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Technical Paper

A Two-Step Combustion Model of Iso-Octane for 3D CFD Combustion Simulation in SI Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0201
The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for three-dimensional (3D) combustion analysis coupled with detailed chemistry in engine development is hindered by its expensive computational cost. Chemistry computation may occupy as much as 90% of the total computational cost. In the present paper, a new two-step iso-octane combustion model was developed for spark-ignited (SI) engine to maximize computational efficiency while maintaining acceptable accuracy. Starting from the model constants of an existing global combustion model, the new model was developed using an approach based on sensitivity analysis to approximate the results of a reference skeletal mechanism. The present model involves only five species and two reactions and utilizes only one uniform set of model constants. The validation of the new model was performed using shock tube and real SI engine cases.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Autoignition and Flame Properties for Multicomponent Fuels Using Machine Learning Techniques

2019-04-02
2019-01-1049
Machine learning methods, such as decision trees and deep neural networks, are becoming increasingly important and useful for data analysis in various scientific fields including dynamics and control, signal processing, pattern recognition, fluid mechanics, and chemical synthesis, etc. For future engine design and performance optimization, there is an urgent need for a robust predictive model which could capture the major combustion properties such as autoignition and flame propagation of multicomponent fuels under a wide range of engine operating conditions, without massive experimental measurement or computational efforts. It will be shown that these long-held limitations and challenges related to complex fuel combustion and engine research could be readily solved by implementing machine learning methods.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Flow Induced Excitations in a Torque Converter

2017-03-28
2017-01-1115
This study analyzes the flow dynamics of a fluid within an operating torque converter. Transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been carried out with prescribed torque converter motions using commercially available CFD software. The analysis computes torque converter excitation forces that predict flow induced excitations during converter operation. In this study, various torque converter designs are compared and assessed with the aim of limiting flow induced excitations.
Technical Paper

Analytical Mechanical Loss Model for Planetary Gearset

2015-04-14
2015-01-1090
This paper presents a method to model the transmission mechanical power loss for the unloaded and loaded losses on a planetary gearset. In this analysis, the transmission losses are differentiated into losses due to fluid churning; losses due to fluid shear between the walls of rotating parts; losses due to fluid shear between motors' stator and rotor and losses due to the meshing of gearsets while transferring torque. This transmission mechanical power loss model is validated with test data that was obtained by independently testing an eVT transmission. The mechanical power loss model mentioned in this paper was constructed to accurately represent the test setup. From the correlation with the test data, it can be inferred that the transmission losses can be modeled within an error of 3% in the relevant region of output velocity for use in performance and fuel economy simulations.
Journal Article

Influence of Automatic Engine Stop/Start Systems on Vehicle NVH and Launch Performance

2015-06-15
2015-01-2183
Integration of automatic engine Stop/Start systems in “conventional” drivetrains with 12V starters is a relatively cost-effective measure to reduce fuel consumption. Therefore, automatic engine Stop/Start systems are becoming more prevalent and increasing market share of such systems is predicted. A quick, reliable and consistent engine start behavior is essential for customer acceptance of these systems. The launch of the vehicle should not be compromised by the Stop/Start system, which implies that the engine start time and transmission readiness for transmitting torque should occur within the time the driver releases the brake pedal and de-presses the accelerator pedal. Comfort and NVH aspects will continue to play an important role for customer acceptance of these systems. Hence, the engine stop and re-start behavior should be imperceptible to the driver from both a tactile and acoustic standpoint.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Metric to Assess Engine Stop Start Refinement

2015-06-15
2015-01-2186
Every automaker is looking for ways to improve the fuel economy of its vehicle fleet to meet the EPA greenhouse gas regulation, which translates into 2025 Corporate Averaged Fuel Economy of 54.5 mpg. Engine Stop Start technology will improve the fuel economy of the vehicle by shutting down the engine when the vehicle is stationary. While this is an established technology in Europe, it is beginning to gain momentum in North America, where NVH refinement is a stronger consideration. To utilize the fuel economy benefits of Stop Start technology in the North American market, the technology must be seamlessly incorporated into the vehicle. This paper gives an overview of characterizing an auto start based on the features of a few Powertrain-system-level metrics. Following the fundamentals of NVH, (Source, Path and Receiver) the receiver touch points will be less perceptible to vibration, if the powertrain-system source is made smoother.
Journal Article

Automobile Powertrain Sound Quality Development Using a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Approach

2015-06-15
2015-01-2336
Automotive companies are studying to add extra value in their vehicles by enhancing powertrain sound quality. The objective is to create a brand sound that is unique and preferred by their customers since quietness is not always the most desired characteristic, especially for high-performance products. This paper describes the process of developing a brand powertrain sound for a high-performance vehicle using the DFSS methodology. Initially the customer's preferred sound was identified and analyzed. This was achieved by subjective evaluations through voice-of-customer clinics using vehicles of similar specifications. Objective data were acquired during several driving conditions. In order for the design process to be effective, it is very important to understand the relationship between subjective results and physical quantities of sound. Several sound quality metrics were calculated during the data analysis process.
Technical Paper

