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Journal Article

Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnostics (OBD) of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)

2010-04-12
2010-01-0307
The emissions legislation in the US and Europe introduces the need for the application of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in most diesel vehicles. In order to fulfill future OBD legislations, which include more stringent requirements on monitoring the functionality of those particulate filters, new sensors besides the differential pressure sensor are necessary. The new sensors need to directly detect the soot emission after DPF and withstand the harsh exhaust gas environment. Based on multi layer ceramic sensor technology, an exhaust gas sensor for particulate matter (EGS-PM) has been developed. The soot-particle-sensing element consists of two inter-digitated comb-like electrodes with an initially infinite electrical resistance. During the sensor operation, soot particles from the exhaust gas are collected onto the inter-digital electrodes and form conductive paths between the two electrode fingers leading to a drop of the electrical resistance.
Journal Article

Novel Transient Wall Heat Transfer Approach for the Start-up of SI Engines with Gasoline Direct Injection

2010-04-12
2010-01-1270
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions limits require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. But with a fraction of nearly 45% of the burned fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis.
Journal Article

Engine Start-Up Optimization using the Transient Burn Rate Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0125
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emission legislation require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. Therefore, adaptations to the start-up conditions of the known models by Woschni, Hohenberg and Bargende were introduced for calculation of the wall heat transfer coefficient in SI engines with gasoline direct injection. This paper shows how the indicated values can be measured during the engine start-up.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Injection of Urea-Water-Solution for Automotive SCR DeNOx-Systems: Modeling of Two-Phase Flow and Spray/Wall-Interaction

2006-04-03
2006-01-0643
The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) based on urea-water-solution is an effective technique to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from diesel engines. A 3D numerical computer model of the injection of urea-water-solution and their interaction with the exhaust gas flow and exhaust tubing is developed to evaluate different configurations during the development process of such a DeNOx-system. The model accounts for all relevant processes appearing from the injection point to the entrance of the SCR-catalyst: momentum interaction between gas phase and droplets evaporation and thermolysis of droplets hydrolysis of isocyanic acid in gas phase heat transfer between wall and droplets spray/wall-interaction two-component wall film including interaction with gas phase and exhaust tube The single modeling steps are verified with visualizations, patternator measurements, phase-doppler-anemometer results and temperature measurements.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Mass Transfer in Exhaust Gas Sensors

2007-04-16
2007-01-1144
Within the scope of this work, the convective mass transfer to the zirconia sensor element of an exhaust oxygen sensor was analyzed experimentally and numerically. For the experimental setup, a heightened model of an oxygen sensor was built from Lucite® considering the similarity theory. Mass transfer is measured based on the absorption of ammonia and subsequent immediate color reaction. For the numerical investigation, a three-dimensional model of the test rig was built. To predict the flow pattern and the species transport inside the protection tubes, the commercial CFD-Code FLUENT® is used. The model for the mass transfer to the surface is implemented through user-defined functions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Dynamic Transport of Multi-Component Exhaust Gases in Oxygen Sensors

2007-04-16
2007-01-0931
Today's wide range oxygen sensors are based on the limiting current principle, where an applied voltage induces electrochemical reactions in a ceramic cell. Since the diffusive transport of exhaust gas to the electrodes is limited by a transport barrier, the resulting electric current can be related to the exhaust gas composition. A model is presented which describes the transient transport of gas mixtures from the bulk exhaust gas to the electrodes of an oxygen sensor at variable pressure and composition. The internal structure of the transport barrier was accounted for by geometrical parameters. A variety of numerical results are compared with experimental data.
Journal Article

Investigations on the Transient Wall Heat Transfer at Start-Up for SI Engines with Gasoline Direct Injection

2009-04-20
2009-01-0613
The introduction of CO2-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions regulations require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes it necessary to carry out an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up. As of today, the well-known thermodynamic analysis using in-cylinder pressure traces at stationary condition is transmitted to the highly dynamic engine start-up. Due to this approximation the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes by Woschni, Hohenberg and Bargende do not lead to desired results. But with a fraction of approximately 40 % of the burnt fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis during start-up.
Journal Article

Diesel Lubricity Requirements of Future Fuel Injection Equipment

2009-04-20
2009-01-0848
This paper looks at the underlying fundamentals of diesel fuel system lubrication for the highly-loaded contacts found in fuel injection equipment like high-pressure pumps. These types of contacts are already occurring in modern systems and their severity is likely to increase in future applications due to the requirement for increased fuel pressure. The aim of the work was to characterise the tribological behavior of these contacts when lubricated with diesel fuel and diesel fuel treated with lubricity additives and model nitrogen and sulphur compounds of different chemical composition. It is essential to understand the role of diesel fuel and of lubricity additives to ensure that future, more severely-loaded systems, will be free of any wear problem in the field.
Journal Article

