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Technical Paper

A Fatigue Crack Growth Model for Spot Welds in Square-Cup and Lap-Shear Specimens under Cyclic Loading Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1373
A fatigue crack growth model is adopted in this paper to investigate the fatigue lives of resistance spot welds in square-cup and lap-shear specimens of dual phase, low carbon and high strength steels under cyclic loading conditions. The fatigue crack growth model is based on the global stress intensity factor solutions for main cracks, the local stress intensity factor solutions for kinked cracks as functions of the kink length, the experimentally determined kink angles, and the Paris law for kinked crack propagation. The predicted fatigue lives based on the fatigue crack growth model are then compared with the experimental data. The results indicate that the fatigue life predictions based on the fatigue crack growth model are in agreement with or lower than the experimental results.
Technical Paper

The Prospects of Using Alcohol-Based Fuels in Stratified-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4034
Near-term energy policy for ground transportation is likely to have a strong focus on both gains in efficiency as well as the use of alternate fuels; as both can reduce crude oil dependence and carbon loading on the environment. Stratified-charge spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines are capable of achieving significant gains in efficiency. In addition, these engines are likely to be run on alternative fuels. Specifically, lower alcohols such as ethanol and iso-butanol, which can be produced from renewable sources. SIDI engines, particularly the spray-guided variant, tend to be very sensitive to mixture preparation since fuel injection and ignition occur within a short time of each other. This close spacing is necessary to form a flammable mixture near the spark plug while maintaining an overall lean state in the combustion chamber. As a result, the physical properties of the fuel have a large effect on this process.
Journal Article

Impact of Fuel Sprays on In-Cylinder Flow Length Scales in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0618
Abstract The interaction of fuel sprays and in-cylinder flow in direct-injection engines is expected to alter kinetic energy and integral length scales at least during some portions of the engine cycle. High-speed particle image velocimetry was implemented in an optical four-valve, pent-roof spark-ignition direct-injection single-cylinder engine to quantify this effect. Non-firing motored engine tests were performed at 1300 RPM with and without fuel injection. Two fuel injection timings were investigated: injection in early intake stroke represents quasi-homogenous engine condition; and injection in mid compression stroke mimics the stratified combustion strategy. Two-dimensional crank angle resolved velocity fields were measured to examine the kinetic energy and integral length scale through critical portions of the engine cycle. Reynolds decomposition was applied on the obtained engine flow fields to extract the fluctuations as an indicator for the turbulent flow.
Technical Paper

Effect of Road Excitations on Driveline Output Torque Measurements

2011-05-17
2011-01-1538
This paper presents the characterization of the random noise in driveline output shaft torque measurements that is commonly induced by road disturbances. To investigate the interaction between the shaft torque and road side excitation, torque signals are measured using a magnetoelastic torque sensor, as well as a conventional strain gauge sensor, under various types of road surfaces and conditions such as unevenness. A generalized de-trending method for producing a stationary random signal is first conducted. Statistical methods, in particular the probability density function and transform technique, are utilized to provide an evident signature for identifying the road excitation effect on the vehicle output shaft torque. Analysis results show how the road surface can act as a disturbance input to the vehicle shaft torque.
Technical Paper

Redesigning Workstations Utilizing Motion Modification Algorithm

2003-06-17
2003-01-2195
Workstation design is one of the most essential components of proactive ergonomics, and digital human models have gained increasing popularity in the analysis and design of current and future workstations (Chaffin 2001). Using digital human technology, it is possible to simulate interactions between humans and current or planned workstations, and conduct quantitative ergonomic analyses based on realistic human postures and motions. Motion capture has served as the primary means by which to acquire and visualize human motions in a digital environment. However, motion capture only provides motions for a specific person performing specific tasks. Albeit useful, at best this allows for the analysis of current or mocked-up workstations only. The ability to subsequently modify these motions is required to efficiently evaluate alternative design possibilities and thus improve design layouts.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Combustion and NO Emissions Based on a Modified Eddy Dissipation Concept

2004-03-08
2004-01-0107
This paper reports the development of a model of diesel combustion and NO emissions, based on a modified eddy dissipation concept (EDC), and its implementation into the KIVA-3V multidimensional simulation. The EDC model allows for more realistic representation of the thin sub-grid scale reaction zone as well as the small-scale molecular mixing processes. Realistic chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-heptane combustion and NOx formation processes are fully incorporated. A model based on the normalized fuel mass fraction is implemented to transition between ignition and combustion. The modeling approach has been validated by comparison with experimental data for a range of operating conditions. Predicted cylinder pressure and heat release rates agree well with measurements. The predictions for NO concentration show a consistent trend with experiments. Overall, the results demonstrate the improved capability of the model for predictions of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Manual Handling Motions Via Motion Modification: Performance Evaluation of Motion Modification Algorithm

