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Technical Paper

Practical Approach for Vehicle HVAC Noise Reduction and Comfort Improvement

2011-05-17
2011-01-1592
Comfortable cabin environment from temperature, noise and vibration point of view is one of the most desirable aspects of any vehicle operating in hot or cold environment. Noise generated from HVAC system is one of the most irritating phenomena resulting in customer dissatisfaction and complaints. It becomes absolutely necessary to have low HVAC noise levels when the target market has hot weather all round the year. Balance between control of temperature in desired way with least possible noise and vibration is the key for HVAC performance optimization within constrains posed by design and cost. This paper describes the approach for NVH refinement of front HVAC system proposed for a vehicle with limited off-road capability for which packaging constraints and late changes related to airflow and HVAC unit design for meeting comfort and crash requirements resulted in deterioration of noise and vibrations while operation.
Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Reduction in a Single Cylinder Direct Injection (DI) Naturally Aspirated (NA) Engine

2011-05-17
2011-01-1503
Small goods carrier and passenger vehicles powered by Naturally Aspirated (NA) Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines are popular in Indian automobile market. However, they suffer from inherently high radiated noise and poorly perceived sound quality. This paper documents the steps taken to reduce the radiated noise level from such an engine through structural modifications of major noise radiating components identified in the sound power analysis. The work is summarized as follows; Baseline radiated noise measurements of power train and identification of major noise sources through sound intensity mapping and noise source ranking (NSR) in an Engine Noise Test Cell (ENTC) Design modifications for identified major sources in engine structure Vehicle level assessment of the radiated noise in a Vehicle Semi-Anechoic Chamber (VSAC) for all the design modifications. A reduction of 7 dB at hot idle and 4 - 8 dB in loaded speed sweep conditions was observed with the recommended modifications.
Technical Paper

A Robust Solution for a Power-Train Mounting System for Automotive NVH Refinements

2015-01-14
2015-26-0140
Production variations of a heavy duty truck for its vibrations were measured and then analyzed through an Ishikawa diagram. Noise and Control factors of the truck idle shake were indentified. The major cause was found to be piece to piece variations of its power-train (PT) rubber mounts. To overcome the same, a new nominal level of the mount stiffness was sought based on minimization of a cost function related to vibration transmissibility and fatigue damage of the mounts under dynamic loadings. Physical prototypes of such mounts were proved to minimize the variations of the driver's seat shake at idling among various trucks of the same design. These learning's are useful for design of various subsystems or components to refine the full vehicle-Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) at the robust design level.
Technical Paper

Seat Structure Comfort Evaluation Using Pink Noise and Human/Dummy Transmissibility Correlation

2013-11-27
2013-01-2852
Vehicle floor vibration is the resultant of different road inputs damped through various transfer paths. Seat comfort, which depends on these floor vibrations, can be evaluated with a single input signal “Pink noise”; which constitutes various road inputs. Transmissibility of seat structure on a vibration shaker with pink noise input includes all possible responses of road inputs. Still, transmissibility profile at vehicle end and component level varies. This is due to the utilization of “dummy” on component level testing on vibration shaker, which acts as a dead weight with dissimilar damping characteristics of human. A transmissibility correlation between human and dummy is attained by replacing the dummy in place of human and actuating it to find the difference in contribution between them for different class of vehicles. This contribution extrapolation from the damping effects of human and dummy is applied on dummy transmissibility.
Technical Paper

NVH Refinement of Small Gasoline Engine through Digital and Experimental Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0211
Today’s competitive market demands for low cost passenger cars with lighter, smaller size, peppy response and fuel efficient engines and having world class NVH refinement levels. For such requirements, it is essential to optimize the product starting from the design conceptual stage, considering all performance aspects. Generally, three cylinder engines, due to less reciprocating masses, compared to four-cylinder engine, are said to be fuel efficient for the same capacity. Nevertheless, NVH problems caused by inherent imbalance forces and couples remain as drawback of the three-cylinder engine. However, through optimal design of the crank train, control of cylinder to cylinder pressure variation, stiffening of the engine structure, optimizing the integration with a vehicle through proper design of mounts, NVH refinement levels can be improved.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Driveline Rattle using Elastic Multi Body Dynamics Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0191
As automotive technology has evolved, gear rattle has become a prominent contributor for cabin noise as the masking from the engine noise has decreased. The market and customer expectation make the rattle noise a question to be addressed as early as possible in the vehicle development process. However, to simulate rattle, it calls for a detailed modeling of different complex subsystems of driveline to represent their true characteristics. Thus, the paper adopts an FE based elastic multi body dynamics model to predict gear rattle. The approach involves modeling of a complete flexible driveline using condensed FE models from Nastran in AVL Excite Powerunit/Transmission module. It includes combustion pressure as input excitations to crankshaft and then predicts parameters like gear teeth impacts, gear normal meshing force, dynamic mesh stiffness & overall contact state in transient and frequency domain. The output parameters are then analyzed to evaluate the rattle index.
Technical Paper

Tackle Low Frequency Structural Vibration in AMT Car using Gear Shift Schedule Optimization

