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Technical Paper

Nd:YAG Laser Welding of Zinc-coated Steel Sheet

This paper describes the lap welding of Zinc-coated steel sheet using a high power continuous wave YAG laser. The well-known problem of welding the Zinc-coated sheet is related to the low boiling point of zinc compared with the melting point of steel. During lap welding, zinc coating at the interface vaporize rapidly and causes defects1)2). In this study, therefore, lap welding was performed by YAG laser. The effects of type of coating layer, welding conditions, tensile strength and corrosion resistance after electro-deposition was examined. It was found that the weldability of coated steel is different by type of coating. Zn-Ni coated steel showed good weldability, but galvanealed steel inevitably pore pits with no gap set up. These defects not only lower the strength of joint, but also produce irregular bead where easily corroded after electro-deposition.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Strength of Spot-Welded Joints by Measurements of Local Mechanical Properties

Tensile testing technique for the small sample was newly developed. Small tensile specimens with gage length of 1mm were taken from spot welds of high tensile strength steel sheets, and stress-strain relationships and ductility of base metal, heat affected zone including corona bond and nugget were individually measured. Finite element analyses of spot-welded joints under the conditions of static and dynamic tensile-shear loading were carried out with these local mechanical properties to predict the fracture mode and strength of the joints. It was clarified that the effects of both nugget diameter and class of steels were evaluated with good accuracy.
Technical Paper

New Frictional Testing Method for Stamping Formability - Development of Dr. STAMP (Direct & Rapid, Surface Tribology Analyzing Method for Press) Method -

Galvannealed steel sheet (GA) is very extensively used for vehicle panels. However ζ-phase (FeZn13) in GA coat causes poor stamping formability. Previously, there were no easy methods to evaluate the influence of ζ-phase on the frictional characteristics other than the X-ray diffraction method. This study will discuss the development of a new testing method: Dr. STAMP Method that is both efficient and convenient with pin-on-disc tester.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Stress Calculation in Spot Welded Joint and Its Application to Fatigue Life Prediction of Actual Vehicle

A method of fatigue life prediction of spot welded joint under multi-axial loads has been developed by fatigue life estimation working groups in the committee on fatigue strength and structural reliability of JSAE. This method is based on the concept of nominal structural stress ( σ ns) proposed by Radaj and Rupp, and improved so that D value is not involved in stress calculation. The result of fatigue life estimation of actual vehicle with nominal structural stress which was calculated through newly developed method had very good correlation with the result of multi-axial loads fatigue test carried out with test piece including high strength steel.
Technical Paper

Formable Ferrite - Degenerated Pearlite Steel (FDP-55) for Automotive Use

In order to help the gauge reduction of wheels and chassis parts of automobiles, a form-able and weldable hot rolled steel of 550 MPa grade, named FDP-55, has been developed. FDP-55 is an 0.14% C, 0.1% Si, 1.1% Mn and Nb free A1-killed steel obtained by controlled-cooling to a low coiling temperature on a runout table, and it is featured by ferrite-degenerated pearlite microstructure. Results of co-operative works with automotive makers showed that FDP-55 was successful in the application to wheels and chassis parts attaining the large weight reduction. This paper reports the metallurgical features and characteristics of the steel.
Technical Paper

Bake-Hardenable Al-Killed Steel (RBH-35) for Automobile Body Panels

In order to attain the gauge reduction of outer body panels without spoiling the dent-resistance and formability, a bake-hardenable Al-killed steel sheet, named RBH-35, and has been developed in the conventional box-annealing process. RBH-35 is an 0.01% carbon, low manganese and rephosphorized Al-killed steel sheet retaining solute carbon of about 10 ppm. The steel exhibits high r-value, bake-hardenability of 40 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of above 350 MPa and substantially non-aging property. Results of stamping test of door outer panel showed that RBH-35 is the most suitable steel sheet for the thinning of outer body panels by about 10%. This paper reports the metallurgical features, mechanical properties and applications of the steel.
Technical Paper

Frictional Behavior of New Polymer Lubricating Film for Coated Steel Sheets

Recently, many kinds of coated steel sheets are developed and used for automobile panels. Some of them show higher coefficient of friction and poorer formability than a cold rolled steel sheet. New polymer lubricating films are developed and proved to improve frictional characteristics of coated steel sheets in this study. The developed polymer lubricating films are applied to Electro Galvanized steel sheet and Hot Dip Galvannealed steel sheet, and coefficient of friction and formability of them are measured by using model dies. Different coefficients of friction are obtained by a change in a combination of components in a polymer lubricating film. As a result, the most suitable coefficient of friction is able to chose in forming conditions by the developed polymer lubricating films.
Technical Paper

The Development of Vibration Damping Steel Sheets for Inner Panels of Automotive Vehicles

Vibration damping steel sheets (VDSS), which have sandwich structures with intermediate layers of resin, have been studied. The most important characteristics of VDSS for inner panels of automotive vehicles are the vibration damping properties, press formability and spot weldability. Vibration damping properties, which are quantified by loss factor,η, were influenced by both tanδ, which indicates damping capacity of resins, and elastic modulus of core resin. From a view point of vibration damping properties, resins with larger tanδ and relatively lower elastic modulus were favorable. Because these mechanical characteristics vary considerably with temperature, it is important to select the most suitable resin for the service temperature range. The relationship between noise reduction effect and loss factor of VDSS were also studied. It was experimentally confirmed that noise reduction effect of VDSS is proportional to the logarithm of their loss factor.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Resistance of Gas Shielded Metal Arc Welds with E-coat

Gas shielded metal arc welding is generally applied to automobile chassis parts. However, the weld parts with the E-coat show poor corrosion resistance. Therefore, the corrosion mechanism of the weld parts was investigated. The results found two reasons why the weld parts corroded faster than the non weld parts:(1)inadequate phosphating (2)defects in the E-coat. After detailed investigation, it was clarified that the major cause of poor corrosion resistance was the defects in the E-coat caused by slags formed on the surface of the weld bead. Therefore the amount of slag has to be decreased to improve the corrosion resistance. The effect of shielding gas composition on the amount of slag was then investigated. In the case of Ar and oxidizing gas mixture, the corrosion resistance improved as the oxidizing gas content decreased. This was due to the reduction of slags.