2003-06-17
2003-01-2227
Simulation of human motions in virtual environments is an essential component of human CAD (Computer-aided Design) systems. In our earlier SAE papers, we introduced a novel motion simulation approach termed Memory-based Motion Simulation (MBMS). MBMS utilizes existing motion databases and predicts novel motions by modifying existing ‘root’ motions through the use of the motion modification algorithm. MBMS overcomes some limitations of existing motion simulation models, as 1) it simulates different types of motions on a single, unified framework, 2) it simulates motions based on alternative movement techniques, and 3) like real humans, it can learn new movement skills continually over time. The current study evaluates the prediction accuracy of MBMS to prove its utility as a predictive tool for computer-aided ergonomics. A total of 627 whole-body one-handed load transfer motions predicted by the algorithm are compared with actual human motions obtained in a motion capture experiment.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Analyzing Systems of Beams and Plates in the Mid-Frequency Range

2003-05-05
2003-01-1610
A hybrid Finite Element Analysis (hybrid FEA) formulation has been developed in the past for computing the mid-frequency vibration of systems that contain one type of energy. The hybrid FEA is based on characterizing as long members in a system all the members that contain a large number of wavelengths within their dimension. All the remaining members are considered as short. The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) is employed for modeling the behavior of the long members, while the conventional FEA method is utilized for modeling the short members. In this paper the hybrid FEA formulation is extended to plate structures that are spot-welded to a frame comprised by tubular members. The new formulation is validated by comparing the hybrid FEA solution to results produced by very dense conventional FEA models in the mid-frequency range.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Complex Eigensolutions for Brake Noise

2003-05-05
2003-01-1626
When structures may have dynamic instability complex eigenvalue analysis is a useful tool to predict it. Although the accurate prediction itself is significant, it is also crucial to obtain sensitivity of unstable eigensolutions in order to eliminate instability efficiently. Since the mathematical relationship between stiffness matrix and design variables may seldom be found in reality, finite difference method has been typically used to approximate the sensitivity. The novel way to accurately calculate the sensitivity is developed without implementing finite difference method. This paper shows the advantages of analytical sensitivity analysis compared to other methods for choosing the most important components' eigenvalues. It also provides necessary amount of frequency shift for each chosen components' eigenvalue to eliminate unstable eigenvalues.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Turbocharged E85 Engine for Formula SAE Racing

2008-06-23
2008-01-1774
A summary of the design and development process for a Formula SAE engine is described. The focus is on three fundamental elements on which the entire engine package is based. The first is engine layout and displacement, second is the fuel type, and third is the air induction method. These decisions lead to a design around a 4-cylinder 600cc motorcycle engine, utilizing a turbocharger and ethanol E-85 fuel. Concerns and constraints involved with vehicle integration are also highlighted. The final design was then tested on an engine dynamometer, and finally in the 2007 M-Racing FSAE racecar.
Journal Article

Cycle-Resolved NO Measurements in a Spray-Guided SIDI Engine using Fast Exhaust Measurements and High-Speed OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

2008-04-14
2008-01-1072
A potential correlation between OH* chemiluminescence and exhaust NO concentration is investigated to pursue a simple diagnostic technique for measurements of NO cycle-to-cycle fluctuations. Previous investigations of NO formation in a direct-injection gasoline engine have indicated that there may be a correlation between the concentration of NO and OH* chemiluminescence. Shortcomings of this work, namely phase-locked measurements, were overcome in the present study by using highspeed imaging capability to obtain chemiluminescence within the entire engine cycle and from entire engine cylinder volume. Cycle-resolved NO exhaust gas detection were performed synchronously with the chemiluminescence measurements on an optical spark-ignited engine with spray-guided direct-injection. A quartz cylinder liner, head and piston windows provide optical access for a highspeed CMOS camera and image intensifier to capture OH* images.
Journal Article

Closed-Form Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Spot Welds in Various Types of Specimens

2008-04-14
2008-01-1141
Closed-form stress intensity factor solutions at the critical locations of spot welds in four types of commonly used specimens are obtained based on elasticity theories and fracture mechanics. The loading conditions for spot welds in the central parts of four types of specimens are first examined. The resultant loads on the weld nugget and the self-balanced resultant loads on the lateral surface of the central parts of the specimens are then decomposed into various types of symmetric and anti-symmetric parts. Closed-form structural stress and stress intensity factor solutions for spot welds under various types of loading conditions are then adopted from a recent work of Lin and Pan to derive new closed-form stress intensity factor solutions at the critical locations of spot welds in the four types of specimens.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Behaviors of Aluminum 5754-O Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens

2008-04-14
2008-01-1139
Fatigue behaviors of aluminum 5754-O spot friction welds made by a concave tool in lap-shear specimens are investigated based on experimental observations and a fatigue life estimation model. Optical micrographs of the welds before and after failure under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are examined. The micrographs indicate that the failure modes of the 5754 spot friction welds under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are quite different. The dominant kinked fatigue cracks for the final failures of the welds under cyclic loading conditions are identified. Based on the experimental observations of the paths of the dominant kinked fatigue cracks, a fatigue life estimation model based on the stress intensity factor solutions for finite kinked cracks is adopted to estimate the fatigue lives of the welds.
Technical Paper

