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Journal Article

Sampling-Based RBDO Using Score Function with Re-Weighting Scheme

2013-04-08
2013-01-0377
Sampling-based methods are general but time consuming for solving a Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO) problem. In order to alleviate the computation burden, score function together with the Monte Carlo method was used to compute the stochastic sensitivities of reliability functions. In literature, re-weighting schemes were shown to converge faster than the regular Monte Carlo method. In this paper, a reweighting scheme together with score function is employed to perform sampling-based stochastic sensitivity analysis to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy. An analytical example is used to show the advantages of the proposed method. Comparisons to the conventional methods are made and discussed. Two RBDO problems are solved to demonstrate the use of the proposed method.
Technical Paper

Flame Area Correlations with Heat Release at Early Flame Development of Combustion Process in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol and Butanol

2013-10-14
2013-01-2637
As the vehicle emission regulations become stricter worldwide, one way to meet the emission requirements is to engage the use of alternative fuels in engine combustion. In this investigation, the early combustion processes of regular gasoline and alternative fuels, including ethanol and butanol, were studied by simultaneously recording both the in-cylinder pressure and the crank angle-resolved high-speed flame images in a single-cylinder spark-ignition direct-injection engine. The engine was equipped with a quartz insert in the piston which provided an optical access to its cylinder through the piston. The effects of engine coolant & oil temperatures and intake air swirl ratio on the early flame development were also studied. The heat release was derived from the in-cylinder pressure measurements and the corresponding flame area characteristics were extracted from the images.
Technical Paper

Development of a POD-Based Analysis Approach for Quantitative Comparison of Spray Structure Variations in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2545
Strong cycle-to-cycle variations of fuel spray are observed due to the highly transient in-cylinder airflow in spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. The spray structure comparison based on ensemble-averaged image may be misleading sometimes because the spray images for the same engine running condition could be different from cycle to cycle. Also, the visual comparison of spray images from many cycles is only qualitative and very time-consuming. Therefore, the present paper provides a novel approach to make quantitative comparison of spray structures from different engine conditions, or comparison between experiment and simulation (such as large eddy simulation, LES). The methodology is based on the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which has been utilized for in-cylinder turbulent flow research for over a decade.
Technical Paper

A Research on the Sound Quality Contribution of Vehicle Body Panel

2014-04-01
2014-01-0896
Sound quality of vehicle interior noise affects passenger comfort. In order to improve the sound quality of a micro commercial vehicle, the vehicle interior noise under different conditions such as idle, constant speeds and accelerating is recorded by using artificial head with dual microphones. The sound quality of recorded noise is evaluated in both objective and subjective ways. Physical parameters of interior noise are calculated objectively, and annoyance score is analyzed subjectively using paired-comparison method. According to the regression analyzing of the annoyance score and the physical parameters, an objective evaluation parameter of the sound quality is employed. To analyze the vehicle body panel contribution to interior noise sound quality, the location and spectrum characteristics of major panel emission noise sources are identified based on partial singular valued decomposition (PSVD) method.
Technical Paper

Flow Field Characterization of Superheated Sprays from a Multi-Hole Injector by Using High-Speed PIV

2012-04-16
2012-01-0457
Superheated spray is expected to improve the fuel atomization and evaporation processes by introducing fuel temperature as a new control parameter in spark-ignited direct-injection (SIDI) engines. In this study, flow fields of n-hexane spray from a multi-hole injector in both vertical and cross-sectional directions were investigated by using high-speed particle image velocimetry (HS-PIV) within the lower density regions. The results provide insight to the spray-collapsing processes under various superheated conditions. It was found that in axial direction, the vertical velocity increases while the radial velocity decreases with increasing superheat degree, which determines the convergent spray structure. In cross-sectional direction, the dynamic variation of the spray structure and interaction among spray plumes were investigated. The relationship between the spray structure and flow field was found. The flow patterns during and after the injection are significantly different.
Technical Paper

