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Journal Article

Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnostics (OBD) of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)

The emissions legislation in the US and Europe introduces the need for the application of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in most diesel vehicles. In order to fulfill future OBD legislations, which include more stringent requirements on monitoring the functionality of those particulate filters, new sensors besides the differential pressure sensor are necessary. The new sensors need to directly detect the soot emission after DPF and withstand the harsh exhaust gas environment. Based on multi layer ceramic sensor technology, an exhaust gas sensor for particulate matter (EGS-PM) has been developed. The soot-particle-sensing element consists of two inter-digitated comb-like electrodes with an initially infinite electrical resistance. During the sensor operation, soot particles from the exhaust gas are collected onto the inter-digital electrodes and form conductive paths between the two electrode fingers leading to a drop of the electrical resistance.
Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Injection of Urea-Water-Solution for Automotive SCR DeNOx-Systems: Modeling of Two-Phase Flow and Spray/Wall-Interaction

The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) based on urea-water-solution is an effective technique to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from diesel engines. A 3D numerical computer model of the injection of urea-water-solution and their interaction with the exhaust gas flow and exhaust tubing is developed to evaluate different configurations during the development process of such a DeNOx-system. The model accounts for all relevant processes appearing from the injection point to the entrance of the SCR-catalyst: momentum interaction between gas phase and droplets evaporation and thermolysis of droplets hydrolysis of isocyanic acid in gas phase heat transfer between wall and droplets spray/wall-interaction two-component wall film including interaction with gas phase and exhaust tube The single modeling steps are verified with visualizations, patternator measurements, phase-doppler-anemometer results and temperature measurements.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Mass Transfer in Exhaust Gas Sensors

Within the scope of this work, the convective mass transfer to the zirconia sensor element of an exhaust oxygen sensor was analyzed experimentally and numerically. For the experimental setup, a heightened model of an oxygen sensor was built from Lucite® considering the similarity theory. Mass transfer is measured based on the absorption of ammonia and subsequent immediate color reaction. For the numerical investigation, a three-dimensional model of the test rig was built. To predict the flow pattern and the species transport inside the protection tubes, the commercial CFD-Code FLUENT® is used. The model for the mass transfer to the surface is implemented through user-defined functions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Dynamic Transport of Multi-Component Exhaust Gases in Oxygen Sensors

Today's wide range oxygen sensors are based on the limiting current principle, where an applied voltage induces electrochemical reactions in a ceramic cell. Since the diffusive transport of exhaust gas to the electrodes is limited by a transport barrier, the resulting electric current can be related to the exhaust gas composition. A model is presented which describes the transient transport of gas mixtures from the bulk exhaust gas to the electrodes of an oxygen sensor at variable pressure and composition. The internal structure of the transport barrier was accounted for by geometrical parameters. A variety of numerical results are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

The Role of Climatic Conditions on Disc Brake Noise

Since the brake colloquium in 2004 the role of climatic conditions and their relations to noise occurrence, sound pressure level and friction coefficient level is widely discussed in the US and European working groups on brake noise. A systematic study has been started to investigate the influence of relative humidity, absolute humidity and temperature on brake noise and the corresponding friction coefficient level. In this study an enormous effort was taken to keep the influences of the brake parameters, e.g. lining material, Eigenfrequencies and dimensions of the different components as small as possible to investigate the climatic influence only. Strategic humidity and temperature levels were tested according to the Mollier-Entropy-Enthalpy-Diagram which are corresponding to the seasons in the various international regions. A regression analysis evaluates the correlation and the influence of each parameter to noise and friction coefficient level.
Journal Article

Avoiding Electrical Overstress for Automotive Semiconductors by New Connecting Concepts

Bosch Automotive Semiconductor Unit investigated destroyed semiconductor devices (ASIC) from electronic control unit complaints, which failed due to electrical overstress. It turned out that failure fingerprints could only be reproduced by semiconductor operation far beyond spec limits. One main failure mechanism is caused by hot plugging and bad or late ground connection. In today’s cars some applications are still active for minutes after ignition switch off. So, currents of several amps are delivered and in a typical production or garage environment, hot plugging cannot be avoided completely. Bosch suggests introducing extended ground pins to get an enforced switch on/off sequence during plugging. This poka yoke protection principle is successfully used in other industries for a long time and should now come into cars.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Momentum and Heat Transfer in Exhaust Gas Sensors

