combustion Features from Engine Speed and Cylinder Pressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0290
Advanced engine control and diagnosis strategies for internal combustion engines need accurate feedback information from the combustion engine. The feedback information can be utilized to control combustion features which allow the improvement of engine's efficiency through real-time control and diagnosis of the combustion process. This article describes a new method for combustion phase and IMEP estimation using one in-cylinder pressure and engine speed. In order to take torsional deflections of the crankshaft into account a gray-box model of the crankshaft is identified by subspace identification. The modeling accuracy is compared to a stiff physical crankshaft model. For combustion feature estimation, the identified MISO (multiple input single output) system is inverted. Experiments for a four-cylinder spark-ignition engine show the superior performance of the new method for combustion feature estimation compared to a stiff model approach.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Analysis and Benchmark of Various Gasoline Combustion Concepts

2006-04-03
2006-01-0231
Novel Combustion technologies and strategies show high potential in reducing the fuel consumption of gasoline spark ignition (SI) engines. In this paper, a comparison between various gasoline combustion concepts at two representative engine operating points is shown. Advantages of the combustion concepts are analyzed using thermodynamic split of losses method. In this paper, a tool for thermodynamic assessment (Split of Losses) of conventional and new operating strategies of SI engine and its derivatives is used. Technologies, like variable valve actuation and/or gasoline direct injection, allow new strategies to run the SI engine unthrottled with early inlet valve closing (SI-VVA) combined with high EGR, charge stratification (SI-STRAT) and controlled auto ignition (CAI), also known as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). These diverse combustion concepts show thermodynamic gains that stem from several, often different sources.
Technical Paper

Crank Angle Resolved Determination of Fuel Concentration and Air/Fuel Ratio in a SI-Internal Combustion Engine Using a Modified Optical Spark Plug

2007-04-16
2007-01-0644
A fiber optical sensor system was used to detect the local fuel concentration in the vicinity of the spark position in a cylinder of a four-stroke SI production engine. The fuel concentration was determined by the infrared absorption method, which allows crank angle resolved fuel concentration measurements during multiple successive engine cycles. The sensor detects the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 3.4 μm wavelength region due to the infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of hydrocarbons (HC). The absorption path was integrated in a modified spark plug and a tungsten halide lamp was used as an infrared light source. All investigations were carried out on a four-stroke spark ignition engine with fuel injection into the intake manifold. The measurements were made under starting conditions of the engine, which means a low engine speed. The engine operated with common gasoline (Euro Super) at different air/fuel-ratios.
Journal Article

Investigations on the Transient Wall Heat Transfer at Start-Up for SI Engines with Gasoline Direct Injection

2009-04-20
2009-01-0613
The introduction of CO2-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions regulations require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes it necessary to carry out an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up. As of today, the well-known thermodynamic analysis using in-cylinder pressure traces at stationary condition is transmitted to the highly dynamic engine start-up. Due to this approximation the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes by Woschni, Hohenberg and Bargende do not lead to desired results. But with a fraction of approximately 40 % of the burnt fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis during start-up.
Technical Paper

Electroformed Multilayer Orifice Plate for Improved Fuel Injection Characteristics

1997-02-24
971070
A new orifice plate (OP) for advanced fuel injection characteristics is presented. The OP is designed to optimize the air-fuel mixture generation and transportation within individually shaped manifold geometries of spark-ignition engines. To generate the suitable spray characteristics, the basic OP design and its flow characteristics have some features originating from the well known turbulence nozzle principle: Turbulence generating flow deflections within the OP are achieved by superimposing layers containing flow cavities, which are displaced from one another. The flow deflections effect atomization and define the spatial spray beam orientation. A great variety and a high volume of precisely structured, low cost OPs can be produced daily by micromachining the layers in electroformed nickel. The flow cavities and outer dimensions of each layer are shaped by photo-resist structures.
Technical Paper

FEM Approximation of Internal Combustion Chambers for Knock Investigations

2002-03-04
2002-01-0237
The resonances of SI engine combustion chambers are slightly excited during normal combustion but strongly excited by knock. In order to avoid knocking combustions extensive knowledge about knock and its effects is necessary. In this paper the combustion chamber of a serial production engine is modeled by finite elements. Modal analyses are performed in order to gain information about the resonances, their frequencies, and their frequency and amplitude modulations. Simulation results are compared to measured data using a high-resolution time-frequency method. Furthermore, a connection between knock origin and the excitation of the resonances is postulated applying transient analyses.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Studies on Mixture Formation with an Outward-Opening Nozzle in a SI Engine with CNG-DI

