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Journal Article

Validation of Real Time Hardware in the Loop Simulation for ESC Testing with a 6×4 Tractor and Trailer Models

The tractor trailer models discussed in this paper were for a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to test heavy truck electronic stability control (ESC) systems [1]. The accuracy of the simulation results relies on the fidelity and accuracy of the vehicle parameters used. However in this case where hardware components are part of the simulation, their accuracy also affects the proper working of the simulation and ESC unit. Hence both the software and hardware components have to be validated. The validation process discussed in this paper is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the validation of the TruckSim vehicle model, where experimental data is compared with simulation results from TruckSim. Once the vehicle models are validated, they are incorporated in the HIL simulation and the second section discusses the validation of the whole HIL system with ESC.
Journal Article

Effect of the Tooth Surface Waviness on the Dynamics and Structure-Borne Noise of a Spur Gear Pair

This article studies the effects of tooth surface waviness and sliding friction on the dynamics and radiated structure-borne noise of a spur gear pair. This study is conducted using an improved gear dynamics model while taking into account the sliding frictional contact between meshing teeth. An analytical six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) linear time varying (LTV) model is developed to predict system responses and bearing forces. The time varying mesh stiffness is calculated using a gear contact mechanics code. A Coulomb friction model is used to calculate the sliding frictional forces. Experimental measurements of partial pressure to acceleration transfer functions are used to calculate the radiated structure-borne noise level. The roles of various time-varying parameters on gear dynamics are analyzed (for a specific example case), and the predictions from the analytical model are compared with prior literature.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator

This paper presents the modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator (EMV). A nonlinear model is formulated and presented that takes into account secondary nonlinearities like hysteresis, saturation, bounce and mutual inductance. The uniqueness of the model is contained in the method used in modeling hysteresis, saturation and mutual inductance. Theoretical and experimental methods for identifying parameters of the model are presented. The nonlinear model is experimentally validated. Simulation and experimental results are presented for an EMV designed and built in our laboratory. The experimental results show that sensorless estimation could be a possible solution for position control.
Journal Article

Design of a Multi-Chamber Silencer for Turbocharger Noise

A multi-chamber silencer is designed by a computational approach to suppress the turbocharger whoosh noise downstream of a compressor in an engine intake system. Due to the significant levels and the broadband nature of the source spanning over 1.5 – 3.5 kHz, three Helmholtz resonators are implemented in series. Each resonator consists of a chamber and a number of slots, which can be modeled as a cavity and neck, respectively. Their target resonance frequencies are tuned using Boundary Element Method to achieve an effective noise reduction over the entire frequency range of interest. The predicted transmission loss of the silencer is then compared with the experimental results from a prototype in an impedance tube setup. In view of the presence of rapid grazing flow, these silencers may be susceptible to whistle-noise generation. Hence, the prototype is also examined on a flow bench at varying flow rates to assess such flow-acoustic coupling.
Technical Paper

Design and Conduct of Precision Planetary Gear Vibration Experiments

Despite a large body of analytical work characterizing the dynamic motion of planetary gears, supporting experimental data is limited. Experimental results are needed to support computer modeling and offer practical optimization guidelines to gear designers. This paper presents the design and implementation of a test facility and precision test fixtures for accurate measurement of planetary gear vibration at operating conditions. Acceleration measurements are made on all planetary bodies under controlled torque/speed conditions. Custom, high-precision test fixtures accommodate instrumentation, ensure accurate alignment, help isolate gear dynamics, and allow for variability in future testing. Results are compared with finite element and lumped parameter models.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Path-Following Algorithm for an Autonomous Vehicle

This paper describes the development and implementation of an accurate and repeatable path-following algorithm focused ultimately on vehicle testing. A compact, lightweight, and portable hardware package allows easy installation and negligible impact on the vehicle mass, even for the smallest automobile. Innovative features include the ability to generate a smooth, evenly-spaced path vector regardless the quality of the given path. The algorithm proposed in this work is suitable for testing in a controlled environment. The system was evaluated in simulation and performed well in road tests at low speeds.
Journal Article

