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Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Combustion of Propane in a Railroad Diesel Engine

1963-01-01
630450
Fuel conservationists will welcome this practicable proposal for converting railroads from diesel fuel to propane gas propulsion. Propane is no newcomer to the fuel family, but the advantages of economy, simplicity of operation, minimal maintenance, and extended life of equipment, as presented in this paper, show up its unexploited and extensive potential use in all mobile units. This careful study includes experimental results and data especially applied to railroad engines, even to conversion plans for existing engines that allows an interchangeable fuel system to accommodate present supply and variable cost factors in the United States.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Hydrocarbon Emissions

1962-01-01
620005
This paper presents the results of an investigation of the normal sources of hydrocarbon emissions of passenger cars. The sources were considered to consist of the crankcase ventilation and exhaust systems, the carburetor, and the fuel tank vent. Many studies involving the emissions from several of these sources have been conducted and reported; however, it is believed that this is the first study designed to develop emission data from all the sources of a single group of passenger cars. Although only five vehicles were used, several mechanical conditions and engine and power train configurations were examined. The largest single source of hydrocarbon emissions was found to be the exhaust, followed by the road draft tube. Relatively minor emissions were measured as a result of fuel evaporation from the carburetor and fuel tank during periods of operation and hot soak.
Journal Article

Scuderi Split Cycle Research Engine: Overview, Architecture and Operation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0403
The Scuderi engine is a split cycle design that divides the four strokes of a conventional combustion cycle over two paired cylinders, one intake/compression cylinder and one power/exhaust cylinder, connected by a crossover port. This configuration provides potential benefits to the combustion process, as well as presenting some challenges. It also creates the possibility for pneumatic hybridization of the engine. This paper reviews the first Scuderi split cycle research engine, giving an overview of its architecture and operation. It describes how the splitting of gas compression and combustion into two separate cylinders has been simulated and how the results were used to drive the engine architecture together with the design of the main engine systems for air handling, fuel injection, mixing and ignition. A prototype engine was designed, manufactured, and installed in a test cell. The engine was heavily instrumented and initial performance results are presented.
Technical Paper

Noise Benchmarking of the Detroit Diesel DD15 Engine

2011-05-17
2011-01-1566
Several new or significantly upgraded heavy duty truck engines are being introduced in the North American market. One important aspect of these new or revised engines is their noise characteristics. This paper describes the noise related characteristics of the new DD15 engine, and compares them to other competitive heavy truck engines. DD15 engine features relevant to noise include a rear gear train, isolated oil pan and valve cover, and an amplified high pressure common rail fuel system. The transition between non-amplified and amplified common rail operation is shown to have a significant noise impact, not unlike the transition between pilot injection and single shot injection in some other engines.
Technical Paper

Air-Assisted Direct Injection Diesel Investigations

2013-04-08
2013-01-0907
Enhancement of fuel/air mixing is one path towards enabling future diesel engines to increase efficiency and control emissions. Air-assist fuel injections have shown potential for low pressure applications and the current work aims to extend air-assist feasibility understanding to high pressure environments. Analyses were completed and carried out for traditional high pressure fuel-only, internal air-assist, and external air-assist fuel/air mixing processes. A combination of analytical 0-D theory and 3D CFD were used to help understand the processes and guide the design of the air-assisted setup. The internal air-assisted setup was determined to have excellent liquid fuel vaporization, but poorer fuel dispersion than the traditional high-pressure fuel injections.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Lubrication Oil as an Ignition Source in Dual Fuel Combustion Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2699
Dual fuel engines have shown significant potential as high efficiency powerplants. In one example, SwRI® has run a high EGR, dual-fuel engine using gasoline as the main fuel and diesel as the ignition source, achieving high thermal efficiencies with near zero NOx and smoke emissions. However, assuming a tank size that could be reasonably packaged, the diesel fuel tank would need to be refilled often due to the relatively high fraction of diesel required. To reduce the refill interval, SwRI investigated various alternative fluids as potential ignition sources. The fluids included: Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD), Biodiesel, NORPAR (a commercially available mixture of normal paraffins: n-pentadecane (normal C15H32), and n-hexadecane (normal C16H34)) and ashless lubrication oil. Lubrication oil was considered due to its high cetane number (CN) and high viscosity, hence high ignitability.
Journal Article

Diesel Cold-Start Emission Control Research for 2015-2025 LEV III Emissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1301
The diesel engine can be an effective solution to meet future greenhouse gas and fuel economy standards, especially for larger segment vehicles. However, a key challenge facing the diesel is the upcoming LEV III emissions standard which will require significant reductions of hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from current levels. The challenge stems from the fact that diesel exhaust temperatures are much lower than gasoline engines so the time required to achieve effective emissions control with current aftertreatment devices is considerably longer. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of a novel diesel cold-start emissions control strategy for achieving LEV III emissions. The strategy combines several technologies to reduce HC and NOx emissions before the start of the second hill of the FTP75.
Technical Paper

