Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Extinction Measurements of In-Cylinder Soot Deposition in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1296
The combustion process in diesel engines deposits soot on the in-cylinder surfaces. Previous works have suggested that these soot deposits eventually break off during cylinder blow-down and the exhaust stroke and contribute significantly to exhaust soot emissions. In order to better understand this potential pathway to soot emissions, the authors recently investigated combusting fuel-jet/wall interactions in a diesel engine. This work, published as a companion paper, showed how soot escaped from the combusting fuel jet and was brought in close proximity to the wall so that it could become a deposit. The current study extends this earlier work with laser-extinction measurements of the soot-deposition rate in the same single-cylinder, heavy-duty DI diesel engine. Measurements were made by passing the beam of a CW-diode laser through a window in the piston bowl rim that was in-line with one of the fuel jets.
Technical Paper

Glow Plug Assisted Ignition and Combustion of Methanol in an Optical DI Diesel Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2004
An experimental study of the glow-plug-assisted ignition and combustion of pure methanol (M100) was conducted using a modern-technology, 4-stroke, heavy-duty DI diesel engine that has been modified to provide extensive optical access into the combustion chamber. For comparison purposes, results also are presented for a two-component paraffinic diesel reference fuel with a cetane number of 45 (CN45). A 1200-rpm, moderate-load operating condition was studied. Images of direct luminosity from the combustion chamber are used along with thermodynamic analyses of cylinder pressure data to identify differences between the ignition and combustion characteristics of the two fuels. The M100 data show significant departures from the traditional diesel combustion features exhibited by CN45. Whereas CN45 readily autoignites at the conditions studied, M100 does not. The glow-plug-assisted ignition of M100 was found to be strongly dependent on glow plug (GP) temperature and proximity to a fuel jet.
Technical Paper

LIF and Flame-Emission Imaging of Liquid Fuel Films and Pool Fires in an SI Engine During a Simulated Cold Start

1997-02-24
970866
Video imaging has been used to investigate the evolution of liquid fuel films on combustion chamber walls during a simulated cold start of a port fuel-injected engine. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder research engine with a production, four-valve head and a window in the piston crown. Flood-illuminated laser-induced fluorescence was used to observe the fuel films directly, and color video recording of visible emission from pool fires due to burning fuel films was used as an indirect measure of film location. The imaging techniques were applied to a comparative study of open and closed valve injection, for coolant temperatures of 20, 40 and 60 °C. In general, for all cases it is shown that fuel films form in the vicinity of the intake valve seats.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition with a Free Piston: A New Approach to Ideal Otto Cycle Performance

1998-10-19
982484
Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating a new, integrated approach to generating electricity with ultra low emissions and very high efficiency for low power (30 kW) applications such as hybrid vehicles and portable generators. Our approach utilizes a free piston in a double-ended cylinder. Combustion occurs alternately at each cylinder end, with intake/exhaust processes accomplished through a two stroke cycle. A linear alternator is mounted in the center section of the cylinder, serving to both generate useful electrical power and to control the compression ratio by varying the rate of electrical generation. Thus, a mechanically simple geometry results in an electronically controlled variable compression ratio configuration. The capability of the homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion process employed in this engine with regards to reduced emissions and improved thermal efficiency has been investigated using a rapid compression expansion machine.
Technical Paper

Determining the Location of End-Gas Autoignition Using Ionization Probes Installed in the Head Gasket

1993-10-01
932645
Ionization probes built into the head gasket and uniformly distributed around the cylinder bore of a knocking, spark-ignition engine have been used to locate the autoigniting end-gas region. As normal combustion evolves after spark ignition, the ionization probes individually respond to the arrival of the propagating flame. Then, when autoignition occurs, the probes located in the end-gas region respond in rapid succession. By utilizing pressure transducer measurements to determine when autoignition occurs, the ionization probe response becomes a means to locate the end-gas region. Knowledge of the location of the last ionization probe to detect the normal flame can then be used to infer where, within the end-gas region, autoignition first occurred.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Resolved Measurements of Flame Kernel Growth and Motion Correlated with Combustion Duration

