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Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Prominent Factors Affecting Evaporator Frosting in a Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0014
In an automotive air conditioning system, evaporator is well designed for effective heat transfer between refrigerant and air flowing over the evaporator. This cold and dehumidified air obtained at evaporator is then supplied to passenger cabin. There are various parameters like air flow over evaporator, ambient temperature, humidity condition and condensate drain mechanism which can cause frost formation over the evaporator core. This study presents the probable causes of frost formation and their effects on the performance of evaporator and thus affecting overall performances of the automotive air conditioning system. In this study effect of variation in four major independent factors such as poor response of thermistor, undercharged refrigerant system and overcharged refrigerant system, drop in air flow by blower due to clogged air-filter, and also the effect of type of compressor has been studied.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Battery (HVB) Durability Enhancement in Electric Mobility through 1D CAE

2020-08-18
2020-28-0013
The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. Long range in electric mobility can be served with High Voltage Battery (HVB), but HVB can sustain for its designed life if it’s maintained within a specific operating temperature range. Appropriate battery thermal management through Battery Cooling System (BCS) is critical for vehicle range and battery durability This work focus on two aspects, BCS sizing and its coolant flow optimization in Electric bus. BCS modelling was done in 1D CAE software. The objective is to develop a model of BCS in virtual environment to replicate the physical testing. Electric bus contain numerous battery packs and a complex piping in its cooling system. BCS sizing simulation was performed to keep the battery packs in operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Climate Control Strategy for Electric Vehicles

2020-08-18
2020-28-0023
In current days electric vehicles (EVs) are being promoted on significant scale through various government initiative as a zero-emission means of transport. However the major hurdle for wider customer acceptance of EVs are being comparatively expensive, lack of charging station infrastructure and ambient based limited driving range. It is known that Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is major contributor in overall power consumption of electric vehicles. The HVAC system architecture and working logics in EVs are different from the one in fuel based vehicle.
Technical Paper

Challenges during Deployment of Cabin Air Quality Enhancers in Current Mobility Solutions

2020-08-18
2020-28-0016
In the past five years, Indian cities have been consistently appearing in the list of top 15 world’s most polluted cities. Every day, a common man in India spends more than 2 hours on the road due to numerous reasons, thus exposed to inhale highly polluted air. Further, the passenger car users is exposed to ~ 6 times more polluted air as compared to ambient air reason being the air is recirculated through the air conditioning system. Prolonged exposure to such polluted/ recirculated air shows increasing trend in respiratory illnesses, breathing discomfort and fatigue. This paper discusses the key challenges involved in incorporating cabin air filter as cabin air quality enhancer in current mobility solutions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of HVAC System Level Noise in Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0035
With the advent of new technologies and rigorous research and development work going on vehicle engines, cars are becoming quieter and more refined than ever before. This has led to the observance of subjective noises being audible to passenger compartment which were earlier masked behind engine noise. The vehicle HVAC system has several moving parts and transient flow of refrigerant which can cause certain types of irritant noise. Thus having a refinement in of air-conditioning (AC) system would aid us in cutting down on this parasitic noise source. Thus noise refinement should be one of the important parameters during the design and development of the Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for a vehicle program.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Quantify the Undesirable Effects of the Localized Inefficiency of Heat Pick-Up in Suction Line on an Automotive Air Conditioning System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0036
The automotive application places very special demands on the air conditioning system. As is the case with any other process, system efficiency is very important and the automotive air-conditioning application is no exception. While the characteristics of all the major components in the air conditioning system like compressor, condenser, evaporator and blower contribute to overall system efficiency, localized inefficiencies do play a part and so must be kept to a minimum, especially in this day and age when extra emphasis is being laid on sustainability. One such phenomenon that contributes to the system inefficiency is heat pick-up in suction line. Since the temperature at the evaporator-outlet is quite lower than ambient and also its surroundings (steering system pipes and hoses, engine, air intake pipes and so on), the refrigerant picks up heat as it moves along the suction line up to the compressor inlet. This heat pick-up is detrimental to the overall system performance.
Technical Paper

Practical Approach for Vehicle HVAC Noise Reduction and Comfort Improvement

2011-05-17
2011-01-1592
Comfortable cabin environment from temperature, noise and vibration point of view is one of the most desirable aspects of any vehicle operating in hot or cold environment. Noise generated from HVAC system is one of the most irritating phenomena resulting in customer dissatisfaction and complaints. It becomes absolutely necessary to have low HVAC noise levels when the target market has hot weather all round the year. Balance between control of temperature in desired way with least possible noise and vibration is the key for HVAC performance optimization within constrains posed by design and cost. This paper describes the approach for NVH refinement of front HVAC system proposed for a vehicle with limited off-road capability for which packaging constraints and late changes related to airflow and HVAC unit design for meeting comfort and crash requirements resulted in deterioration of noise and vibrations while operation.
Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Reduction in a Single Cylinder Direct Injection (DI) Naturally Aspirated (NA) Engine