Avoiding Electrical Overstress for Automotive Semiconductors by New Connecting Concepts

2009-04-20
2009-01-0294
Bosch Automotive Semiconductor Unit investigated destroyed semiconductor devices (ASIC) from electronic control unit complaints, which failed due to electrical overstress. It turned out that failure fingerprints could only be reproduced by semiconductor operation far beyond spec limits. One main failure mechanism is caused by hot plugging and bad or late ground connection. In today’s cars some applications are still active for minutes after ignition switch off. So, currents of several amps are delivered and in a typical production or garage environment, hot plugging cannot be avoided completely. Bosch suggests introducing extended ground pins to get an enforced switch on/off sequence during plugging. This poka yoke protection principle is successfully used in other industries for a long time and should now come into cars.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Momentum and Heat Transfer in Exhaust Gas Sensors

2005-04-11
2005-01-0037
Modern zirconia oxygen sensors are heated internally to achieve an optimal detection of the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas and fast light off time. The temperature of the gas in the exhaust pipe varies in a wide range. The zirconia sensor is cooled by radiation and forced convection caused by cold exhaust gas. If the zirconia temperature falls, the oxygen detection capability of the sensor decreases. To minimize the cooling effects, protection tubes cover the zirconia sensor. However, this is in conflict with the aim to accelerate the dynamics of the lambda sensor. In this paper, the heat transfer at the surface of a heated planar zirconia sensor with two different double protection tubes of a Bosch oxygen sensor is examined in detail. The geometric configuration of the tubes forces different flow patterns in the inner protection tube around the zirconia sensor. The zirconia sensor is internally electrically heated by a platinum heater layer.
Technical Paper

PVD-Wear Resistant Coatings of Homogeneous and Graded Ti(C,N): Residual Stresses and Mechanical Performance under Hertzian Load

2002-03-19
2002-01-1407
Ceramic protective coatings on cutting tools for steel machining are state of the art in industrial applications. Several concepts to improve the efficiency of machining processes as for instance high-speed or dry cutting yield increasing demands regarding the wear and corrosion resistance of the protective tool coatings. The generic process characteristics of PVD-coating techniques offer opportunities to tailor the coatings in terms of microstructure and residual stress states by adjusting appropriate process parameters. Besides chemical composition and microstructure the residual stresses in the coatings strongly influence their in-service performance and, are therefore important to assess and to correlate with process parameters.
Technical Paper

Giant Magneto Resistors - Sensor Technology and Automotive Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0462
The paper will give an introduction to the principle of the giant magneto resistive - GMR - effect and the silicon system integration of GMR sensors. The two main applications of a GMR as a magnetic field strength sensor and as an angular field direction sensor will be discussed under consideration of automotive requirements. The typical applications of a magnetic field strength GMR sensor in incremental position and speed sensing and those of GMR angular field sensors in position sensing will be summarized. Finally advantages of GMR in those applications will be discussed and conclusions on the use of GMR in automotive sensing will be drawn.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Spray Characterisation in a Common Rail Direct-Injection Production Type Diesel Engine Using Combined Mie/LIF Laser Diagnostics

2003-03-03
2003-01-1040
This study reports on laser-based diagnostics to temporally track the evolution of liquid and gaseous fuel in the cylinder of a direct injection production type Diesel engine. A two-dimensional Mie scattering technique is used to record the liquid phase and planar laser-induced fluorescence of Diesel is used to track both liquid and vaporised fuel. LIF-Signal is visible in liquid and gas phase, Mie scattering occurs only in zones where fuel droplets are present. Distinction between liquid and gaseous phase becomes therefore possible by comparing LIF- and Mie-Signals. Although the information is qualitative in nature, trends of spray evolution are accessible. Within this study a parametric variation of injection pressure, in-cylinder conditions such as gas temperature and pressure as well as piston geometry are discussed. Observations are used to identify the most sensitive parameters and to qualitatively describe the temporal evolution of the spray for real engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Motor Vehicle Sensors Based on Film-Technology: An Interesting Alternative to Semiconductor Sensors

1987-02-01
870477
The manufacture of semiconductor sensors requires high investment and does not become economically viable until very high production numbers come into consideration. In the case of low production numbers, of the kind that come into consideration for production startups, and in the case of variations e.g. in the measuring range and similar, as may be the case due to the adaptation of models, it may be more viable to employ other techniques which likewise have a high rationalization potential which comes into effect already at low production numbers and which exhibits greater flexibility. The film techniques offer alternative sensor concepts for many measured quantities, whose production is reasonable in price even at smaller production numbers and possesses the necessary alteration flexibility. Besides these, are the advantages of the laser adjustment and the seamless connection of the evaluation electronics. Even possibilities laying within micro-machining technology can be used.
Technical Paper