1990-02-01
900023
A recently developed spark plug equipped with fiber-optic flame-arrival detectors has been used to measure the motion and rate of growth of the early flame kernel. The cylinder pressure and gas velocity in the spark gap were measured simultaneously with the flame kernel measurements, permitting the data to be analyzed on a cycle-by-cycle basis to identify cause-and-effect correlations between the measured parameters. The data were obtained in a homogeneous-charge research engine that could be modified to produce three very different flow fields: (1) high swirl with high turbulence intensity, (2) tumble vortex with moderate turbulence intensity, and (3) negligible bulk motion with low turbulence intensity. The results presented show a moderate correlation between the combustion duration and the rate of growth of the flame kernel, but virtually no correlation with either the magnitude or direction of movement of the flame kernel away from the spark gap.
Technical Paper

Impulsive Loadings of Composite Shells

1989-09-01
892369
Two tests of composite shells loaded under half-cosine impulsive loadings are discussed. One cylinder which included no other materials was modeled successfully such that calculated results matched test results out to late times. The other cylinder, which included an inner annulus of an elastomeric material, was less successfully modeled, even though the composite material was modeled similarly in both instances. A viscoelastic model and an elastic model were both used to model the elastomeric material, and the viscoelastic model produced significantly better results.
Technical Paper

Influence of Spray-Target and Squish Height on Sources of CO and UHC in a HSDI Diesel Engine During PPCI Low-Temperature Combustion

2009-11-02
2009-01-2810
Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging during the expansion stroke, exhaust gas emissions, and cylinder pressure measurements were used to investigate the influence on combustion and CO/UHC emissions of variations in squish height and fuel spray targeting on the piston. The engine was operated in a highly dilute, partially premixed, low-temperature combustion mode. A small squish height and spray targeting low on the piston gave the lowest exhaust emissions and most rapid heat release. The LIF data show that both the near-nozzle region and the squish volume are important sources of UHC emissions, while CO is dominated by the squish region and is more abundant near the piston top. Emissions from the squish volume originate primarily from overly lean mixture. At the 3 bar load investigated, CO and UHC levels in mixture leaving the bowl and ring-land crevice are low.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Optical Evolution of Gaseous Jets in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0675
This paper performs a parametric analysis of the influence of numerical grid resolution and turbulence model on jet penetration and mixture formation in a DI-H2 ICE. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located single-hole injector nozzle. The simulation includes the intake and exhaust port geometry, in order to account for the actual flow field within the cylinder when injection of hydrogen starts. A reduced geometry is then used to focus on the mixture formation process. The numerically predicted hydrogen mole-fraction fields are compared to experimental data from quantitative laser-based imaging in a corresponding optically accessible engine. In general, the results show that with proper mesh and turbulence settings, remarkable agreement between numerical and experimental data in terms of fuel jet evolution and mixture formation can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Intake-Induced Flow and Injection Jet in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen-Fueled Engine Measured by PIV

2011-04-12
2011-01-0673
The in-cylinder charge motion during the compression stroke of an optically accessible engine equipped with direct injection of hydrogen fuel is measured via particle image velocimetry (PIV). The evolution of the mean flow field and the tumble ratio are examined with and without injection, each with the unmodified 4-valve pent-roof engine head and with the intake ports modified to yield higher tumble. The measurements in the vertical symmetry plane of the cylinder show that intake modification produces the desired drastic increase in tumble flow, changing the tumble ratio at BDC from 0.22 to 0.70. Either intake-induced flow is completely disrupted by the high-pressure hydrogen injection from an angled, centrally located single-hole nozzle. The injection event leads to sudden reversal of the tumble. Hence the tumble ratio is negative after injection. However, the two intake configurations still differ in tumble ratio by about the same magnitude as before injection.
Technical Paper