2017-01-10
2017-26-0198
The present work focuses on optimization of gear shift pattern of an AMT vehicle to improve its NVH performance without causing any adverse effect on any other vehicle performance attribute. The vehicle which was identified with the structural body resonance at low frequency had discomforting boom noise in a particular engine rpm zone and at corresponding vehicle speed. With the initial shift pattern (will be referred as V1 gear shift schedule), the gear shifts were calibrated such that when vehicle is driven in the city with 20 to 60 kmph speed, the vehicle operated mostly in the best fuel economy zone but it used to pass through structural resonance frequency. This resulted in the presence of continuous boom leading to an unpleasant driving experience. In order to avoid the presence of boom noise during city driving, the gear shift points were optimized (will be referred as V2 gear shift schedule) such that the vehicle did not operate in affected engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Designing In-Cab Sound of Vehicles as per the Customer Driving Pattern on Roads

2019-01-09
2019-26-0170
Vehicle refinement from point of view reduction in its Noise, Vibrations and Harshness (NVH) affects customer’s buying decision and it also directly influences his/her driving experience on road at different speeds. Customer voice, however, indicates that a traditional process of developing design solutions is not aligned with the customers’ expectations. Traditionally the load cases for NVH development are focused only on quietness of passengers’ cabin at idling and in 3rd gear wide open throttle cruising on smooth roads. In reality, the Driver of a premium sedan car or a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) or a Compact Utility Vehicle (CUV) expects something different than merely the low sound pressure level inside the cabin. His/her driving pattern over a day plays a crucial role. A vehicle-owner wishes to balance various attributes of the in-cab sound and tactile vibrations at a time.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cabin Noise while Accelerating on Low Mu Track through Simulation Approach Using Full Vehicle ADAMS/Car Model

2019-01-09
2019-26-0179
Cabin noise is a significant product quality criteria which enables the customers for product differentiation. There are various sources of cabin noise such as wind, structures(panels), engine, suspension, tire and roads. During product development phase, extensive tests has been conducted to improve vehicle dynamics behavior on various climatic conditions. One such test is accelerating vehicle on low mu or icy surface. While performing acceleration manoeuvre (tractions) on a low mu tracks, Cabin noise with source identified from front underbody & low tractive torque build up is reported. This undesirable behavior may occur due to following reason (1) Excitation of coupled modes between suspension and powertrain which induces torque fluctuation. (2) Transmissibility of various subsystem can be the reason for above problem statement. (3) Poorly chosen tire compounds and design leads to fluctuation in torque.
Technical Paper

HVAC System Noise Prediction through CFD Simulation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0210
Vehicles with Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system have shown growing demand for in-cabin acoustic comfort in recent days. This is mainly due to advancement in new generation quieter powertrains and improved cabin sealing which has made HVAC system noise more dominant inside the cabin. HVAC system noise is predominantly flow induced. Further, considering future hybrid and Electric vehicles where engine powertrain noise will be insignificant, more attention will be required for HVAC system design. Contribution of noise in the cabin from HVAC system is in the frequency range 400 Hz to 5000 Hz. The noise produced by a HVAC system is mainly due to aeroacoustics mechanisms related to the flow fluctuations due to the blower rotation and complex flow path in HVAC unit flaps, duct and vents. Air borne noise is becoming important as other noise sources reduced with advancement of material, insulation and architectural strategies.
Technical Paper

Full Vehicle NVH CAE Methodology Development to Address Tailgate Rattling on a Future Tata SUV

2019-01-09
2019-26-0213
In recent years, car manufacturers have been working intensively on new ways to improve the quality of interior trims. Elimination of squeak and rattle has become one of the main concerns for car manufacturers lately, given the significance of these incidences in customers' perception of overall quality. Traditionally, rattle problems are found and fixed with physical tests at the late design stage, mainly due to lack of up-front CAE simulation prediction methodology and tools availability. This article presents a finite element based methodology for the improvement of rattle performance of a vehicle tailgate. In this study, appropriate finite element (FE) modeling technique was introduced to accurately predict occurrence of tailgate rattle. Simulation process using commercial software “Nastran” employing modal and forced frequency response analyses was illustrated. Design modifications were incorporated for performance improvement of rattling on present and future SUVs.
Technical Paper

Brake squeal noise reduction in city buses

2019-06-05
2019-01-1572
Buses have become one of the most widely used mode of public transportation, particularly for city applications. Indeed, passenger comfort and vehicle noise are a major concern faced by automotive industry. Brake system is one such contributor to undesired vibrations and obnoxious noise. Squeal noise, caused due to friction-induced vibrations, is a serious customer irritant to the bus passengers as well as the environment, also leading to brake performance deterioration and monetary abominations in terms of warranty costs. Brake squeal noise has been considerably studied for over years. Several design modifications and structural changes have been incorporated to prevent the occurrence of squeal noise, but the issue persists. In this paper, we have discussed on brake squeal noise reduction in city buses by optimisation brake drum diameter, selection of different friction liner linings and optimising other brake components sizes. Keywords: Squeal, brakes, drum, vibration, bus, comfort
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