Greater Safety Through Optimized Light Dispersion in Less Space - Obtained by the Consistent Use of Plastics in Producing Headlamps

1987-02-01
870302
Aerodynamic styling is playing an increasing role in the design of today's passenger cars. The profile sections of the frontends of cars imply that the available installation space for the headlamps - particularly its overall depth and height is decreased in size. New types of headlamps had to be developed. One result of extensive investigations are stepped reflectors with up to six paraboloids with different focal lengths arranged around the same focal point. This type of reflector (called homofocular reflector) cannot be formed from sheet steel but from plastic by injection molding. Depending on thermal, mechanical and geometric boundary conditions three different reflector materials can be used: lacquered thermosets, unlacquered thermoplastics by one or two material injection moldings. Similar to sheet steel the use of glass lenses reduces considerably the freedom of the designer. This disadvantage of offset by the use of plastic lenses.
Technical Paper

Advanced Planar Oxygen Sensors for Future Emission Control Strategies

1997-02-24
970459
This paper presents advanced planar ZrO2 oxygen sensors being developed at Robert Bosch using a modified tetragonal partially stabilized zirconia (TZP) with high ionic conductivity, high phase stability and high thermo-mechanical strength. Green tape technology combined with highly automated thickfilm techniques allows robust and cost effective manufacturing of those novel sensing elements. Standardization of assembling parts reduces the complexity of the assembly line even in the case of different sensing principles. The sensor family meets the new requirements of modern ULEV strategies like fast light off below 10 s and linear control capability as well as high quality assurance standards. High volume production will start in 1997 for European customers.
Technical Paper

A Non Contact Strain Gage Torque Sensor for Automotive Servo Driven Steering Systems

1994-03-01
940629
Tapping of one or more torques (ranges 10 Nm and 60 Nm) on the steering column for the purpose of servo control must satisfy high accuracy requirements on the one hand and high safety requirements on the other hand. A suggestion for developing a low-cost solution to this problem is described below: Strain gages optimally satisfy both these requirements: However, for cost reasons, these are not applied directly to the steering column but to a prefabricated, flat steel rod which is laser welded to the torque rod of the steering column. The measuring direction of the strain gages is under 45° to the steering column axis. The strain gages are either vacuum metallized onto the support rod as a thin film or laminated in a particularly low-cost way by means of a foil-type intermediate carrier.
Technical Paper

A Universal and Cost-Effective Fuel Gauge Sensor Based on Wave Propagation Effects in Solid Metal Rods

1994-03-01
940628
In recognition of safety considerations, modern fuel tanks are frequently extremely irregular in shape. This places limits on the application of conventional potentiometric sensors. Required are more universal sensors without mechanically-moving parts. These sensors should also be characterized by especially good resolution and precision in the residual-quantity range, that is, the zero point precision should be of a high order. One type of metal rod can be bent into any of a variety of shapes to provide an effective means of monitoring the fuel level. In this metal rod, the propagation characteristics of a certain type of sound wave, known as bending waves, display major variations according to the level of the surrounding medium: The waves spread more rapidly through the exposed section of the rod than through the area which remains submerged. Thus the rod's characteristic oscillation frequency varies as a function of immersion depth.
Technical Paper

Secondary Air Injection with a New Developed Electrical Blower for Reduced Exhaust Emissions

1994-03-01
940472
Secondary air injection after cold start gives two effects for reduced exhaust emissions: An exothermic reaction at the hot exhaust valves occurs, which increases the temperature of the exhaust gas. It gives sufficient air to the catalyst during the cold start fuel enrichment that is necessary to prevent driveability problems. Handicaps for the wide use of air injection include space constraints, weight and price. An electrical air blower was choosen to best satisfy all these requirements. The development steps are described. The result is a three stage radialblower with extremly high revolutions of about 18000 rpm. The system configuration and the outcome are demonstrated on the new C-Class of Mercedes-Benz. The results show emission reductions higher than 50 %, while also satisfying the development goals of noise, volume, weight and cost requirements.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Flame-Wall-Impingement and Near-Wall Combustion on the Piston Temperature of a Diesel Engine Using Instantaneous Surface Temperature Measurements

2018-09-10
2018-01-1782
The heat transfer process in a reciprocating engine is dominated by forced convection, which is drastically affected by mean flow, turbulence, flame propagation and its impingement on the combustion chamber walls. All these effects contribute to a transient heat flux, resulting in a fast-changing temporal and spatial temperature distribution at the surface of the combustion chamber walls. To quantify these changes in combustion chamber surface temperature, surface temperature measurements on the piston of a single cylinder diesel engine were taken. Therefore, thirteen fast-response thermocouples were installed in the piston surface. A wireless microwave telemetry system was used for data transmission out of the moving piston. A wide range of parameter studies were performed to determine the varying influences on the surface temperature of the piston.
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