Ignition of Underbody and Engine Compartment Hydrogen Releases

2006-04-03
2006-01-0127
Various fire scenarios involving a hydrogen fuel system were simulated to evaluate their associated safety hazards. Scenarios included finite releases of hydrogen with delayed ignition as well as small hydrogen jet-fire releases. The scenarios tested resulted in minimal damage to the vehicle, minimal hazards to the vehicle's surroundings, and no observable damage or hazards within the passenger compartment.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology to Evaluate Engine Wear Under the Influences of Advanced Combustion System Operation and Lubricant Performance

2005-10-24
2005-01-3689
Radioactive tracer technology is an important tool for measuring component wear on a real-time basis and is especially useful in measuring engine wear as it is affected by combustion system operation and lubricant performance. Combustion system operation including the use of early and/or late fuel injection and EGR for emissions control can have a profound effect on aftertreatment contamination and engine reliability due to wear. Liner wear caused by localized fuel impingement can lead to excessive oil consumption and fuel dilution can cause excessive wear of rings and bearings. To facilitate typical wear measurement, the engine's compression rings and connecting rod bearings are initially exposed to thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor to produce artificial radioisotopes that are separately characteristic of the ring and bearing wear surfaces.
Journal Article

1000-Hour Durability Evaluation of a Prototype 2007 Diesel Engine with Aftertreatment Using B20 Biodiesel Fuel

2009-11-02
2009-01-2803
A prototype 2007 ISL Cummins diesel engine equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particle filter (DPF), variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was tested at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) under a high-load accelerated durability cycle for 1000 hours with B20 soy-based biodiesel blends and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel to determine the impact of B20 on engine durability, performance, emissions, and fuel consumption. At the completion of the 1000-hour test, a thorough engine teardown evaluation of the overhead, power transfer, cylinder, cooling, lube, air handling, gaskets, aftertreatment, and fuel system parts was performed. The engine operated successfully with no biodiesel-related failures. Results indicate that engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 and 1000 hours of accumulated durability operation.
Technical Paper

Intentional Failure of a 5000 psig Hydrogen Cylinder Installed in an SUV Without Standard Required Safety Devices

2007-04-16
2007-01-0431
A vehicle's gasoline fuel tank was removed and replaced with a 5,000-psig, Type-III, aluminum-lined hydrogen cylinder. High-pressure cylinders are typically installed with a thermally-activated pressure relief device (PRD) designed to safely vent the contents of the cylinder in the event of accidental exposure to fire. The objective of this research was to assess the results of a catastrophic failure in the event that a PRD were ineffective. Therefore, no PRD was installed on the vehicle to ensure cylinder failure would occur. The cylinder was pressurized and exposed to a propane bonfire in order to simulate the occurrence of a gasoline pool fire on the underside of the vehicle. Measurements included temperature and carbon monoxide concentration inside the passenger compartment of the vehicle to evaluate tenability. Measurements on the exterior of the vehicle included blast wave pressures. Documentation included standard, infrared, and high-speed video.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of Optimized Engine Oils for Modern Two-Stroke Cycle Direct Fuel Injected Outboard Engines

2006-11-13
2006-32-0018
Despite the recent increase in fuel prices, the multi-billion dollar recreational boating market in North America continues to experience solid momentum and growth. In the U.S. economy alone, sales of recreational boats continue to increase with over 17 million boats sold in 2004 [1]. Of that share, outboard boats and the engines that power them, accounted for nearly half of all boat sales. Though there has been a shift in outboard technology to four-stroke cycle engines, a significant number of new engine sales represent two-stroke cycle engines employing direct fuel injection as a means to meet emissions regulations. With the life span of modern outboards estimated to be 8 to 10 years, a significant base of two-stroke cycle engines exist in the market place, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future.
Journal Article