2016-04-05
2016-01-0801
CNG direct injection is a promising technology to promote the acceptance of natural gas engines. Among the beneficial properties of CNG, like reduced pollutants and CO2 emissions, the direct injection contributes to a higher volumetric efficiency and thus to a better driveability, one of the most limiting drawbacks of today’s CNG vehicles. But such a combustion concept increases the demands on the injection system and mixture formation. Among other things it requires a much higher flow rate at low injection pressure. This can be only provided by an outward-opening nozzle due to its large cross-section. Nevertheless its hollow cone jet with a specific propagation behavior leads to an adverse fuel-air distribution especially at higher loads under scavenging conditions. This paper covers numerical and experimental analysis of CNG direct injection to understand its mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Preparing for CARTRONIC - Interface and New Strategies for Torque Coordination and Conversion in a Spark Ignition Engine-Management System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0268
A major trend in modern vehicle control is the increase of complexity and interaction of formerly autonomous systems. In order to manage the resulting network of more and more integrated (sub)systems Bosch has developed an open architecture called CARTRONIC for structuring the entire vehicle control system. Structuring the system in functionally independent components improves modular software development and allows the integration of new elements such as integrated starter/generator and the implementation of advanced control concepts as drive train management. This approach leads to an open structure on a high level for the design of advanced vehicle control systems. The paper describes the integration of the spark-ignition (SI) engine management system (EMS) into a CARTRONIC conform vehicle coordination requiring a new standard interface between the vehicle coordination and the EMS level.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurement Techniques to Optimize Design of Gasoline Injection Valves

1992-02-01
920520
In order to reduce the spark-ignition engine exhaust-gas emission and fuel consumption, it is essential that the required air/fuel ratio is maintained under all operating conditions. An important contribution to this claim is delivered by the injection valve by metering the fuel precisely and producing fine atomization. In this report experimental methods to get specific measuring information and methods for optimizing flow in injection valves are described. Original valves as well as large-scale models were used for the investigations concerning the steady and unsteady-flow characteristics, and were equipped with a number of different sensors. Holograms of the short-time recording of the spray cone are generated and used for the quantification of the atomization quality when injecting into atmospheric pressure and into vacuum, thus complying with the conditions encountered in the engine intake-manifold.
Journal Article

Model Guided Application for Investigating Particle Number (PN) Emissions in GDI Spark Ignition Engines

2019-01-09
2019-26-0062
Model guided application (MGA) combining physico-chemical internal combustion engine simulation with advanced analytics offers a robust framework to develop and test particle number (PN) emissions reduction strategies. The digital engineering workflow presented in this paper integrates the kinetics & SRM Engine Suite with parameter estimation techniques applicable to the simulation of particle formation and dynamics in gasoline direct injection (GDI) spark ignition (SI) engines. The evolution of the particle population characteristics at engine-out and through the sampling system is investigated. The particle population balance model is extended beyond soot to include sulphates and soluble organic fractions (SOF). This particle model is coupled with the gas phase chemistry precursors and is solved using a sectional method. The combustion chamber is divided into a wall zone and a bulk zone and the fuel impingement on the cylinder wall is simulated.
Technical Paper

Impact of the Injection and Gas Exchange on the Particle Emission of a Spark Ignited Engine with Port Fuel Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0652
This study presents a methodology to predict particle number (PN) generation on a naturally aspirated 4-cylinder gasoline engine with port fuel injection (PFI) from wall wetting, employing numerical CFD simulation and fuel film analysis. Various engine parameters concerning spray pattern, injection timing, intake valve timing, as well as engine load/speed were varied and their impact on wall film and PN was evaluated. The engine, which was driven at wide open throttle (WOT), was equipped with soot particle sampling technology and optical access to the combustion chamber of cylinder 1 in order to visualise non-premixed combustion. High-speed imaging revealed a notable presence of diffusion flames, which were typically initiated between the valve seats and cylinder head. Their size was found to match qualitatively with particulate number measurements. A validated CFD model was employed to simulate spray propagation, film transport and droplet impingement.
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