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Technical Paper

Electronic Data Processing Center for Engine Dynamometers

The dynamometer evaluation of internal combustion engines has involved a great deal of tedious interpretation and presentation of results. In the past, engine test cells have not been fully utilized, and skilled test engineers have been occupied with routine work, time which could better be spent in actual development work. This paper describes steps taken by Robert Bosch GmbH in its new engine test laboratory, to streamline procedures for observation, computation, plotting, and presentation of results. Measurements from the engine test cell are delivered electrically to a central data processing center. These data are recorded, computed electronically, and plotted on an electric plotting machine functioning from punched paper tape.
Technical Paper

Axial Fan Performance Predictions in CFD, Comparison of MRF and Sliding Mesh with Experiments

Underhood Thermal Management has become an important topic for the majority of automotive OEM's. To keep combustion engines cool and manage waste heat efficiently is an important part in the design of vehicles with low fuel consumption. To be able to predict cooling performance and underhood airflow with good precision within a virtual design process, it is of utmost importance to model and simulate the cooling fan efficiently and accurately, and this has turned out to be challenging. Simulating the cooling fan in a vehicle installation involves capturing complex fluid dynamic interaction between rotating blades and stationary objects in the vicinity of the fan. This interaction is a function of fan rotation rate, fan blade profile, upstream and downstream installation components. The flow is usually highly turbulent and small geometry details, like the distance between the blade tip and the fan shroud, have strong impact on the fan performance characteristics.
Journal Article

Next Generation Engine Start/Stop Systems: “Free-Wheeling”

Engine Start/Stop systems reduce CO₂ emissions by turning off the combustion engine at vehicle standstill. This avoids the injection of fuel that would otherwise be needed simply to overcome internal combustion engine losses. As a next development step, engine losses at higher vehicle speeds are to be addressed. During deceleration, state-of-the-art engine technology turns off fuel injection as soon as the driver releases the gas pedal, thus the combustion engine is motored by the vehicle. The engine's drag torque could be desired by the driver, e.g., as a brake assist during downhill driving. However, quite frequently the driver wishes to coast at almost constant speed. Similar to Start/Stop operation, in such situations fuel is injected to simply overcome the combustion engine's drag torque. An operation mode referred to as "Free-Wheeling" reduces CO₂ emissions under such coasting conditions by disconnecting the combustion engine from the powertrain and by turning it off.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Base Wake on an SUV

With the increase in fuel prices and the increasingly strict environmental legislations regarding CO₂ emissions, reduction of the total energy consumption of our society becomes more important. Passenger vehicles are partly responsible for this consumption due to their strong presence in the daily life of most people. Therefore reducing the impact of cars on the environment can assist in decreasing the overall energy consumption. Even though several fields have an impact on a passenger car's performance, this paper will focus on the aerodynamic part and more specifically, the wake behind a vehicle. By definition a car is a bluff body on which the air resistance is for the most part driven by pressure drag. This is caused by the wake these bodies create. Therefore analyzing the wake characteristics behind a vehicle is crucial if one would like to reduce drag.
Journal Article

A Representative Testing Methodology for System Influence on Automotive Fuel Filtration

Filtration of diesel and gasoline fuel in automotive applications is affected by many external and internal parameters, e.g. vibration, temperature, pressure, flow pulsation, and engine start-stop. Current test procedures for automotive fuel filters, proposed by most of the researchers and organizations including Society for Automotive Engineers (SAE) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), do not apply the previously mentioned real-world-conditions. These operating conditions, which are typical for an automotive fueling system, have a significant effect on fuel filtration and need to be considered for the accurate assessment of the filter. This requires the development of improved testing procedures that will simulate the operating conditions in a fuel system as encountered in the real world.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Influence of Tyre Geometry on the Aerodynamics of Passenger Cars

It is well known that wheels are responsible for a significant amount of the total aerodynamic drag of passenger vehicles. Tyres, and mostly rims, have been the subject of research in the automotive industry for the past years, but their effect and interaction with each other and with the car exterior is still not completely understood. This paper focuses on the use of CFD to study the effects of tyre geometry (tyre profile and tyre tread) on road vehicle aerodynamics. Whenever possible, results of the numerical computations are compared with experiments. More than sixty configurations were simulated. These simulations combined different tyre profiles, treads, rim designs and spoke orientation on two car types: a sedan and a sports wagon. Two tyre geometries were obtained directly from the tyre manufacturer, while a third geometry was obtained from our database and represents a generic tyre which covers different profiles of a given tyre size.
Technical Paper

