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Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cycle Control of NOx Using Injection Strategy with a Fast Cylinder Pressure Based Emission Model as Feedback

The emission control in heavy-duty vehicles today is based on predefined injection strategies and after-treatment systems such as SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and DPF (diesel particulate filter). State-of-the-art engine control is presently based on cycle-to-cycle resolution. The introduction of the crank angle resolved pressure measurement, from a piezo-based pressure sensor, enables the possibility to control the fuel injection based on combustion feedback while the combustion is occurring. In this paper a study is presented on the possibility to control NOx (nitrogen oxides) formation with a crank angle resolved NOx estimator as feedback. The estimator and the injection control are implemented on an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) to manage the inherent time constraints. The FPGA is integrated with the rest of the engine control system for injection control and measurement.
Technical Paper

Swirl and Injection Pressure Effect on Post-Oxidation Flow Pattern Evaluated with Combustion Image Velocimetry, CIV, and CFD Simulation

In-cylinder flow pattern has been examined experimentally in a heavy duty optical diesel engine and simulated with CFD code during the combustion and the post-oxidation phase. Mean swirling velocity field and its evolution were extracted from optical tests with combustion image velocimetry (CIV). It is known that the post-oxidation period has great impact on the soot emissions. Lately it has been shown in swirling combustion systems with high injection pressures, that the remaining swirling vortex in the post-oxidation phase deviates strongly from solid body rotation. Solid body rotation can only be assumed to be the case before fuel injection. In the studied cases the tangential velocity is higher in the centre of the piston bowl compared to the outer region of the bowl. The used CIV method is closely related to the PIV technique, but makes it possible to extract flow pattern during combustion at full load in an optical diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of In-Cylinder Fuel Spray Formation and its Influence on Exhaust Emissions Using an Optical Diesel Engine

Increasingly stringent emission legislation as well as increased demand on fuel efficiency calls for further research and development in the diesel engine field. Spray formation, evaporation and ignition delay are important factors that influence the combustion and emission formation processes in a diesel engine. Increased understanding of the mixture formation process is valuable in the development of low emission, high efficiency diesel engines. In this paper spray formation and ignition under real engine conditions have been studied in an optical engine capable of running close to full load for a real HD diesel engine. Powerful external lights were used to provide the required light intensity for high speed camera images in the combustion chamber prior to ignition. A specially developed software was used for spray edge detection and tracking. The software provides crank angle resolved spray penetration data.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Influence of Variable In-Cylinder Flow, Caused by Active Valve Train, on Combustion and Emissions in a Diesel Engine at Low Lambda Operation

Spray and mixture formation in a compression ignition engine is of paramount importance for diesel combustion. In engine transient operation, when the load increases rapidly, the combustion system needs to handle low lambda (λ) operation while avoiding high particle emissions. Single-cylinder tests were performed to evaluate the effect of differences in cylinder flow on combustion and emissions at typical low λ transient operation. The tests were performed on a heavy-duty single-cylinder test engine with Lotus Active Valve Train (AVT) controlling the inlet airflow. The required swirl number (SN) and tumble were controlled by applying different inlet valve profiles and opening either both inlet valves or only one or the other. The operating point of interest was extracted from engine transient conditions before the boost pressure was increased and investigated further at steady state conditions.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control of a Combined EGR/SCR HD Diesel Engine

Achieving upcoming HD emissions legislation, Euro VI/EPA 10, is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. A likely solution to meet the NOx limit is to use a combination of EGR and SCR. Combining these two technologies poses new challenges and possibilities when it comes to optimization and calibration. Using a complete system approach, i.e., considering the engine and the aftertreatment system as a single unit, is important in order to achieve good performance. Optimizing the complete system is a tedious task; first there are a large number of variables which affect both emissions and fuel consumption (injection timing, EGR rate, urea dosing, injection pressure, pilot/post injections, for example). Secondly, the chemical reactions in the SCR catalyst are substantially slower than the dynamics of the diesel engine and the rest of the system, making the optimization problem time dependent.
Journal Article

Preparation and Characterization of a Stable Test Fuel Comparable to Aged Biodiesel for Use in Accelerated Corrosion Studies