Effects of Processing Time on Strengths and Failure Modes of Dissimilar 5754/7075 and 7075/5754 Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens

2008-04-14
2008-01-1138
Abstract In this investigation, dissimilar 5754/7075 and 7075/5754 spot friction welds were first made under different processing conditions. The spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens were tested under quasi-static loading conditions. The optimal processing times to maximize the failure loads of the 5754/7075 and 7075/5754 welds under lap-shear loading conditions are identified. The maximum failure load of the 7075/5754 welds is about 40% larger than that of the 5754/7075 welds. Optical micrographs of both types of spot friction welds made at different processing times before and after failure are examined. The micrographs show different weld geometries and different failure modes of spot friction welds made at different processing times. The failure modes of the 5754/7075 and 7075/5754 spot friction welds appear to be quite complex and strongly depend on the geometry and the strength of the interfacial surface between the two deformed sheet materials.
Technical Paper

Effects of Impact Velocity on Crush Behavior of Honeycomb Specimens

2004-03-08
2004-01-0245
Effects of impact velocity on the crush behavior of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens are investigated by experiments. An impact test machine using pressurized nitrogen was designed to perform dynamic crush tests. A test fixture was designed such that inclined loads can be applied to honeycomb specimens in dynamic crush tests. The results of dynamic crush tests indicate that the effects of impact velocity on the normal and inclined crush strengths are significant. The trends of the inclined crush strengths for specimens with different in-plane orientation angles as functions of impact velocity are very similar to that of the normal crush strength. Experimental results show similar progressive folding mechanisms for honeycomb specimens under pure compressive and inclined loads. Under inclined loads, the inclined stacking patterns were observed. The inclined stacking patterns are due to the asymmetric locations of the horizontal plastic hinge lines.
Technical Paper

Using Neural Networks to Compensate Altitude Effects on the Air Flow Rate in Variable Valve Timing Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0066
An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Cone Angles in Pressure-Swirl Injector Sprays

2004-10-25
2004-01-2939
The transient cone angle of pressure swirl sprays from injectors intended for use in gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. A variety of injectors with varying nominal cone angle and flow rate were investigated. The general cone angle behavior was found to correlate well qualitatively with the measured fuel line pressure and was affected by the different injector specifications. Experimentally measured modulations in cone angle and injection pressure were forced on a comprehensive spray simulation to understand the sensitivity of pulsating injector boundary conditions on general spray structure. Ignoring the nozzle fluctuations led to a computed spray shape that inadequately replicated the experimental images; hence, demonstrating the importance of quantifying the injector boundary conditions when characterizing a spray using high-fidelity simulation tools.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fluorescence Tracers on Combustion Performance in Optical Engine Experiments

2004-10-25
2004-01-2975
For applications of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to measure the fuel or equivalence ratio distributions in internal combustion (IC) engines it is typically assumed that the addition of a fluorescence tracer to a base fuel does not alter the combustion performance. We have investigated the impact on combustion performance through the addition of various amounts of 3-pentanone or toluene to iso-octane fuel. Correlations between equivalence ratio for a range of fuel/tracer mixtures and engine parameters, like peak pressure, location of peak pressure, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), and peak burn rate are discussed for data obtained in a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engine operated with near homogeneous charge. For typical tracer concentrations the impact on combustion performance is mostly negligible.
Technical Paper

A Computational Approach for Evaluating the Acoustic Detection of a Military Vehicle

2005-05-16
2005-01-2337
ADRPM (Acoustic Detection Range Prediction Model) is a software program that models the propagation of acoustic energy through the atmosphere and evaluates detectable distance. ADRPM predicts the distance of detection for a noise source based on the acoustic signature of the source. The acoustic signature of a vehicle is computed by combining BEA and EBEA computations with nearfield measurements. The computed signature is utilized as the input to ADRPM. Once the initial detection range is predicted the main contributors to the acoustic detection are identified by ADRPM and their location on the vehicle is modified in order to assess the corresponding effect to the detectable distance of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Model Update Under Uncertainty and Error Estimation in Shock Applications

2005-05-16
2005-01-2373
Numerical models are used for computing the shock response in many areas of engineering applications. Current analysis methods do not account for uncertainties in the model parameters. In addition, when numerical models are calibrated based on test data neither the uncertainty which is present in the test data nor the uncertainty in the model are taken into account. In this paper an approach for model update under uncertainty and error estimation for shock applications is presented. Fast running models are developed for the model update based on principal component analysis and surrogate models. Once the numerical model has been updated the fast running models are employed for performing probabilistic analyses and estimate the error in the numerical solution. The new developments are applied for computing the shock response of large scale structures, updating the numerical model based on test data, and estimating the error in the predictions.
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