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Technical Paper

Investigation of Frequent Pinion Seal and Hub Seal Leakages on Heavy Commercial Vehicles

The automotive sector is going through a phase of stiff competition among various Original Equipment Manufacturers for increasing their profitability while ensuring highest levels of customer satisfaction. The biggest challenge for such companies lies in minimizing their overall cost involving investments in Research and Development, manufacturing, after sales service and warranty costs. Higher warranty costs not only affect the net profit but in turn it also affects the brand image of the company to a large extent in the long run. An effort is made here to target such warranty costs due to frequent tail pinion and hub seal leakages on single reduction/hub reduction axles of Heavy Commercial Vehicles in the field. A preliminary study involving the severity analysis of such failures is followed by a step by step investigation of these failures.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Evaluate Wear on Automotive Leaf Spring Suspension Bushes

Traditionally the bushes used for automotive suspension are tested by methods which either don't address the environmental conditions including dust or mud, which convert a 2-body wear condition to 3-body wear condition prevailing in the field or not representative of the complete load bearing area of the bushes coming in contact with the pin. To address the above issues, a novel method of testing has been designed to take care of the loading type, environmental conditions and load bearing area of the bushes to simulate the field conditions.
Technical Paper

Hydropneumatic Suspension Design for Light Military Tracked Vehicle

In this paper hydropneumatic suspension system design methodology for light military tracked vehicle is discussed in detail. A guide to locate the major impact factor & its effect on the system level design is demonstrated. Spring & damping characteristics of hydropneumatic suspension have significant bearing on the tracked vehicle mobility characteristics. A methodology has been derived to optimize the kinematics of the suspension system by optimizing the load transferring leverage ratio resulting in enhanced system life. The paper also discusses the analytical method used for prediction of spring & damping characteristics and the factors affecting them.
Technical Paper

How to Enhance Gear Shift Feel of North-South Transmission Layout

Globalization has intensively driven focus of car manufacturers on comfort and ergonomics. Luxuries are becoming essential features of product mix. Customer’s expectations and desires are changing because of cut throat competition and increasing variety of options. In order to sustain in marketplace, OEM has to be competitive while providing features and options with appropriate quality. Vigorously changing dimensions and definitions of comfort level, luxury and aesthetics has driven the intense focus of OEM’s on customer touch points, customer touch points are those components of vehicle which customer accesses while driving the vehicle and they play vital role in generating drive feel of vehicle. Customer’s drive feel about the vehicle is most complex and critical factor and is of subjective nature. Now days drive feel is an important aspect of product differentiation. Gear shift feel is very crucial touch point in overall drive feel of vehicle.
Technical Paper

Optimization of State Machine Architecture for Automotive Body Control

The OEM's aim is to reduce development time and testing cost, hence the objective behind this work is to achieve a flexible stateflow model so that changes in the application during supply chain or development, on adding/deleting any switches, varying timer cycle, changing the logic for future advancements or else using the logic in different application, would end in minimal changes in the chart or in its states which would reflect least changes in the code. This research is about designing state machine architecture for chime/buzzer warning system and wiper/washer motor control system. The chime/buzzer stateflow chart includes various input switches like ignition, parking, seat belt buckle, driver door and speed accompanied with warning in the form of LED, lamp and buzzer. The logic is differentiated according to gentle and strong warning. Various conditions and scenarios of the vehicle and driver are considered for driver door and seat belt which is resolved in the chart.
Technical Paper

Approach to Model Thermistor Based AC Compressor Cut-OFF/Cut-IN Phenomenon in 1D Simulation of Mobile Air Conditioning

This paper documents the approach followed to simulate the physical phenomenon of thermistor based AC compressor Cut-OFF/Cut-IN (AC compressor cycling) in 1-Dimensional Computer Aided Engineering (1D CAE) to enable Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) performance prediction at different ambient conditions. Thermistor based AC compressor cycling logic is incorporated in MAC systems to prevent ice formation at evaporator core and liquid refrigerant flow to AC compressor. Currently, during MAC system performance simulation over a transient drive cycle, the 1D models are able to predict cabin cooldown performance for severe ambient conditions (>40°C, high solar load) with >95% accuracy, as in these cases AC compressor cycling due to thermistor doesn’t occur at higher ambient.
Technical Paper

Thermal Mapping of HPAS System Based on Steering Kinematic and Tire-Road Contact Patch Sliding Model

In hydraulic power assisted steering (HPAS) system higher steering oil temperature can cause deterioration of oil reservoir, thermal failure of pump/valves and can diminish system performance. Thermal analysis is performed for HPAS system architecture development in order to maintain steering oil temperature within design limits for optimal performance & increased life of HPAS steering system. In present study mathematical model of HPAS system consisting of steering pump, flow and pressure control mechanism, rotary valve, steering circuit pipes and hoses, thermal interaction with ambient is developed. The model is able to predict steering torque-hydraulic pressure dynamics of HPAS system as per design. Developed HPAS system model is integrated with steering kinematic and uniquely developed tire-road contact patch sliding model for estimating non-linear rack force behavior at higher steering angle.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Test Schedule for Jerk Test on Manual Gearbox Using Road Load Data

Shock loads/Jerk is a major cause of gearbox failure which occurs during abusive driving condition. In passenger car torque spikes are experienced by the transmission during launch/sudden clutch release events on flat road or off-road. Whereas, in case of commercial vehicle torque spikes are generated while operation in mines and off-road application especially in tipper vehicles. Torque spikes experienced by the gearbox can lead to gear failure, gear slippage and structural failure of housing. Research has been done till now to improve the design of gearbox to address such failures. However, with increased focus on transmission downsizing and improved vehicle performance (by weight reduction and more powerful engine) it is necessary to have optimum design to meet transmission life. This paper discuss the test setup and methodology used to simulate the torque spikes on test bench. To develop the test procedure huge data was collected on commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