Effect of Rear-End Extensions on the Aerodynamic Forces of an SUV

Under a global impulse for less man-made emissions, the automotive manufacturers search for innovative methods to reduce the fuel consumption and hence the CO2-emissions. Aerodynamics has great potential to aid the emission reduction since aerodynamic drag is an important parameter in the overall driving resistance force. As vehicles are considered bluff bodies, the main drag source is pressure drag, caused by the difference between front and rear pressure. Therefore increasing the base pressure is a key parameter to reduce the aerodynamic drag. From previous research on small-scale and full-scale vehicles, rear-end extensions are known to have a positive effect on the base pressure, enhancing pressure recovery and reducing the wake area. This paper investigates the effect of several parameters of these extensions on the forces, on the surface pressures of an SUV in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel and compares them with numerical results.
Technical Paper

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. To model the cooling airflow process accurately in CFD, it is of utmost importance to model all components in the cooling airflow path accurately. These components are the heat exchangers, fan and engine bay blockage effect. This paper presents CFD simulations together with correlating measurements of a cooling airflow system placed in a test rig. The system contains a heavy duty truck louvered fin radiator core, fan shroud, fan ring and fan. Behind the cooling module and fan, a 1D engine silhouette is placed to mimic the blockage done by a truck engine. Furthermore, a simple hood is mounted over the module to mimic the guiding of air done by the hood shape in an engine bay.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Downforce Generating Devices and Cooling Air Flow - A Numerical and Experimental Study on Open Wheeled Race Cars

This study reflects on two areas of vehicle aerodynamics, optimising cooling performance and features that will improve the handling of the car. Both areas will have a significant impact on the overall performance of the car and at the same time these areas are linked to each other. The considered vehicle in this study was the Chalmers Formula Student 2011 Formula SAE car and the flow field was analysed using both numerical simulations as well as performing wind tunnel experiments on a 1:3-scale model of the car. The focus on increasing downforce without increasing the aerodynamic drag is particularly good in Formula SAE since fuel economy is an event at the competition. Therefore, the intention of this work is to present a study on how undertrays with different design such as added foot plates, diffuser and strakes can improve the downforce and reduce the drag.
Journal Article

Measurements of Energy Used for Vehicle Interior Climate

Fuel consumption of vehicles has received increased attention in recent years; however one neglected area that can have a large effect on this is the energy usage for the interior climate. This study aims to investigate the energy usage for the interior climate for different conditions by measurements on a complete vehicle. Twelve different NEDC tests in different temperatures and thermal states of the vehicle were completed in a climatic wind tunnel. Furthermore one temperature sweep from 43° to −18°C was also performed. The measurements focused on the heat flow of the air, from its sources, to its sink, i.e. compartment. In addition the electrical and mechanical loads of the climate system were included. The different sources of heating and cooling were, for the tested powertrain, waste heat from the engine, a fuel operated heater, heat pickup of the air, evaporator cooling and cooling from recirculation.
Journal Article

Optical Investigations of the Ignition-Relevant Spray Characteristics from a Piezo-Injector for Spray-Guided Spark-Ignited Engines

The spray-guided combustion process offers a high potential for fuel savings in gasoline engines in the part load range. In this connection, the injector and spark plug are arranged in close proximity to one another, as a result of which mixture formation is primarily shaped by the dynamics of the fuel spray. The mixture formation time is very short, so that at the time of ignition the velocity of flow is high and the fuel is still largely present in liquid form. The quality of mixture formation thus constitutes a key aspect of reliable ignition. In this article, the spray characteristics of an outward-opening piezo injector are examined using optical testing methods under pressure chamber conditions and the results obtained are correlated with ignition behaviour in-engine. The global spray formation is examined using high-speed visualisation methods, particularly with regard to cyclical fluctuations.
Technical Paper

Holistic Approach for Improved Safety Including a Proposal of New Virtual Test Conditions of Small Electric Vehicles

In the next 20 years the share of small electric vehicles (SEVs) will increase especially in urban areas. SEVs show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles. Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. No assessment concerning vehicle safety is defined for vehicles within European L7e category currently. Focus of the elaborated methodology is to define appropriate test scenarios for this vehicle category to be used within a virtual tool chain. A virtual tool chain has to be defined for the realization of a guideline of virtual certification. The derivation and development of new test conditions for SEVs are described and are the main focus of this work. As key methodology a prospective methodical analysis under consideration of future aspects like pre-crash safety systems is applied.
Technical Paper

Development of a Model Scale Heat Exchanger for Wind Tunnel Models of Road Vehicles

During the development of the aerodynamic properties of fore coming road vehicles down scaled models are often used in the initial phase. However, if scale models are to be utilised even further in the aerodynamic development they have to include geometrical representatives of most of the components found in the real vehicle. As the cooling package is one of the biggest single generators of aerodynamic drag the heat exchangers are essential to include in a wind tunnel model. However, due mainly to limitations in manufacturing techniques it is complicated to make a down scaled heat exchanger and instead functional dummy heat exchangers have to be developed for scaled wind tunnel models. In this work a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code has been used to show that it is important that the simplified heat exchanger model has to be of comparable size to that of the full scale unit.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Mass Transfer in Exhaust Gas Sensors