Parametric Comparison of Well-Mixed and Flamelet n-dodecane Spray Combustion with Engine Experiments at Well Controlled Boundary Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0577
Extensive prior art within the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) using a Bosch single axial-hole injector called ‘Spray A’ in constant-volume vessels has provided a solid foundation from which to evaluate modeling tools relevant to spray combustion. In this paper, a new experiment using a Bosch three-hole nozzle called ‘Spray B’ mounted in a 2.34 L heavy-duty optical engine is compared to sector-mesh engine simulations. Two different approaches are employed to model combustion: the ‘well-mixed model’ considers every cell as a homogeneous reactor and employs multi-zone chemistry to reduce the computational time. The ‘flamelet’ approach represents combustion by an ensemble of laminar diffusion flames evolving in the mixture fraction space and can resolve the influence of mixing, or ‘turbulence-chemistry interactions,’ through the influence of the scalar dissipation rate on combustion.
Technical Paper

The Use of Transient Operation to Evaluate Fuel Effects on Knock Limits Well beyond RON Conditions in Spark-Ignition Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2234
Fundamental engine research is primarily conducted under steady-state conditions, in order to better describe boundary conditions which influence the studied phenomena. However, light-duty automobiles are operated, and tested, under heavily transient conditions. This mismatch between studied conditions and in-use conditions is deemed acceptable due to the fundamental knowledge gained from steady-state experiments. Nonetheless, it is useful to characterize the conditions encountered during transient operation and determine if the governing phenomena are unduly influenced by the differences between steady-state and transient operation, and further, whether transient behavior can be reasonably extrapolated from steady-state behavior. The transient operation mode used in this study consists of 20 fired cycles followed by 80 motored cycles, operating on a continuous basis.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Characteristic Time (CTC), Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF), and Direct Integration with Detailed Chemistry Combustion Models against Optical Diagnostic Data for Multi-Mode Combustion in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0055
Three different approaches for modeling diesel engine combustion are compared against cylinder pressure, NOx emissions, high-speed soot luminosity imaging, and 2-color thermometry data from a heavy-duty DI diesel engine. A characteristic time combustion (KIVA-CTC) model, a representative interactive flamelet (KIVA-RIF) model, and direct integration using detailed chemistry (KIVA-CHEMKIN) were integrated into the same version of the KIVA-3v computer code. In this way, the computer code provides a common platform for comparing various combustion models. Five different engine operating strategies that are representative of several different combustion regimes were explored in the experiments and model simulations. Two of the strategies produce high-temperature combustion with different ignition delays, while the other three use dilution to achieve low-temperature combustion (LTC), with early, late, or multiple injections.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Instantaneous Flamelet Surface Normals and the Burning Rate in a SI Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3543
A recently developed technique, crossed-plane imaging, is extended to measure instantaneous flamelet surface normals in a single-cylinder, optical SI engine. Two simultaneous, orthogonal acetone PLIF images are used to measure the instantaneous flamelet orientation in three dimensions. The images are also used to measure contours of constant mean reaction progress variable < c> and the mean flamelet crossing density. Statistics of the flamelet surface normal are presented in spherical coordinates in terms of a polar angle, f, and an azimuthal angle,q; the pole is aligned with the normal to a constant surface. The data are used to estimate marginal probability density functions (PDF's) in f and q. The estimated marginal PDF's are found to be well represented by the same functional forms applied previously to turbulent V-flames. The flamelet surface density and the mean fractional increase in flamelet surface area due to turbulence are also estimated.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics for the Study of Cold Start Mixture Preparation in a Port Fuel-Injected Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-1108
A variety of diagnostic techniques useful for the study of cold start phenomena are presented. Although the tools are demonstrated in a port fuel-injected engine, they are also suitable for direct-injection gasoline engines. A very useful technique, seemingly forgotten in the literature (and applicable to diesel engines as well), is the use of a short focal-length lens inside a Bowditch piston to expand the field-of-view. Rather than being limited by the clear aperture of the window in the piston, this technique permits the entire combustion chamber and the top section of the cylinder liner to be seen. Results using this technique are presented for the imaging of pool fires and laser-induced fluorescence of fuel films.
Technical Paper