One Better Model of Vehicle Turbocharged Diesel Engine than VNT Turbo

2014-04-01
2014-01-1644
In the internal combustion engine, about 25%-40% of the energy released by burned fuel is taken away by the exhaust gas. The part of the usable energy in the exhaust can be used in the turbocharged engine. So, at present, turbocharged diesel engine hasn't made full use of exhaust gas energy. The authors propose a model of the 4-stroke turbocharged diesel engine of split exhausting system. Adding a rapidly on-and-off exhaust control valve between exhaust passage and manifold in the 4-stroke turbocharged diesel engine can improve the utilization rate of the usable energy in the exhaust. By utilizing the mean effective pressure (MEP), this paper is to calculate the maximum usable energy, the energy provided by exhaust and the energy required by intake. The results gets that the new type of exhausting system can help engine to increase usage rate of the exhaust gas energy to around 20% at the rated condition compared to the existing vehicle diesel engines with VNT.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Land Requirement, Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Biodiesel Derived from Microalgae and Jatropha curcas Seeds in China

2014-04-01
2014-01-1964
The aim of this study is to evaluate the land requirement, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions of microalgal biodiesel (M-BD) and Jatropha curcas seeds (J-BD) based biodiesel from the perspective of life cycle assessment (LCA). Mass and energy balance was used through the whole LCA calculation for each process. Two types of biodiesel (100% biodiesel: BD100, and 20% blends of biodiesel: BD20) were assumed to be combusted in the suitable diesel engine. Displacement method was adopted to measure the co-products credits. The results showed that the land requirement of producing 1 kg biodiesel from microalgae was about 1/31 of that from Jatropha curcas seeds. The well to pump (WTP) stage for microalgal biodiesel had higher fossil energy requirement but lower petroleum energy consumption and GHG emissions compared to Jatropha curcas and conventional diesel (CD). The WTP energy efficiency for J-BD100 and M-BD 100 were 26% and 17.4%, respectively.
Technical Paper

Matching Optimum for Low HC and CO Emissions at Warm-up Phase in an LPG EFI Small SI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3897
Based on a 125cm3 single cylinder SI engine, the designated idle speed was controlled by adjusting of cycle ignition advance angle. By analyzing the effects of different idle speed and throttle open position on three way catalyst (TWC) light-off time and conversion efficiency of HC and CO emissions, combined with the corresponding total HC and CO emissions level, the optimum idle speed and throttle open position at engine's warm-up phase were found by the matching optimum. The present method for engine control strategy is helpful to optimize the warm-up phase emission levels in SI engine with LPG fuel.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Preparation of Diesel Fuel by Spray Impingement onto a Hot Surface at Intake Manifold

2006-10-16
2006-01-3322
A segment of steel tube with the inner diameter of 60 mm and length of 100 mm was fixed between the intake manifold and cylinder head in a direct injection natural aspirated diesel engine. The surface of the tube could be heated to be above 400 °C by the heater enwrapped outside within several minutes under the power less than 600 W. The tip of an injector traditionally used for in-cylinder diesel direct injection was extended to the axis of the tube. The diesel sprays could impinge onto the hot inner surface of the tube and atomize quickly if the temperature of the tube was high enough. Then the fuel-air mixture would be sucked into the cylinder, and HCCI combustion could be fulfilled. The vaporization ratio of the impinged diesel sprays was estimated by fuel consumption, intake air flux and excess air coefficient (λ) calculated from the volumetric concentration of O2, CO2 and CO emissions. The NOx emission was always very low.
Technical Paper

Research into Autoignition Characteristics of Diesel Fuel in a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere

2006-04-03
2006-01-0073
A novel method is applied to analysis the autoignition phenomenon. Experiments on the study of autoignition characteristics of diesel fuel were carried out with a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustor. The results show that the method for autoignition studying of liquid fuel is of feasibility. Autoignition delay time and autoignition height from the nozzle increase with the coflow temperature decreasing and autoignition delay time changes sensitively under lower coflow temperature. Liftoff height of diesel spray flame decreases with the increasing of coflow temperature. Lower temperature causes higher variance of liftoff height. It might be speculated that there are two different mechanisms of flame stabilization that the lower lift-off heights flames are related to a balance between the flow velocity and flame speed while the higher lift-off heights flames are stabilized by the mixture autoignition.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Electrospray for IC Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-1388
The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of the electrostatic atomization for its application in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a theoretical model for secondary breakup of charged droplets was established. The electric force reduces the surface tension of liquid, whereby atomization is promoted. To improve the diesel droplet atomization remarkably by means of electrostatic charge, the charge-mass ratio should be at least at the order of 10-6C/g. In the interest of the practical application conditions in internal combustion engines, the high-pressure injected electrospray was generated and investigated under various injection pressures and electric conditions. By means of the Photron high-speed camera, the special features of electrospray were observed. The micro-characters including the drop size distribution and the variance of the drop diameter in the spray front area were investigated.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions during Start up at Higher Cranking Speed in a PFI Engine for HEV Application

2008-10-06
2008-01-2420
The transient characteristics of combustion and emissions during the engine start up at different higher cranking speeds for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications were presented in this paper. Cycle-by-cycle analysis was done for each start up case. Intake air mass during the first several cycles decrease as the engine was cranked at higher speed. Ignition timing is delayed with higher cranking speed, which leads to an increase of exhaust temperature. For various start up cases, similar quantity of fuel is injected at the first cycle, but the ignition timing is significantly delayed to meet the acceleration requirement when cranking speed enhanced. Because of the deterioration of intake charge, the air-fuel mixture is over-enriched in the first several cycles for the cases at higher cranking speed. With cranking speed is increased, the in-cylinder residual gas fraction rises, which leads to poor combustion and decrease of mass fraction of burned fuel.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Output Performances and Emissions of Diesel Engine Employed Common Rail Fueled with Biodiesel Blends from Wasted Cooking Oil

2008-06-23
2008-01-1833
In this paper, the characteristics of performance and emissions of diesel and biodiesel blends are studied in a four-cylinder DI engine employing common rail injection system. The results show that engine output power is further reduced and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased with the increase of the blend concentration. B100 provides average reduction by 8.6% in power and increase by 11% in BSFC. With respect to the emissions, although NOx emissions were increased with increasing the blend concentration, the increase depends on the load. Filter smoke number is reduced with increasing the blend concentration. At the same time, NO, NO2 and other specific emissions are also investigated. In addition, difference of performance and emission between standard parameters of ECU and modified parameters of ECU is investigated for B10 and B20 based on same output power. The results show that NOx emission and FSN are still lower than baseline diesel.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a DI Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends from Soybean Oil

2008-06-23
2008-01-1832
Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel and biodiesel blends (soybean methyl ester) were studied in a single-cylinder Direct Injection (DI) engine at different loads and a constant speed. The results show that NOx emission and fuel consumption are increased with increasing biodiesel percentage. Reduction of smoke opacity is significant at higher loads with a higher biodiesel ratio. Compared with the baseline diesel fuel, B20 (20% biodiesel) has a slight increase of NOx emission and similar fuel consumption. Smoke emission of B20 is close to that of diesel fuel. Results of combustion analysis indicate that start of combustion (SOC) for biodiesel blends is earlier than that for diesel. Higher biodiesel percentage results in earlier SOC. Earlier SOC for biodiesel blends is due to advanced injection timing from higher density and bulk modulus and lower ignition delay from higher cetane number.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Particulates and Exhaust Gases Emissions of DI Diesel Engine Employing Common Rail Fuel System Fueled with Bio-diesel Blends