Within the scope of this work, the convective mass transfer to the zirconia sensor element of an exhaust oxygen sensor was analyzed experimentally and numerically. For the experimental setup, a heightened model of an oxygen sensor was built from Lucite® considering the similarity theory. Mass transfer is measured based on the absorption of ammonia and subsequent immediate color reaction. For the numerical investigation, a three-dimensional model of the test rig was built. To predict the flow pattern and the species transport inside the protection tubes, the commercial CFD-Code FLUENT® is used. The model for the mass transfer to the surface is implemented through user-defined functions.
Journal Article

Detailed Flow Studies in Close Proximity of Rotating Wheels on a Passenger Car

Moving ground systems with rotating wheels have been used in wind tunnel tests during the last decades. Several studies on the effects of rotating wheels and the importance of wheel aerodynamics have been published. It is well known that both the local flow field and the global aerodynamic forces are affected by rotation of the wheels. Different studies indicate that the most significant effect from rotating the wheels is interference effects between the rear wheels and the underbody and vehicle base [1], [2]. A detailed flow field investigation around the wheels in close proximity to the vehicle has been performed on a passenger car in the Volvo Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel. Two omnidirectional 12-hole pressure probes were traversed in a number of planes close to the wheels. Effects of changing different parameters such as ground simulation and rim geometry were investigated. The local flow field has been scrutinised and related to the global aerodynamic properties of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Correction Method for Stationary Fan CFD MRF Models

A common fan model to use in automotive under hood simulations is the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model and within the industry, for this specific application, this model is well known to under predict performance. In this paper we have examined the possibilities of correcting this deficiency with a simple “speed correction”. This is done by testing and simulating a production fan in the Volvo Fan Test Rig for two operating speeds, 1200 rpm and 2400 rpm. Pressure rise, fan power and static efficiency are presented as functions of volumetric flow rate. The simulations verify that using the MRF model the common behavior of under predicting pressure rise and performance of the fan occur. In addition, this work shows that; although the MRF is not predicting fan performance correctly it constitutes a reliable fan modeling strategy.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Head Rotational Motions in Side Impacts Due to the Inflatable Curtain-A Way to Bring Down the Risk of Diffuse Brain Injury

Diffuse brain injuries are very common in side impacts, accounting for more than half of the injuries to the head. These injuries are often sustained in less severe side impacts. An English investigation has shown that diffuse brain injuries often originate from interior contacts, most frequently with the side window. They are believed to be mainly caused by quick head rotational motions. This paper describes a test method using a Hybrid III dummy head in a wire pendulum. The head impacts a simulated side window or an inflatable device, called the Inflatable Curtain (IC), in front of the window, at different speeds, and at different impact angles. The inflated IC has a thickness of around 70 mm and an internal (over) pressure of 1.5 bar. The head was instrumented with a three axis accelerometer as well as an angular velocity sensor measuring about the vertical (z) axis. The angular acceleration was calculated.
Technical Paper

BioRID P3-Design and Performance Compared to Hybrid III and Volunteers in Rear Impacts of ΔV=7 km/h

Several investigators have noted limitations of the most commonly used dummy in rear impact testing, the Hybrid III. A dummy for rear impact testing, the BioRID I, has previously been presented. It was a step towards an effective tool for seat performance testing, but it was concluded that its neck extension and T1 upward motion were too small and that its user- friendliness could be improved. A new BioRID prototype has been developed. It has new neck muscle substitutes with damping and elastic elements that are independent of each other and fitted inside the torso. The new neck muscle substitutes extend to T3 and thus also load the upper thoracic spine. The new dummy has a softer thoracic spine and a torso made of softer rubber than was used for the original dummy. The BioRID prototype''s performance was compared to that of volunteers, the BioRID I and Hybrid III in rear impacts at ΔV=7 km/h.
Technical Paper

Active Pedestrian Protection - System Development

Pedestrian protection is an upcoming field for research and development. Active pedestrian protection is described from a system perspective. In this view, the development of an active pedestrian protection system is shown. First an overview on statistics and legal requirements is given and the system requirements are discussed. Sensor concepts and realizations are shown, also different test methods and results are explained. FE-simulations to complete and later replace additional tests are developed, after cross check with the experimental results. In combination with the shown actuator concept this leads to a full functioning active pedestrian protection system.
Technical Paper

Luminance Measurement, Contrast Sensitivity, Homogeneity: New Approaches of Defining the Quality of Headlamps

The conventional measurements to describe the photometric quality of headlamps usually only comprise the luminous flux and the illuminance (resp. the luminous intensity) in several measuring points given by Type Approval Legislation. Practically, these photometric measurements do not describe the visual impression of a headlamp light distribution sufficiently, neither in lab nor in real street geometry. With the clear outer lens headlamps introduced recently, filament images are projected directly onto the screens or streets, thus giving new impulses to research. Starting from the established photometric practice, other types of measurements and physiological fundamentals will be discussed. The basic tools to make physical measurement and physiological impression comparable, e.g. in terms of homogeneity, are shown.