2011-05-17
2011-01-1503
Small goods carrier and passenger vehicles powered by Naturally Aspirated (NA) Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines are popular in Indian automobile market. However, they suffer from inherently high radiated noise and poorly perceived sound quality. This paper documents the steps taken to reduce the radiated noise level from such an engine through structural modifications of major noise radiating components identified in the sound power analysis. The work is summarized as follows; Baseline radiated noise measurements of power train and identification of major noise sources through sound intensity mapping and noise source ranking (NSR) in an Engine Noise Test Cell (ENTC) Design modifications for identified major sources in engine structure Vehicle level assessment of the radiated noise in a Vehicle Semi-Anechoic Chamber (VSAC) for all the design modifications. A reduction of 7 dB at hot idle and 4 - 8 dB in loaded speed sweep conditions was observed with the recommended modifications.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization and Cost Effective Methodology for Column Mounted Single Stalk Combination Switch.

2011-04-12
2011-01-0775
As the automobile industry in India is growing fast and competitive, there is a need to design the vehicle and its parts at most cost effective. This paper gives the details of design optimization and cost effective methodology followed to develop a Single Stalk Combination Switch, without degrading the end user delight. This paper describes various design criteria affecting the combination switch design.
Technical Paper

Jute Fibre Based Composite for Automotive Headlining

2011-04-12
2011-01-0224
With increased awareness about environmental issues, the trend of automobile industry is to use ‘Recycled’ or ‘Biodegradable’ or ‘Energy Recoverable’ material. As a part of this programme, to make the vehicle ‘Green’ in nature, many automobile OEMs have taken the initiative to make use of natural fibre composite in their vehicles. Natural fibre based composite has been successfully proven for less critical as well as for semi-structural applications in an automobile. These typical applications are insulations, headlining, carpets, door pad etc. There is a demanding task for automotive OEMs to meet 85% Recyclability and 95% Recoverability targets by year 2015. To meet the RRR (Reuse, Recycle & Recover) and the ELV (End of Life) regulatory requirements, increased use of natural fibre based composite/ biopolymers is unavoidable. Natural fibre can offer potential advantages such as weight saving and improve overall green rating of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Drills for Long Oil Holes: A Good Potential for Recycle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1154
Recycle, Reuse, Repair is an established process for sustainability. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1] or by redesigning a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2]. This paper explores the possibility of reuse of HSS drills that are used for making long oil holes in automobile parts like crankcase (cylinder block), cylinder head, crankshaft, etc. Design/manufacture of such drills is peculiar by virtue of their size and length and are also known as thick web high helix drills. Making of oil holes entails use of drills that are 500 to 600 mm long depending on the size of the component. In most of the long oil hole drilling operations, a limited portion of the drill is useable. This is because there is a possibility of fouling of the holding elements with guiding element, or with the part being drilled and the chance of accidental damage to part or machine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flywheel Mass and Its Center of Gravity on Crankshaft Endurance Limit Safety Factor and Dynamics

2013-04-08
2013-01-1743
The crankshaft is the component which transmits dynamic loads from cylinder pressure and inertial loads in engine operating conditions. Because of its crucial importance in functioning of engine and requisite to sustain high dynamic and torsional loading, crankshaft fatigue life is desired to be higher than the predicted engine operating life. Performance of the crank train in diesel engine applications largely depends on the components of its mass elastic system. Flywheel is one such component whose design affects the life of crankshaft. In the present study, the crank train comprising of torsional vibration damper, crankshaft and flywheel along with clutch cover is considered for analysis. Crankshaft dynamic simulation is performed with multi body dynamics technique, fatigue safety factors of crankshaft are calculated with dynamic loads under engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Opportunities and Control Measures for Sustainable Transport Growth in Emerging Economy Regions-India

2013-04-08
2013-01-1037
Sustainable development is a very complex concept involving several inter-related issues and concerns. Globalization has given a new dimension to social, economic and environmental development associated with the perceived responsibilities and growth indicators. Both developing and developed countries have the opportunities to exploit comparative advantages in the changing economic, social and environmental scenario while targeting sustainable growth together with expansion of the business prospects. Every region perceives these opportunities with different notion. There is a plethora of indicators for assessing sustainability. However, assessment criteria, prioritization and trade off for a given sustainability parameter against the other could be very complex while evolving transport growth model in emerging economies.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Anti Scratch Additives on Polypropylene Compound

2013-04-08
2013-01-1391
Automotive Industry is constantly upgrading the value offered on their products at optimized cost. Scratch and mar resistance of interiors and exterior parts, is an important attribute which is linked to perceived quality and value offered to customers. Polypropylene material is optimum material of choice for these parts due to its unique advantages. However, filled polypropylene material has poor scratch and mar resistance. Many techniques for scratch resistance improvement are available such as additions of slip agents, co additives, special fillers, siloxanes, etc. However, some of them may offer some disadvantages like stickiness or tackiness on the surfaces. The choice depends on its effectiveness & cost. This paper deals with design of experiments to evaluate effectiveness of 4 types of additives and their optimum % to give scratch resistance improvement without having detrimental impact on other critical properties.
Journal Article

