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Technical Paper

Energy Management - A Key Approach to Design The System Structure of Powertrain Control: Technology Leadership Brief

The electrification of the powertrain, the diversity and the complexity of the more or less individual technical solutions which are preferred by different car manufacturers, create a steadily increasing challenge for the whole automotive industry. Missing standards and sales volumes still below the market expectations on the one hand, and the increasing interaction of the main powertrain domains (engine, transmission, e-drive) caused by upcoming cross domain functions on the other hand, lead to increasing development costs and non-optimal solutions concerning fuel economy improvement. Within the domain of engine management systems Bosch established in the mid-nineties the so called torque structure as the solution to a similar situation addressing the coordination of air management, fuel injection and ignition.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

Bosch Motronic MED9.6.1 EMS Applied on a 3.6L DOHC 4V V6 Direct Injection Engine

Robert Bosch LLC North America has developed and calibrated an engine management system for gasoline direct injection engines. This system controls the General Motors 3.6L DOHC 4 valve V6 engine which features direct injection, variable valve timing and electronic throttle control. This engine powers the 2008 model year Cadillac CTS and STS. It is the first GM production direct injection V6 engine in North America. It produces 304 HP at 6500 rpm and 370 Nm torque at 5200 rpm. Emissions meet LEV2 Bin5 standards. Interesting features include wall guided direct fuel injection, homogeneous split injection for fast catalyst light off and one of the industry's first isolated injection systems for noise reduction. This paper provides an overview of the features of this system and focuses on the calibration development.
Journal Article

SI Engine Hardware and Software Design for High Power, Low Emission Applications

High technology, spark ignition direct injection (SIDI), engines are currently capable of achieving optimum horsepower and ULEV emissions levels. However, to meet the requirements of modern automotive powertrains, the task of increasing power density, improving fuel economy and reaching SULEV2 emissions is much more challenging. To achieve this, direct injection (DI) fuel systems offer the greatest precision and flexibility for engine fuel control. Features like high pressure start and improved catalyst heating, through multiple injections per combustion cycle, produce low engine-out emissions without the need for a secondary air injection system. This paper describes the analytical and experimental work done to achieve SULEV emissions levels for a twin-turbocharged derivative of General Motors (GM) high feature V6 engine.
Technical Paper

A Model Based Approach for Generating Pre-Calibration Data for Two-Wheelers

Today, 99% of the two wheelers in India operate with carburetor based fuel delivery system. But with implementation of Bharath Stage VI emission norms, compliance to emission limits along with monitoring of components in the system that contributes towards tail pipe emissions would be challenging. With the introduction of the OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics) and emission durability, mass migration to electronically controlled fuel delivery system is very much expected. The new emission norms also call for precise metering of the injected fuel and therefore demands extended calibration effort. The calibration of engine management system starts with the generation of pre-calibration dataset capable of operating the engine at all operating points followed by base calibration of the main parameters such as air charge estimation, fuel injection quantity, injection timing and ignition angles relative to the piston position.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Imaging Studies of Gasoline Fuel Sprays at Fuel Injection Pressures from 300 to 1500 bar

High-pressure gasoline fuel injection is a means to improve combustion efficiency and lower engine-out emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of fuel injection pressure on transient gasoline fuel spray development for a wide range of injection pressures, including over 1000 bar, using a constant volume chamber and high-speed imaging. Reference grade gasoline was injected at fuel pressures of 300, 600, 900, 1200, and 1500 bar into the chamber, which was pressurized with nitrogen at 1, 5, 10, and 20 bar at room temperature (298 K). Bulk spray imaging data were used to quantify spray tip penetration distance, rate of spray tip penetration and spray cone angle. Near-nozzle data were used to evaluate the early spray development.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Speed on Spray Behaviors of the Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” Gasoline Injector

Non-reacting spray behaviors of the Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” gasoline fuel injector were investigated at flash and non-flash boiling conditions in an optically accessible single cylinder engine and a constant volume spray chamber. High-speed Mie-scattering imaging was used to determine transient liquid-phase spray penetration distances and observe general spray behaviors. The standardized “G2” and “G3” test conditions recommended by the Engine Combustion Network were matched in this work and the fuel was pure iso-octane. Results from the constant volume chamber represented the zero (stationary piston) engine speed condition and single cylinder engine speeds ranged from 300 to 2,000 RPM. As expected, the present results indicated the general spray behaviors differed significantly between the spray chamber and engine. The differences must be thoughtfully considered when applying spray chamber results to guide spray model development for engine applications.