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Technical Paper

A Two-Step Combustion Model of Iso-Octane for 3D CFD Combustion Simulation in SI Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0201
The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for three-dimensional (3D) combustion analysis coupled with detailed chemistry in engine development is hindered by its expensive computational cost. Chemistry computation may occupy as much as 90% of the total computational cost. In the present paper, a new two-step iso-octane combustion model was developed for spark-ignited (SI) engine to maximize computational efficiency while maintaining acceptable accuracy. Starting from the model constants of an existing global combustion model, the new model was developed using an approach based on sensitivity analysis to approximate the results of a reference skeletal mechanism. The present model involves only five species and two reactions and utilizes only one uniform set of model constants. The validation of the new model was performed using shock tube and real SI engine cases.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Autoignition and Flame Properties for Multicomponent Fuels Using Machine Learning Techniques

2019-04-02
2019-01-1049
Machine learning methods, such as decision trees and deep neural networks, are becoming increasingly important and useful for data analysis in various scientific fields including dynamics and control, signal processing, pattern recognition, fluid mechanics, and chemical synthesis, etc. For future engine design and performance optimization, there is an urgent need for a robust predictive model which could capture the major combustion properties such as autoignition and flame propagation of multicomponent fuels under a wide range of engine operating conditions, without massive experimental measurement or computational efforts. It will be shown that these long-held limitations and challenges related to complex fuel combustion and engine research could be readily solved by implementing machine learning methods.
Technical Paper

Effects of Numerical Models on Prediction of Cylinder Pressure Ringing in a DI Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0194
Pressure ringing phenomena in internal combustion engine are often observed in cylinder pressure measurement, which may be due to combustion dynamics, pressure oscillation inside the combustion chamber and/or inside a drilled probe hole for cylinder pressure sensor installation. In the present study, combustion process in a production DI diesel engine instrumented with pressure sensors in the cylinder head was analyzed using 3D combustion CFD simulation. Three combustion models (the CTC model with the Shell autoignition model, the Sage model with detailed chemistry, and the ECFM-3Z model) and three reaction mechanisms (the Shell autoignition model, the Chalmers reduced n-heptane mechanism, and the IFP PRF mechanism) were employed to validate their capability in capturing pressure ringing phenomena. Grid size within the drilled hole and speed of sound CFL number were varied to evaluate the effects on pressure ringing prediction.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on Laminar Flame Propagation in Mixtures with Non-Zero Reaction Progress

2019-04-02
2019-01-0946
Flame speed data reported in most literature are acquired in conventional apparatus such as the spherical combustion bomb and counterflow burner, and are limited to atmospheric pressure and ambient or slightly elevated unburnt temperatures. As such, these data bear little relevance to internal combustion engines and gas turbines, which operate under typical pressures of 10-50 bar and unburnt temperature up to 900K or higher. These elevated temperatures and pressures not only modify dominant flame chemistry, but more importantly, they inevitably facilitate pre-ignition reactions and hence can change the upstream thermodynamic and chemical conditions of a regular hot flame leading to modified flame properties. This study focuses on how auto-ignition chemistry affects flame propagation, especially in the negative-temperature coefficient (NTC) regime, where dimethyl ether (DME), n-heptane and iso-octane are chosen for study as typical fuels exhibiting low temperature chemistry (LTC).
Technical Paper

Optimization of Piston-Ring System for Reducing Lube Oil Consumption by CAE Approach

2020-04-14
2020-01-1339
A CAE-based optimization method is developed for Lube Oil Consumption (LOC) analysis of the piston-ring system. With accurate thermodynamic boundary conditions from 1D engine combustion simulation, piston motion, dynamics of piston ring, and characteristics of oil consumption are simulated using AVL Piston&Ring. The model is validated by comparing with available test data. Good match is achieved. The model is then applied to a diesel engine. The root cause of excessive LOC of the engine has been identified through CAE. The improved understanding has been applied to optimize the piston and piston ring. Engine dyno test, 1200-hour engine durability test, and 45000-kilometer vehicle test have been conducted to validate the optimized design. The experiment results are in good agreement with CAE predictions, and the oil consumption has been improved over the original design.
Technical Paper

A Two-Layer Soot Model for Hydrocarbon Fuel Combustion

2020-04-14
2020-01-0243
Experimental studies of soot particles showed that the intensity ratio of amorphous and graphite layers measured by Raman spectroscopy correlates to soot oxidation reactivities, which is very important for regeneration of the diesel particulate filters and gasoline particulate filters. This physical mechanism is absent in all soot models. In the present paper, a novel two-layer soot model was proposed that considers the amorphous and graphite layers in the soot particles. The soot model considers soot inception, soot surface growth, soot oxidation by O2 and OH, and soot coagulation. It is assumed that amorphous-type soot forms from fullerene. No soot coagulation is considered in the model between the amorphous- and graphitic-types of soot. Benzene is taken as the soot precursor, which is formed from acetylene. The model was implemented into a commercial CFD software CONVERGE using user defined functions. A diesel engine case was simulated.
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