Biodiesel is chemically unstable and sensitive to oxidation. Aging of biodiesel results in the formation of degradation products, such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and water. These products may cause corrosion of metals in fuel systems. When performing corrosion tests, biodiesel continuously degrades during the test, resulting in an uncontrolled test system. In order to obtain a stable corrosion testing system, a test fuel was developed using a saturated FAME (methyl myristate), which was doped with RME degradation products at levels typically seen in field tests. The test fuel was compared to RME with regards to structure, SCFA and water content before and after aging tests. In addition, an accelerated corrosion study of copper was performed in both the test fuel and in RME. The copper specimens were analyzed before and after test using light optical microscope and weight measurements. The Cu content in the test fuel and RME was also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Modelling Diesel Engine Combustion and NOx Formation for Model Based Control and Simulation of Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

Emissions standards are becoming increasingly harder to reach without the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems such as Selective Catalytic Reduction and particulate filters. In order to make efficient use of these systems it is important to have accurate models of engine-out emissions. Such models are also useful for optimizing and controlling next-generation engines without aftertreatment using for example exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Engines are getting more advanced using systems such as common rail fuel injection, variable geometry turbochargers (VGT) and EGR. With these new technologies and active control of the injection timing, more sophisticated models than simple stationary emission maps must be used to get adequate results. This paper is focused on the calculation of engine-out NOx and engine parameters such as cylinder pressure, temperature and gas flows.
Technical Paper

Characterisation and Model Based Optimization of a Complete Diesel Engine/SCR System

In order to make efficient use of a Diesel engine equipped with an SCR system, it's important to have a complete system approach when it comes to calibration of the engine and the aftertreatment system. This paper presents a complete model of a heavy duty diesel engine equipped with a vanadia based SCR system. The diesel engine uses common rail fuel injection, a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and cooled EGR. The engine model consists of a quasi steady gas exchange model combined with a two-zone zero dimensional combustion model. The combustion model is a predictive heat release model. Using the calculated zone temperatures, the corresponding NOx concentration is given by the original Zeldovich mechanism. The SCR catalyst model is of the state space type. The basic model structure is a series of continuously stirred tank reactors and the catalyst walls are discretized to describe mass transport inside the porous structure.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Interactions between Lubricant-derived Species and Aftertreatment Systems on a State-of-the-Art Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

The tightening legislation in the on-road heavy-duty diesel area means that pollution control systems will soon be widely introduced on such engines. A number of different aftertreatment systems are currently being considered to meet the incoming legislation, including Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. Relatively little is known about the interactions between lubricant-derived species and such aftertreatment systems. This paper describes the results of an experimental program carried out to investigate these interactions within DPF, DOC and SCR systems on a state-of-the-art 9 litre engine. The influence of lubricant composition and lube oil ash level was investigated on the different catalyst systems. In order to reduce costs and to speed up testing, test oil was dosed into the fuel. Tests without dosing lubricant into the fuel were also run.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Zinc and Other Metal Carboxylates on Nozzle Fouling

A problem for the diesel engine that remains since its invention is injection nozzle hole fouling. More advanced injection systems and more complex fuels, now also including bio-components, have made the problem more intricate. Zinc and biodiesel have often been accused of being a big part of the problem, but is this really the case? In this study, nozzle fouling experiments were performed on a single cylinder engine. The experiments were divided in three parts, the first part studied the influence of zinc neodecanoate concentration on nozzle hole fouling, the second part studied the effect of neodecanoates of zinc, sodium, calcium, copper, and iron on fuel flow loss and in the last part it was examined how RME concentration in zinc neodecanoate contaminated petroleum diesel affected nozzle hole fouling propensity. After completed experiments, the nozzles were cut open and the deposits were analyzed in SEM and with EDX.
Technical Paper

Optical Studies in a DI Diesel Engine

Fuel injection and combustion was studied with direct photography in a single cylinder DI diesel engine. Optical access was accomplished by using an endoscope-based measurement system. In the optical measurements the influence of several parameters were studied: start of injection, inlet air temperature and pressure, injected fuel amount (constant air mass), load level (varying air and fuel mass) and nozzle hole diameter. Liquid fuel spray penetration, flame lift-off and flame length were measured. The maximum spray penetration was 23 - 25 mm. As diffusion combustion started, the spray length decreased to about 15 mm. The flame lift-off was located 4 - 6 mm behind the liquid fuel spray tip. Using the two-color method the spatial temperature distribution in flames was calculated.
Technical Paper

CFD Studies of Combustion and In-Cylinder Soot Trends in a DI Diesel Engine - Comparison to Direct Photography Studies