A Qualitative Evaluation of Mixture Formation in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen-Fuelled Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1467
In an optically-accessible single-cylinder engine fuelled with hydrogen, OH* chemiluminescence imaging and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) are used to qualitatively evaluate in-cylinder mixture formation. The experiments include measurements for engine operation with hydrogen injection in-cylinder either prior to or after intake valve closure (IVC). Pre-IVC injection is used to produce a near homogeneous mixture in-cylinder to establish a baseline comparison for post-IVC injection. To assess the effects of injection pressure on mixture formation, two injection pressures are used for post-IVC injection. For post-IVC injection with start of injection (SOI) coincident with IVC, mixture distribution is similar to pre-IVC injection and there are little differences between the two injection pressures. With retard of SOI from IVC, mixture inhomogeneities increase monotonically for both injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Overview of Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

1999-04-27
1999-01-2246
The objectives of this paper are to describe the ongoing projects in diesel engine combustion research at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to detail recent experimental results. The approach we are employing is to assemble experimental hardware that mimic realistic engine geometries while enabling optical access. For example, we are using multi-cylinder engine heads or one-cylinder versions of production heads mated to one-cylinder engine blocks. Optical access is then obtained through a periscope in an exhaust valve, quartz windows in the piston crown, windows in spacer plates just below the head, or quartz cylinder liners. We have three diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, and a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Thermal Stratification in HCCI Engines Using Chemiluminescence Imaging

2006-04-03
2006-01-1518
Chemiluminescence imaging has been applied to investigate the naturally occurring charge stratification in an HCCI engine. This stratification slows the pressure-rise rate (PRR) during combustion, making it critical to the high-load operating limit of these engines. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI engine modified with windows in the combustion chamber for optical access. Using this engine, chemiluminescence images were obtained from three different view angles. These included both single-shot images with intensified CCD cameras and high-speed (20kHz) sequences with an intensified CMOS video camera. The engine was fueled with iso-octane, which has been shown to be a reasonable surrogate for gasoline and exhibits only single-stage ignition at these naturally aspirated conditions. The chemiluminescence images show that the HCCI combustion is not homogeneous but has a strong turbulent structure even when the fuel and air are fully premixed prior to intake.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Flows in a Diesel Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3436
This paper presents a study of the turbulence field in an optical diesel engine operated under motored conditions using both large eddy simulation (LES) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The study was performed in a laboratory optical diesel engine based on a recent production engine from VOLVO Car. PIV is used to study the flow field in the cylinder, particularly inside the piston bowl that is also optical accessible. LES is used to investigate in detail the structure of the turbulence, the vortex cores, and the temperature field in the entire engine, all within a single engine cycle. The LES results are compared with the PIV measurements in a 40 × 28 mm domain ranging from the nozzle tip to the cylinder wall. The LES grid consists of 1283 cells. The grid dynamically adjusts itself as the piston moves in the cylinder so that the engine cylinder, including the piston bowl, is described by the grid.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Combustion, Piston Temperatures, Fuel Sprays, and Fuel-Air Mixing in a DISI Optical Engine

2000-10-16
2000-01-2900
A transparent direct-injection spark-ignition engine incorporating a rapid-acting, drop-down cylinder has been built. The design enables access in less than a minute for cleaning windows. Combustion performance of the optical engine is characterized in terms of indicated pressure and coefficient of variation of indicated pressure as a function of injection timing. Piston temperatures are measured and a skip-fire routine is developed so that quartz piston top temperatures agree with a matching non-optical engine. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of in-cylinder fuel injections highlights the effects of ambient pressure and fuel temperature on spray morphology. Measurements of gasoline vapor distribution provide statistics on heterogeneity of fuel distribution as a function of injection timing. Flame imaging records details of flame development which depend on the degree of fuel mixing.
X