Development of Chrysler Oxidation and Deposit Engine Oil Certification Test

2015-09-01
2015-01-2045
With the impending development of GF-6, the newest generation of engine oil, a new standardized oil oxidation and piston deposit test was developed using Chrysler 3.6 L Pentastar engine. The performance requirements and approval for passenger car light duty gasoline engine oil categories are set by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval committee (ILSAC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) using standardized testing protocols developed under the guidance of ASTM, the American Society for Testing and Materials. This paper describes the development of a new ASTM Chrysler oxidation and deposit test that will be used to evaluate lubricants performance for oil thickening and viscosity increase, and piston deposits.
Technical Paper

Effects of Numerical Models on Prediction of Cylinder Pressure Ringing in a DI Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0194
Pressure ringing phenomena in internal combustion engine are often observed in cylinder pressure measurement, which may be due to combustion dynamics, pressure oscillation inside the combustion chamber and/or inside a drilled probe hole for cylinder pressure sensor installation. In the present study, combustion process in a production DI diesel engine instrumented with pressure sensors in the cylinder head was analyzed using 3D combustion CFD simulation. Three combustion models (the CTC model with the Shell autoignition model, the Sage model with detailed chemistry, and the ECFM-3Z model) and three reaction mechanisms (the Shell autoignition model, the Chalmers reduced n-heptane mechanism, and the IFP PRF mechanism) were employed to validate their capability in capturing pressure ringing phenomena. Grid size within the drilled hole and speed of sound CFL number were varied to evaluate the effects on pressure ringing prediction.
Technical Paper

Thermal Map of an Exhaust Manifold for a Transient Dyno Test Schedule: Development and Test Data Correlation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0126
In an Internal Combustion (IC) Engine, the exhaust manifold has the primary function of channeling products of combustion from cylinder head runners to the emissions system through a collector. Exhaust manifolds must endure severe thermal loads and high strain caused by channeling extremely hot gases and fastener loads, respectively. The combination of these two loads can lead to Thermomechanical Fatigue (TMF) failures after repeated operational cycles if they are not assessed and addressed adequately during the design process. Therefore, it is vital to have a methodology in place to evaluate the life of an engine component (such as the exhaust manifold) using a TMF damage prediction model. To accomplish this, spatial temperature prediction and maximum value attained, as well as temporal distribution, are the most important input conditions.
Technical Paper

Use of Active Vibration Control to Improve Vehicle Refinement while Expanding the Usable Range of Cylinder Deactivation

2019-06-05
2019-01-1571
Cylinder deactivation has been in use for several years resulting in a sizable fuel economy advantage for V8-powered vehicles. The size of the fuel-economy benefit, compared to the full potential possible, is often limited due to the amount of usable torque available in four-cylinder-mode being capped by Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) sensitivities of various rear-wheel-drive vehicle architectures. This paper describes the application and optimization of active vibration absorbers as a system to attenuate vibration through several paths from the powertrain-driveline into the car body. The use of this strategy for attenuating vibration at strategic points is shown to diminish the need for reducing the powertrain source amplitude. This paper describes the process by which the strategic application of these devices is developed in order to achieve the increased usage of the most fuel efficient reduced-cylinder-count engine-operating-points.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Objective Metric for Transient Engine Clatter Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1519
Several powertrain noise phenomena have been studied over the years. Sound quality metrics, like loudness, sharpness, modulation, and tonality, among others, have been developed to characterize powertrain noises. While these readily available metrics work well on steady state and some transient noises, they do not correlate directly with subjective impressions. Moreover, it is difficult to assign a meaningful single rating for time varying noises that may also be associated with simultaneous variations in frequency content. This paper summarizes the process of creating a vehicle level objective metric and its application to blind noise samples to verify correlation with subjective impressions, particularly in association with clatter noise at moderate engine speeds (2000-3500 rpm) with light to moderate throttle tip-ins.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Evaluation of Lower Viscosity ATF in a Planetary Automatic Transmission for Improved Fuel Economy

2019-04-02
2019-01-1296
With continued industry focus on reducing parasitic transmission and driveline losses, detailed studies are required to quantify potential enablers to improve vehicle fuel economy. Investigations were undertaken to understand the influence of lower viscosity Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATF) on transmission efficiency as compared with conventional fluids. The objectives of this study were to quantify the losses of lower viscosity ATF as compared with conventional ATF, and to understand the influence of ATF properties including viscosities, base oil types, and additive packages on fuel efficiency. The transmission efficiency investigations were conducted on a test bench following a vehicle-based break-in of the transmission using a prescribed drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer. At low temperature, the lower viscosity ATF showed a clear advantage over the conventional ATF in both spin loss and loaded efficiency evaluations.
Technical Paper