The main objective of this work is to develop a CFD model for studies of combustion and in-cylinder soot trends in a single cylinder DI diesel engine based on the Scania 14 liter V8 engine. The evaluation of the model is made with respect to ignition, cylinder pressure, heat release, onset of diffusion controlled combustion, liquid fuel spray penetration, in-cylinder soot distribution and exhaust soot level. The simulation results are compared to direct photography images and two-color calculations of temperature and soot distribution in a corresponding optical access test engine. This comparison shows good agreement concerning diffusion flame onset, liquid penetration, rate of heat release and local temperature distribution. Moreover, the prediction of in-cylinder soot distribution after end of injection also agrees well with the two-color calculation. To validate the model, the simulation is repeated for three different sets of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Study of Nozzle Fouling: Deposit Build-Up and Removal

The global demand for decreased emission from engines and increased efficiency drives manufactures to develop more advanced fuel injection systems. Today's compression-ignited engines use common rail systems with high injection pressures and fuel injector nozzles with small orifice diameters. These systems are highly sensitive to small changes in orifice diameters since these could lead to deteriorations in spray characteristics, thus reducing engine performance and increasing emissions. Phenomena that could create problems include nozzle fouling caused by metal carboxylates or biofuels. The problems increase with extended use of biofuels. This paper reports on an experimental study of nozzle hole fouling performed on a single-cylinder engine. The aim was to identify if the solubility of the fuel has an effect on deposit build-up and, thus, the reduction in fuelling with associated torque loss, and if there is a probability of regenerating the contaminated injectors.
Technical Paper

Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels

Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines.
Journal Article

Characterization of Deposits Collected from Plugged Fuel Filters

Fuel filters serve as a safety belt for modern compression ignition engines. To meet the requirements from environmental regulations these engines use the common rail injection system, which is highly susceptible to contamination from the fuel. Furthermore, the public awareness towards global warming is raising the need for renewable fuels such as biodiesel. An increased fuel variety brings a higher requirement for fuel filters as well. To better understand the process of filtration, awareness of the different possible contaminants from the field is needed. This study used several chemical characterization techniques to examine the deposits from plugged fuel filters collected from the field. The vehicle was run with a biodiesel blend available on the market.
Technical Paper

A Measurement of Fuel Filters’ Ability to Remove Soft Particles, with a Custom-Built Fuel Filter Rig

Biofuel can enable a sustainable transport solution and lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to standard fuels. This study focuses on biodiesel, implemented in the easiest way as drop in fuel. When mixing biodiesel into diesel one can run into problems with solubility causing contaminants precipitating out as insolubilities. These insolubilities, also called soft particles, can cause problems such as internal injector deposits and nozzle fouling. One way to overcome the problem of soft particles is by filtration. It is thus of great interest to be able to quantify fuel filters’ ability to intercept soft particles. The aim of this study is to test different fuel filters for heavy-duty engines and their ability to filter out synthetic soft particles. A custom-built fuel filter rig is presented, together with some of its general design requirements. For evaluation of the efficiency of the filters, fuel samples were taken before and after the filters.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics, Performance and NOx Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Ethanol-Diesel Direct Injection Engine

Diffusive combustion of direct injected ethanol is investigated in a heavy-duty single cylinder engine for a broad range of operating conditions. Ethanol has a high potential as fossil fuel alternative, as it provides a better carbon footprint and has more sustainable production pathways. The introduction of ethanol as fuel for heavy-duty compression-ignition engines can contribute to decarbonize the transport sector within a short time frame. Given the resistance to autoignition of ethanol, the engine is equipped with two injectors mounted in the same combustion chamber, allowing the simultaneous and independent actuation of the main injection of pure ethanol and a pilot injection of diesel as an ignition source. The influence of the dual-fuel injection strategy on ethanol ignition, combustion characteristics, engine performance and NOx emissions is evaluated by varying the start of injection of both fuels and the ethanol-diesel ratio.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing the Formation of Soft Particles in Biodiesel

In order to mitigate the effect of fossil fuels on global warming, biodiesel is used as drop in fuel. However, in the mixture of biodiesel and diesel, soft particles may form. These soft particles are organic compounds, which can originate from the production and degradation of biodiesel. Further when fuel is mixed with unwanted contaminants such as engine oil the amount soft particles can increase. The presence of these particles can cause malfunction in the fuel system of the engine, such as nozzle fouling, internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) or fuel filter plugging. Soft particles and the mechanism of their formation is curtail to understand in order to study and prevent their effects on the fuel system. This paper focuses on one type of soft particles, which are metal soaps. More precisely on the role of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) during their formation. In order to do so, aged and unaged B10 was studied.