Sensor less Wash Fluid Detection in Automotive Application

2013-04-08
2013-01-1338
The proposed paper describes the hardware and software method used for detection of wash fluid level in water tank used in automotive; thereby eliminating the need for sensor (Reed type switch mounted on washer bottle) for low wash fluid detection. Wash motor is used for water spray on windscreen during wash and wipe operation. The proposed system makes use of hardware circuit used to drive the wash motor usually of DC (Direct current) type and a feedback circuitry to read back the current consumed by motor during particular wash operation. This hardware system is coupled with software algorithm such that during IGNITION ON instance wash motor will be turned on such as to get motor current readings to determine amount of load operated by motor which is related to wash fluid inside the washer bottle. Motor operation is optimized so as to avoid water spray causing nuisance to user.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Clutch Inertial Effects on Gear Shifting, Synchronizer Capacity and Accelerated Testing of Synchronizers

2013-11-27
2013-01-2807
In today's scenario, most of the OEMs use manual transmissions with synchronizer gear shifting system for ease of gear shifting. It gives very high fuel efficiency. Gear shifting is a customer touch point, hence it is very important to select adequate synchronizer capacity so that it will perform in better and last longer. To test the synchronizers, there are many test methods which give the idea about life of synchronizer and its performance, in different conditions. Regular synchronizer rig tests consume lot of time in deriving the results. So it is very important to find out a way which will give same results within short time period. To carry out the short time test or accelerated test, we need to understand the effect of various factors like reflected inertia, drag torque, differential speed, synchronizing time, and gear shifting force on synchronizer capacity.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology with Shock Loads and Fatigue Limit of Press Fitted Gears on Shaft

2013-11-27
2013-01-2794
In case of new generation of commercial vehicles, three shaft transmissions are designed with press fitted gears on counter shaft. It allows user to save the cost of transmission manufacturing by considerable amount. In case of heavy commercial vehicles, which are being used in abusive conditions such as mining and off-road applications, it becomes absolutely necessary to ensure that the gears press fit should withstand the continuous loads and impact loads. There are design guidelines available to ensure proper fit and torque carrying capacity between the mating parts. Still, there are gear slippage, shaft and gear breakage failures in the field. In this scenario, there is a need to develop bench test procedure which will capture such failures in the prototype stage. Looking at the failures in the field, it is necessary to capture all above hidden failures in design validation phase.
Technical Paper

Seat Structure Comfort Evaluation Using Pink Noise and Human/Dummy Transmissibility Correlation

2013-11-27
2013-01-2852
Vehicle floor vibration is the resultant of different road inputs damped through various transfer paths. Seat comfort, which depends on these floor vibrations, can be evaluated with a single input signal “Pink noise”; which constitutes various road inputs. Transmissibility of seat structure on a vibration shaker with pink noise input includes all possible responses of road inputs. Still, transmissibility profile at vehicle end and component level varies. This is due to the utilization of “dummy” on component level testing on vibration shaker, which acts as a dead weight with dissimilar damping characteristics of human. A transmissibility correlation between human and dummy is attained by replacing the dummy in place of human and actuating it to find the difference in contribution between them for different class of vehicles. This contribution extrapolation from the damping effects of human and dummy is applied on dummy transmissibility.
Technical Paper

Elastomer Isolator Gear Design to Meet Noise, Vibration and Durability of Internal Combustion Engine

2013-09-24
2013-01-2380
Success of the vehicle in the market depends on comfort provided while usage, which also includes noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In order to achieve comfort level, the NVH levels have to be as low as possible. Powertrain is the main source of NVH, in which internal combustion engine consists of crank shaft and balancer shaft. Crank shaft gear is connected and driven by crank shaft and balanced by integral eccentric mass coupled with gear. Balancer shaft is used for additional balancing of rotating masses. Pair of crank shaft and balancer shaft gears generates noise and vibration when unbalance in the system and backlash in the gears increase while usage. The practice of interposing a vibration isolator on the surface of gear has been so far resorted for preventing transmission of vibration, therefore reduction in noise. In the work presented, balancer gear was made with sandwich design to reduce noise. Sandwich design comprises of Inner hub and outer ring with lug projections.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Frequent Pinion Seal and Hub Seal Leakages on Heavy Commercial Vehicles

2010-10-05
2010-01-2015
The automotive sector is going through a phase of stiff competition among various Original Equipment Manufacturers for increasing their profitability while ensuring highest levels of customer satisfaction. The biggest challenge for such companies lies in minimizing their overall cost involving investments in Research and Development, manufacturing, after sales service and warranty costs. Higher warranty costs not only affect the net profit but in turn it also affects the brand image of the company to a large extent in the long run. An effort is made here to target such warranty costs due to frequent tail pinion and hub seal leakages on single reduction/hub reduction axles of Heavy Commercial Vehicles in the field. A preliminary study involving the severity analysis of such failures is followed by a step by step investigation of these failures.
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