Mode-shifting Minimization in a Power Management Strategy for Rapid Component Sizing of Multimode Power Split Hybrid Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1018
The production of multi-mode power-split hybrid vehicles has been implemented for some years now and it is expected to continually grow over the next decade. Control strategy still represents one of the most challenging aspects in the design of these vehicles. Finding an effective strategy to obtain the optimal solution with light computational cost is not trivial. In previous publications, a Power-weighted Efficiency Analysis for Rapid Sizing (PEARS) algorithm was found to be a very promising solution. The issue with implementing a PEARS technique is that it generates an unrealistic mode-shifting schedule. In this paper, the problematic points of PEARS algorithm are detected and analyzed, then a solution to minimize mode-shifting events is proposed. The improved PEARS algorithm is integrated in a design methodology that can generate and test several candidate powertrains in a short period of time.
Technical Paper

Optimal Water Jacket Flow Distribution Using a New Group-Based Space-Filling Design of Experiments Algorithm

2018-04-03
2018-01-1017
The availability of computational resources has enabled an increased utilization of Design of Experiments (DoE) and metamodeling (response surface generation) for large-scale optimization problems. Despite algorithmic advances however, the analysis of systems such as water jackets of an automotive engine, can be computationally demanding in part due to the required accuracy of metamodels. Because the metamodels may have many inputs, their accuracy depends on the number of training points and how well they cover the entire design (input) space. For this reason, the space-filling properties of the DoE are very important. This paper utilizes a new group-based DoE algorithm with space-filling groups of points to construct a metamodel. Points are added sequentially so that the space-filling properties of the entire group of points is preserved. The addition of points is continuous until a specified metamodel accuracy is met.
Journal Article

Optimization of Catalytic Converter Design to Improve Under-Hood Thermal Management

2019-04-02
2019-01-1263
The Catalytic Converter along with the inlet pipe and heat shields are part of the exhaust system that emits powerful heat to the surrounding components. With increasing need for tight under-hood spaces it is very critical to manage the heat emitted by the exhausts that may significantly increase temperature of surrounding components. In this paper a design methodology for catalytic converter has been applied which optimizes the design of the catalytic converter to reduce the surface temperature. The exhaust surface temperature is simulated as a function of time to account for transient effects. The simulation also considers various duty cycles such as road load, city traffic and grade driving conditions. To control the heat output of the exhaust system to the surrounding components different materials and properties of catalytic converter have been considered to reduce radiative heat transfer.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on Laminar Flame Propagation in Mixtures with Non-Zero Reaction Progress

2019-04-02
2019-01-0946
Flame speed data reported in most literature are acquired in conventional apparatus such as the spherical combustion bomb and counterflow burner, and are limited to atmospheric pressure and ambient or slightly elevated unburnt temperatures. As such, these data bear little relevance to internal combustion engines and gas turbines, which operate under typical pressures of 10-50 bar and unburnt temperature up to 900K or higher. These elevated temperatures and pressures not only modify dominant flame chemistry, but more importantly, they inevitably facilitate pre-ignition reactions and hence can change the upstream thermodynamic and chemical conditions of a regular hot flame leading to modified flame properties. This study focuses on how auto-ignition chemistry affects flame propagation, especially in the negative-temperature coefficient (NTC) regime, where dimethyl ether (DME), n-heptane and iso-octane are chosen for study as typical fuels exhibiting low temperature chemistry (LTC).
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Approach for Estimation of Automotive Component Life due to Thermal Effects

2018-05-30
2018-37-0019
Due to stringent environmental requirements, the vehicle under-hood and underbody temperatures have been steadily increasing. The increased temperatures affect components life and therefore, more thermal protection measures may be necessary. In this paper, we present an algorithm for estimation of automotive component life due to thermal effects through the vehicle life. Traditional approaches consider only the maximum temperature that a component will experience during severe driving maneuvers. However, that approach does not consider the time duration or frequency of exposure to temperature. We have envisioned a more realistic and science based approach to estimate component life based on vehicle duty cycles, component temperature profile, frequency and characteristics of material thermal degradation. In the proposed algorithm, a transient thermal analysis model provides the exhaust gas and exhaust surface temperatures for all exhaust system segments, and for any driving scenario.
Technical Paper

Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

2018-05-30
2018-37-0026
The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal sub-system loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below −10 °C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs.
Journal Article

Model-Based Control-Oriented Combustion Phasing Feedback for Fast CA50 Estimation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0868
The highly transient operational nature of passenger car engines makes cylinder pressure based feedback control of combustion phasing difficult. The problem is further complicated by cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. A method for fast and accurate differentiation of normal combustion variations and true changes in combustion phasing is addressed in this research. The proposed method combines the results of a feed forward combustion phasing prediction model and “noisy” measurements from cylinder pressure using an iterative estimation technique. A modified version of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to calculate optimal estimation gain according to the stochastic properties of the combustion phasing measurement at the corresponding engine operating condition. Methods to improve steady state CA50 estimation performance and adaptation to errors are further discussed in this research.
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