Reduction in Human Effort in Shifting and Selection Forces in Manual Transmission system

Transmission system is important part of automobile. In the current era of automobile, there are two types of gear shifting mechanism: manual and automatic. Manual gear shifting mechanism is complex and require much effort for shifting and selection of gear so to surmount much effort by kinematic analysis of linkages, joints ergonomically. By changing these parameters in gear shifting mechanism it gives flexibility and less effort for shifting and selection of gear. It also reduce feasibility of error of shifting and selection of gear. Transmission system is modeled in CREO 2.0 and measuring and data analysis of the shift and selection forces of gear was done with the load sensor shown in Figure 6 and programming was done in LABVIEW 2015. The final cause of this technical paper is to decrease physical effort by driver for shifting and selection of gear.
Technical Paper

Development of Dc Motor based E-Shift Mechanism for Manual Transmission

Transmission designs over the years have evolved significantly achieving more efficiency in terms of fuel economy, comfort and reduction in emissions. This paper describes a Dc motor based E-shift mechanism which automates an existing manual transmission and clutch system to give comfort and ease for gear shifting. The basic idea of E-shift mechanism is to make hassle free gear shifting of manual transmission at sole command of driver without any control strategy for automatic shifting as in case of Automated Manual transmission (AMT). The E-shift mechanism will eliminate the manual efforts required for pressing clutch pedal and shifting gear, giving more ease while driving. The developed mechanism can be retro fitted on existing manual transmission without any major modification at lower cost. The E-shift mechanism uses two actuators for gear shifting and one actuator for clutch actuation.
Technical Paper

Grit Blasting on Synchronizer - To Resolve Early Crashing Complaint

In today’s automobile market, most OEMs use manual transmission for cars. Gear Shifting is a crucial customer touch point. Any issue or inconvenience caused while shifting gears can result into customer dissatisfaction and will affect the brand image. Synchronizer is a vital subsystem for precise gear shifting mechanism. Based on vehicle application selection of synchronizer for given inertia and speed difference is a key factor which decides overall shift quality of gearbox. For more demanding driver abuse conditions like skip shifting, conventional brass synchronizers have proved inadequate for required speed difference and gear inertia, which eventually results into synchronizer crashing and affects driving performance. To increase synchronizer performance of multi-cone compact brass synchronizer, a ‘Grit blasting process’ has been added. These components tested with an accelerated test plan successfully.
Technical Paper

Identification of Gear Shift Quality as a Key Attribute in Commercial Vehicle Development

Indian automotive market has grown extremely competitive in the recent past. In order to meet the ever growing expectations of the customers, automobile manufacturers are compelled to offer their products under superior quality with supreme comfort. Customers wish of high levels of tactile comfort in the cabin compartment and effortless operation of peripherals will result in negligible fatigue and a pleasant drive, needs to be duly fulfilled. One has to focus more on Gear shift lever and Steering wheel, which are being the most sensitive tactile points in an automobile. The gear shift lever knob is frequently used and significantly influences the perception of the shift comfort for a driver during actual vehicle application.
Technical Paper

Application of Phase Change Materials (PCM) for Reducing Cabin Heat Load

In regions like Indian Subcontinent, Gulf or Saharan & Sub-Saharan Africa, where the sunshine is abundant almost all year round, air-conditioning is an important aspect of vehicles (passenger cars, buses etc.). Higher heat means higher cooling demand which in turn means bigger AC system. Like other auxiliaries, AC compressor is a parasitic load on the engine. The best way to beat heat and reduce cabin heat load is to stop heat build-up itself. The present paper explores one such means of reducing cabin heat build-up by leveraging latent heat properties of phase change materials and thus improving the air condition performance. With the help of a case study this paper aims at detailing comprehensive effect of phase change material (PCM) and its application on the heat build-up inside the cabin of a vehicle, the air conditioning cooling performance, the time required to achieve comfort temperature, work of compression performed by AC compressor and COP.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Quantify the Undesirable Effects of the Localized Inefficiency of Heat Pick-Up in Suction Line on an Automotive Air Conditioning System

The automotive application places very special demands on the air conditioning system. As is the case with any other process, system efficiency is very important and the automotive air-conditioning application is no exception. While the characteristics of all the major components in the air conditioning system like compressor, condenser, evaporator and blower contribute to overall system efficiency, localized inefficiencies do play a part and so must be kept to a minimum, especially in this day and age when extra emphasis is being laid on sustainability. One such phenomenon that contributes to the system inefficiency is heat pick-up in suction line. Since the temperature at the evaporator-outlet is quite lower than ambient and also its surroundings (steering system pipes and hoses, engine, air intake pipes and so on), the refrigerant picks up heat as it moves along the suction line up to the compressor inlet. This heat pick-up is detrimental to the overall system performance.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of HVAC System Level Noise in Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

With the advent of new technologies and rigorous research and development work going on vehicle engines, cars are becoming quieter and more refined than ever before. This has led to the observance of subjective noises being audible to passenger compartment which were earlier masked behind engine noise. The vehicle HVAC system has several moving parts and transient flow of refrigerant which can cause certain types of irritant noise. Thus having a refinement in of air-conditioning (AC) system would aid us in cutting down on this parasitic noise source. Thus noise refinement should be one of the important parameters during the design and development of the Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for a vehicle program.