Modern zirconia oxygen sensors are heated internally to achieve an optimal detection of the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas and fast light off time. The temperature of the gas in the exhaust pipe varies in a wide range. The zirconia sensor is cooled by radiation and forced convection caused by cold exhaust gas. If the zirconia temperature falls, the oxygen detection capability of the sensor decreases. To minimize the cooling effects, protection tubes cover the zirconia sensor. However, this is in conflict with the aim to accelerate the dynamics of the lambda sensor. In this paper, the heat transfer at the surface of a heated planar zirconia sensor with two different double protection tubes of a Bosch oxygen sensor is examined in detail. The geometric configuration of the tubes forces different flow patterns in the inner protection tube around the zirconia sensor. The zirconia sensor is internally electrically heated by a platinum heater layer.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Management Strategy and a Cost Effective Catalyst System to Meet SULEV Emission Requirements Demonstrated on a V-6 Engine

The study presented in this paper focuses on measures to minimize exhaust gas emissions to meet SULEV targets on a V6 engine by using a cost efficient system configuration. The study consists of three parts. A) In the first stage, the influence of engine management both on raw emissions and catalyst light off performance was optimized. B) Afterwards, the predefined high cell density catalyst system was tested on an engine test bench. In this stage, thermal data and engine out emissions were used for modeling and prediction of light-off performance for further optimized catalyst concepts. C) In the final stage of the program, the emission performance of the test matrix, including high cell density as well as multifunctional single substrate systems, are studied during the FTP cycle. The presented results show the approach to achieve SULEV emission compliance with innovative engine control strategies in combination with a cost effective metallic catalyst design.
Technical Paper

PVD-Wear Resistant Coatings of Homogeneous and Graded Ti(C,N): Residual Stresses and Mechanical Performance under Hertzian Load

Ceramic protective coatings on cutting tools for steel machining are state of the art in industrial applications. Several concepts to improve the efficiency of machining processes as for instance high-speed or dry cutting yield increasing demands regarding the wear and corrosion resistance of the protective tool coatings. The generic process characteristics of PVD-coating techniques offer opportunities to tailor the coatings in terms of microstructure and residual stress states by adjusting appropriate process parameters. Besides chemical composition and microstructure the residual stresses in the coatings strongly influence their in-service performance and, are therefore important to assess and to correlate with process parameters.
Technical Paper

Giant Magneto Resistors - Sensor Technology and Automotive Applications

The paper will give an introduction to the principle of the giant magneto resistive - GMR - effect and the silicon system integration of GMR sensors. The two main applications of a GMR as a magnetic field strength sensor and as an angular field direction sensor will be discussed under consideration of automotive requirements. The typical applications of a magnetic field strength GMR sensor in incremental position and speed sensing and those of GMR angular field sensors in position sensing will be summarized. Finally advantages of GMR in those applications will be discussed and conclusions on the use of GMR in automotive sensing will be drawn.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Spray Characterisation in a Common Rail Direct-Injection Production Type Diesel Engine Using Combined Mie/LIF Laser Diagnostics

This study reports on laser-based diagnostics to temporally track the evolution of liquid and gaseous fuel in the cylinder of a direct injection production type Diesel engine. A two-dimensional Mie scattering technique is used to record the liquid phase and planar laser-induced fluorescence of Diesel is used to track both liquid and vaporised fuel. LIF-Signal is visible in liquid and gas phase, Mie scattering occurs only in zones where fuel droplets are present. Distinction between liquid and gaseous phase becomes therefore possible by comparing LIF- and Mie-Signals. Although the information is qualitative in nature, trends of spray evolution are accessible. Within this study a parametric variation of injection pressure, in-cylinder conditions such as gas temperature and pressure as well as piston geometry are discussed. Observations are used to identify the most sensitive parameters and to qualitatively describe the temporal evolution of the spray for real engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Motor Vehicle Sensors Based on Film-Technology: An Interesting Alternative to Semiconductor Sensors

The manufacture of semiconductor sensors requires high investment and does not become economically viable until very high production numbers come into consideration. In the case of low production numbers, of the kind that come into consideration for production startups, and in the case of variations e.g. in the measuring range and similar, as may be the case due to the adaptation of models, it may be more viable to employ other techniques which likewise have a high rationalization potential which comes into effect already at low production numbers and which exhibits greater flexibility. The film techniques offer alternative sensor concepts for many measured quantities, whose production is reasonable in price even at smaller production numbers and possesses the necessary alteration flexibility. Besides these, are the advantages of the laser adjustment and the seamless connection of the evaluation electronics. Even possibilities laying within micro-machining technology can be used.
Technical Paper

Greater Safety Through Optimized Light Dispersion in Less Space - Obtained by the Consistent Use of Plastics in Producing Headlamps