Vehicle Coast Analysis: Typical SUV Characteristics

Typical factors that contribute to the coast down characteristics of a vehicle include aerodynamic drag, gravitational forces due to slope, pumping losses within the engine, frictional losses throughout the powertrain, and tire rolling resistance. When summed together, these reactions yield predictable deceleration values that can be related to vehicle speeds. This paper focuses on vehicle decelerations while coasting with a typical medium-sized SUV. Drag factors can be classified into two categories: (1) those that are caused by environmental factors (wind and slope) and (2) those that are caused by the vehicle (powertrain losses, rolling resistance, and drag into stationary air). The purpose of this paper is to provide data that will help engineers understand and model vehicle response after loss of engine power.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Evolution of the 3-D Flow Field During the Latter Part of the Intake Stroke in an IC Engine

Measurements of the temporal evolution of the 3-D velocity field were performed in an IC engine during the latter part of the intake stroke using a Water Analog Engine Simulation Rig and the 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry technique (3-D PTV). The engine head tested was a typical 4 valve, pent-roof type combustion chamber shape with slightly asymmetric intake passages to favor a preferred swirl with one intake valve almost deactivated to reinforce the swirling flow pattern. This study was aimed at characterizing the dynamic development of the flow field resulting from this head geometry and asymmetric valve event during the latter part of the intake stroke. The most salient feature of this flow field is that this final, highly organized and energetic vortex does not emerge until relatively late in the intake stroke. Even as late at 60° BBDC, the flow field is still characterized by smaller (of the order of 1/4 or 1/3 of the bore size) structures, particularly in the tumble plane.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Steering System Model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

This paper presents the details of the model for the physical steering system used on the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The system is basically a hardware-in-the-loop (steering feedback motor and controls) steering system coupled with the core vehicle dynamics of the simulator. The system's torque control uses cascaded position and velocity feedback and is controlled to provide steering feedback with variable stiffness and dynamic properties. The reference model, which calculates the desired value of the torque, is made of power steering torque, damping function torque, torque from tires, locking limit torque, and driver input torque. The model also provides a unique steering dead-band function that is important for on-center feel. A Simulink model of the hardware/software is presented and analysis of the simulator steering system is provided.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Exhaust Silencing System for a Production Engine

A prototype hybrid exhaust silencing system consisting of dissipative and reactive components is designed based on the boundary element method (BEM) with a specific emphasis on its acoustic performance as evaluated relative to a production system. The outer dimensions of the prototype system are comparable to its production counterpart, which has two silencers connected by a pipe. The predicted transmission loss by BEM for the prototype is compared with the experimental results in an impedance tube for both the prototype and production hardware, providing a design guidance for the former. The sound pressure levels measured at the tailpipe exit during the engine ramp-up experiments in a dynamometer laboratory are presented to compare the two systems, providing the final assessment.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Shaft Dynamic Effects on Gear Vibration and Noise Excitations

Transmission error has long been identified to be the main exciter of gear whine noise. This research effort seeks to investigate the mechanisms and principal controlling factors that affect the actual noise generation from a typical gearbox housing due to transmission error excitations. The insight gained is expected to help in identifying possible noise control procedures in typical gearing applications. The example gearbox of this paper is an aircraft auxiliary-drive idler gearbox run at low load so that transmission error is the primary mesh excitation. A limited set of dynamic noise and vibration data are collected in transient speed run-ups. A contact-mechanics gear-tooth model is used to predict the static transmission error at each mesh. A finite-element model of the shafting that incorporates complex shaft and bearing data is used to predict the shaft dynamics with the static transmission error at the gear mesh(es) as the sole excitation.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of a Shift Hydraulic System for a Stepped Automatic Transmission

It is well-known that the shift hydraulic system plays a major role in the operation of stepped automatic transmissions. The main functions of the hydraulic system are to generate and maintain adequate fluid pressures for transmission operation, as well as to initiate gear shifts and control shift quality. Therefore, quantitative understanding of the dynamic behavior of the hydraulic system is critical to the improvement of automatic transmission performance. This paper presents the development of a nonlinear dynamic model for the shift hydraulic system of a stepped automatic transmission. The model includes all necessary dynamics, namely, hydraulic line pressure dynamics, solenoid valve dynamics, pressure control valve dynamics, as well as clutch and accumulator dynamics. The model is developed and implemented using Matlab/Simulink®, and is validated against experimental data.
Technical Paper