2008-06-23
2008-01-1834
In this paper, characteristics of gas emission and particle size distribution are investigated in a common rail diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. Gas emission and particle size distribution are measured by AVL FTIR - SESAM and SMPS respectively. The results show that although biodiesel blends would result in higher NOx emissions, characteristics of NOx emissions were also dependent on the engine load for waste cooking oil methyl ester. Higher blend concentration results in higher NO2 emission after two diesel oxidation catalyst s (DOC). A higher blend concentration leads to lower CO and SO2 emissions. No significant difference of Alkene emission is found among biodiesel blends. The particle size distributions of diesel exhaust aerosol consist of a nucleation mode (NM) with a peak below 50N• m and an accumulation mode with a peak above 50N • m. B100 will result in lower particulates with the absence of NM.
Journal Article

Estimation on the Location of Peak Pressure at Quick Start of HEV Engine Employing Ion Sensing Technology

2008-06-23
2008-01-1566
In this paper an estimation method on location of peak pressure (LPP) employing flame ionization measurement, with the spark plug as a sensor, was discussed to achieve combustion parameters estimation at quick start of HEV engines. Through the cycle-based ion signal analysis, the location of peak pressure can be extracted in individual cylinder for the optimization of engine quick start control of HEV engine. A series of quick start processes with different cranking speed and engine coolant temperature are tested for establishing the relationship between the ion signals and the combustion parameters. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is used in this study for estimating these two combustion parameters. The experiment results show that the location of peak pressure can be well established by this method.
Journal Article

Pitch Control for a Semi-track Air-cushion Vehicle Based on Optimal Power Consumption

2009-04-20
2009-01-1225
A new kind of integrated semi-track air-cushion pitch controller is proposed in this paper. The controller first compute the target working point based on a weighed function, which is the combination of optimal power consumption and pitch angle control demand. Then the sequential quadratic programming algorithm distributes the general target values to specific control values. The performance of the controller is verified through co-simulation between Matlab/Simulink and ADAMS/View. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the control algorithm and the correctness of the choice in physical configuration with two air cushions for vehicle body pitch control.
Technical Paper

Permanent-Magnet DC Motor Actuators Application in Automotive Energy-Regenerative Active Suspensions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0227
An energy-regenerative vehicle suspension is proposed. Permanent-magnet direct-current motors are utilized as the active actuators in automotive suspension. The significant characteristic of the suspension is that vibration energy from the road excitation can be regenerated and transformed into electric energy while good suspension performance can be maintained. The modeling of electrical suspension system has been completed and simulated in Matlab/Simulink. The motor actuator working as a generator is proved to maintain the performance of vibration control and energy-regeneration. The prototype of motor actuator is designed and made. The vibration absorption and regeneration performances are verified by full-vehicle experiments.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Film Evaporation for Homogeneous Charge Preparation of Typical Fuels

2005-04-11
2005-01-1935
Fuel films of several typical fuels were investigated by means of thermal gravity analysis (TGA). To make diesel homogeneous charge by means of film evaporation, it was concluded that to get 30%∼50% evaporation of film, the wall temperature should be set between 150°C and 180°C for diesel and 40°C∼60°C for gasoline, and to get 95% evaporation of film, the wall temperature should be set between 200°C and 250°C for diesel and 50°C∼100°C for gasoline, when the thickness of the fuel film is about 40 μ m. Based on the properties of fuels, the evaporation characteristics of diesel under 100°C should be improved.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Ethanol Fuel (E100) in a Small SI Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3262
An air-cooled, four-stroke, 125 cc electronic gasoline fuel injection SI engine for motorcycles is altered to burn ethanol fuel. The effects of nozzle orifice size, fuel injection duration, spark timing and the excess air/ fuel ratio on engine power output, fuel and energy consumptions and engine exhaust emission levels are studied on an engine test bed. The results show that the maximum engine power output is increased by 5.4% and the maximum torque output is increased by 1.9% with the ethanol fuel in comparison with the baseline. At full load and 7000 r/min, HC emission is decreased by 38% and CO emission is decreased 46% on average over the whole engine speed range. However, NOx levels are increased to meet the maximum power output. The experiments of the spark timing show that the levels of HC and NOx emission are decreased markedly by the delay of spark timing.
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