Aerodynamic styling is playing an increasing role in the design of today's passenger cars. The profile sections of the frontends of cars imply that the available installation space for the headlamps - particularly its overall depth and height is decreased in size. New types of headlamps had to be developed. One result of extensive investigations are stepped reflectors with up to six paraboloids with different focal lengths arranged around the same focal point. This type of reflector (called homofocular reflector) cannot be formed from sheet steel but from plastic by injection molding. Depending on thermal, mechanical and geometric boundary conditions three different reflector materials can be used: lacquered thermosets, unlacquered thermoplastics by one or two material injection moldings. Similar to sheet steel the use of glass lenses reduces considerably the freedom of the designer. This disadvantage of offset by the use of plastic lenses.
Technical Paper

Methods of On-Board Misfire Detection

Misfiring of the engine can cause damage to the catalyst within short time and increase emissions. Under misfiring conditions, unburned fuel and oxygen are pumped into the catalyst, where its combustion heavily increases the temperature. For this reason there is a demand for fast detection of misfiring. Once judged, one can take countermeasures to avoid further temperature rise. Two methods of misfire detection with the prospect of future use in series production are discussed. A first approach uses the trace shape of the λ-sensor signal for evaluation. The second approach uses the speed fluctuations of the engine for detection. Efficient algorithms give the possibility of misfire detection in the full load-speed range with reasonable effort to protect the catalyst. However there will remain some misfire conditions, increasing the emissions above regulation limits, that cannot be detected by those methods.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Flow Patterns inside an Autothermal Gasoline Reformer

The present paper concentrates on the option of catalytic autothermal reforming of gasoline for fuel cell applications. Major parameters of this process are the “Steam to Carbon Ratio” S/C and the air to fuel ratio λ. Computations assuming thermodynamic equilibrium in the autothermal reactor outlet (ATR) were carried out to attain information about their proper choice, as failure in adjusting the parameters within narrow limits has severe consequences on the reforming process. In order to quantify velocity distribution just ahead the catalyst and to evaluate mixing uniformity we designed an ATR featuring an optical access: Thus flow visualization using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) technique is possible. Preliminary PIV-results are presented and compared with CFD computations (Computational Fluid D ynamics).
Technical Paper

Common Rail - An Attractive Fuel Injection System for Passenger Car DI Diesel Engines

Passenger car DI Diesel engines need a flexible fuel injection system. Bosch develops a common rail system for this purpose. Besides variation of fuel quantity and start of injection, it permits to choosing freely injection pressure inthe rangeof 150 to 1400 barand injecting fuel in several portions. These new means will contribute to further improvements of DI engines concerning noise, exhaust emissions and engine torque.
Technical Paper

Advanced Planar Oxygen Sensors for Future Emission Control Strategies

This paper presents advanced planar ZrO2 oxygen sensors being developed at Robert Bosch using a modified tetragonal partially stabilized zirconia (TZP) with high ionic conductivity, high phase stability and high thermo-mechanical strength. Green tape technology combined with highly automated thickfilm techniques allows robust and cost effective manufacturing of those novel sensing elements. Standardization of assembling parts reduces the complexity of the assembly line even in the case of different sensing principles. The sensor family meets the new requirements of modern ULEV strategies like fast light off below 10 s and linear control capability as well as high quality assurance standards. High volume production will start in 1997 for European customers.
Technical Paper

A Non Contact Strain Gage Torque Sensor for Automotive Servo Driven Steering Systems

Tapping of one or more torques (ranges 10 Nm and 60 Nm) on the steering column for the purpose of servo control must satisfy high accuracy requirements on the one hand and high safety requirements on the other hand. A suggestion for developing a low-cost solution to this problem is described below: Strain gages optimally satisfy both these requirements: However, for cost reasons, these are not applied directly to the steering column but to a prefabricated, flat steel rod which is laser welded to the torque rod of the steering column. The measuring direction of the strain gages is under 45° to the steering column axis. The strain gages are either vacuum metallized onto the support rod as a thin film or laminated in a particularly low-cost way by means of a foil-type intermediate carrier.
Technical Paper

A Universal and Cost-Effective Fuel Gauge Sensor Based on Wave Propagation Effects in Solid Metal Rods

In recognition of safety considerations, modern fuel tanks are frequently extremely irregular in shape. This places limits on the application of conventional potentiometric sensors. Required are more universal sensors without mechanically-moving parts. These sensors should also be characterized by especially good resolution and precision in the residual-quantity range, that is, the zero point precision should be of a high order. One type of metal rod can be bent into any of a variety of shapes to provide an effective means of monitoring the fuel level. In this metal rod, the propagation characteristics of a certain type of sound wave, known as bending waves, display major variations according to the level of the surrounding medium: The waves spread more rapidly through the exposed section of the rod than through the area which remains submerged. Thus the rod's characteristic oscillation frequency varies as a function of immersion depth.