Case History: Engine Timing Gear Noise Reduction

This paper describes the procedures used to reduce the tonal noise of a class eight truck engine timing gear train that was initially found to be objectionable under idle operating conditions. Initial measurements showed that the objectionable sounds were related to the fundamental gear mesh frequency, and its second and third harmonics. Experimental and computational procedures used to study and trouble-shoot the problem include vibration and sound measurements, transmission error analysis of the gears under light load condition, and a dynamic analysis of the drive system. Detail applications of these techniques are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Effects of Friction in Gears: An Experimental Investigation

Amongst various sources of noise and vibrations in gear meshing, transmission error and sliding friction between the teeth are two major constituents. As the operating conditions are altered, the magnitude of these two excitations is affected differently and either of them can become the dominant factor. In this article, an experimental investigation is presented for identifying the friction excitation and to study the influence of tribological parameters on the radiated sound. Since both friction and transmission error excitations occur at the same fundamental period of one meshing cycle, they result in similar spectral contents in the dynamic response. Hence specific methods like the variation of parameters are designed in order to distinguish between the individual vibration and noise sources. The two main tribological parameters that are varied are the lubricant and the surface finish characteristics of gear teeth.
Technical Paper

Corner Design in Deep Drawn Rectangular Parts

The influence of die corner geometry on the attainable draw depth of rectangular parts was investigated using 3-D FEM and optimum rectangular blanks. Axisymmetric cup analysis was not adequate because a corner assist effect promotes corner draw. Guidelines for selecting corner radius were developed and the sensitivities of the maximum part depth to other process variables, such as drawbead restraint force; die clearance gap; friction coefficient; strain rate sensitivity; material anisotropy; and strain hardening exponent, were simulated. The results are much more conservative than handbook rules, which to not to take into account the details of blank size, drawbead restraint, die geometry, material properties, and friction.
Technical Paper

Development of an Analysis Program to Predict Efficiency of Automotive Power Transmission and Its Applications

Prediction of power efficiency of gear boxes has become an increasingly important research topic since fuel economy requirements for passenger vehicles are more stringent, due to not only fuel cost but also environmental regulations. Under this circumstance, the automotive industry is dedicatedly focusing on developing a highly efficient gear box. Thus, the analysis of power efficiency of gear box should be performed to have a transmission that is highly efficient as much as possible at the beginning of design stage. In this study, a program is developed to analyze the efficiency of an entire gearbox, considering all components’ losses such as gear mesh, wet clutches, bearings, oil pump and so on. The analytical models are based on the formulations of each component power loss model which has been developed and published in many existing papers. The program includes power flow analysis of both a parallel gear-train and a planetary gear-train.
Technical Paper

Effect of E-Modulus Variation on Springbackand a Practical Solution

Springback affects the dimensional accuracy and final shape of stamped parts. Accurate prediction of springback is necessary to design dies that produce the desired part geometry and tolerances. Springback occurs after stamping and ejection of the part because the state of the stresses and strains in the deformed material has changed. To accurately predict springback through finite element analysis, the material model should be well defined for accurate simulation and prediction of stresses and strains after unloading. Despite the development of several advanced material models that comprehensively describe the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior, permanent softening of the blank material, and unloading elastic modulus degradation, the prediction of springback is still not satisfactory for production parts. Dies are often recut several times, after the first tryouts, to compensate for springback and achieve the required part geometry.
Journal Article

Instabilities at the Low-Flow Range of a Turbocharger Compressor

The acoustic and performance characteristics of an automotive centrifugal compressor are studied on a steady-flow turbocharger test bench, with the goal of advancing the current understanding of compression system instabilities at the low-flow range. Two different ducting configurations were utilized downstream of the compressor, one with a well-defined plenum (large volume) and the other with minimized (small) volume of compressed air. The present study measured time-resolved oscillations of in-duct and external pressure, along with rotational speed. An orifice flow meter was incorporated to obtain time-averaged mass flow rate. In addition, fast-response thermocouples captured temperature fluctuations in the compressor inlet and exit ducts along with a location near the inducer tips.