Investigation of In-cylinder NOx and PM Reduction with Delphi E3 Flexible Unit Injectors on a Heavy-duty Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1792
In-cylinder emission controls were the focus for diesel engines for many decades before the emergence of diesel aftertreatment. Even with modern aftertreatment, control of in-cylinder processes remains a key issue for developing diesel vehicles with low tailpipe emissions. A reduction in in-cylinder emissions makes aftertreatment more effective at lower cost with superior fuel economy. This paper describes a study focused on an in-cylinder combustion control approach using a Delphi E3 flexible fuel system to achieve low engine-out NOx and PM emissions. A 2003 model year Detroit Diesel Corporation Series 60 14L heady-duty diesel engine, modified to accept the Delphi E3 unit injectors, and ultra low sulfur fuel were used throughout this study. The process of achieving premixed low temperature combustion within the limited range of parameters of the stock ECU was investigated.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology to Measure Real-Time Wear in Engines and Other Mechanical Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1437
Radioactive tracer technology (RATT™) is an important tool for measuring real-time wear in operating engines and other mechanical systems. The use of this technology provides important wear information that is not available by other, more conventional wear measurement methods. The technology has advanced to the point where several components can be interrogated simultaneously, and new methods have extended the method to materials that are normally not amenable to radioactive tracer evaluation. In addition, sensitivity has increased so that the onset of wear can be detected long before practical with non-tracer methods. This improves the ability to measure and determine cause and effect relationships, thus providing a better understanding of wear responses to specific operating conditions and to changes in operating conditions. This paper reviews the radioactive tracer process and recent improvements that have extended its reach in both automotive and non-automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Spray Characterization in a DISI Engine During Cold Start: (1) Imaging Investigation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1004
Spray angle and penetration length data were taken under cold start conditions for a Direct Injection Spark Ignition engine to investigate the effect of transient conditions on spray development. The results show that during cold start, spray development depends primarily on fuel pressure, followed by Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP). Injection frequency had little effect on spray development. The spray for this single hole, pressure-swirl fuel injector was characterized using high speed imaging. The fuel spray was characterized by three different regimes. Regime 1 comprised fuel pressures from 6 - 13 bar, MAPs from 0.7 - 1 bar, and was characterized by a large pre-spray along with large drop sizes. The spray angle and penetration lengths were comparatively small. Regime 2 comprised fuel pressures from 30 - 39 bar and MAPs from 0.51 - 0.54 bar. A large pre-spray and large drop sizes were still present but reduced compared to Regime 1.
Journal Article

Smooth In-Cylinder Lean-Rich Combustion Switching Control for Diesel Engine Exhaust-Treatment System Regenerations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0979
This paper describes an in-cylinder lean-rich combustion (no-post-injection for rich) switching control approach for modern diesel engines equipped with exhaust-treatment systems. No-post-injection rich combustion is desirable for regeneration of engine exhaust-treatment systems thanks to its less fuel penalty compared with regeneration approaches using post-injections and / or in-exhaust injections. However, for vehicle applications, it is desirable to have driver-transparent exhaust-treatment system regenerations, which challenge the in-cylinder rich-lean combustion transitions. In this paper, a nonlinear in-cylinder condition control system combined with in-cylinder condition guided fueling control functions were developed to achieve smooth in-cylinder lean-rich switching control at both steady-state and transient operation. The performance of the control system is evaluated on a modern light-duty diesel engine (G9T600).
Journal Article

The Effects of Diesel Fuel Additives on Water Separation Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-0868
Fuel additives are being used more frequently to meet “premium diesel fuel” requirements. Although these additives improve performance, they also affect the water separation characteristics. This program was designed to determine the effects of various additives on fuel/water separation in low- and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. The additives studied include detergents and lubricity additives. A soy-based biofuel is also considered. The fuel/water separation tests conducted with coalescer filter technology generally produced higher efficiencies while the addition of a detergent additive package at 175-ppm generally produced lower water separation efficiencies.
Technical Paper

Compatibility of Elastomers and Metals in Biodiesel Fuel Blends

1997-05-01
971690
Alternative fuels are being evaluated in automotive applications in both commercial and government fleets in an effort to reduce emissions and United States dependence on diesel fuel. Vehicles and equipment have been operated using 100 percent biodiesel and various blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel in a variety of applications, including farming equipment and transit buses. This government study investigates the compatibility of four base fuels and six blends with elastomer and metallic components commonly found in fuel systems. The physical properties of the elastomers were measured according to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 471, “Standard Test Method for Rubber Property-Effect of Liquids,” and ASTM D 412, “Standard Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Tension.” These evaluations were performed at 51.7°C for 0, 22, 70, and 694 hours. Tensile strength, hardness, swell, and elongation were determined for all specimens.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Properties on Emissions from a 2.5gm NOx Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1998-10-19
982491
The engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Engine exhaust emissions, performance, and heat release rates were measured as functions of engine configuration, engine speed and load. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to achieve a NOx emissions level of 2.5 gm/hp-hr. Measurements were performed at 7 different steady-state, speed-load conditions on thirteen different test fuels. The fuel matrix was statistically designed to independently examine the effects of the targeted fuel properties. Cetane number was varied from 40 to 55, using both natural cetane number and cetane percent improver additives. Aromatic content ranged from 10 to 30 percent in two different forms, one in which the aromatics were predominantly mono-aromatic species and the other, where a significant fraction of the aromatics were either di- or tri-aromatics.
Technical Paper

Effects of Water on Distillate Fuel Lubricity

1998-10-19
982568
The continuing trend toward “cleaner” distillate fuels has prompted concerns about the lubricity characteristics of current and future distillates. Since many U.S. Navy ships utilize seawater-compensated fuel tanks to maintain the ship's trim, the Navy performed a detailed study in order to better understand the relationship between fuel water content and lubricity characteristics. The lubricity test methods, modified for this study, were ASTM D 6078 (SLBOCLE), D 6079 (HFRR), and D 5001 (BOCLE). The results indicated that, with few exceptions, there was generally no evidence of a correlation between the water content of the fuels and the corresponding lubricity measurements as determined by the laboratory tests.
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