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Technical Paper

A Survey of Alcohol as a Motor Fuel

1964-01-01
640648
Alcohol has been promoted and used as a motor fuel for more than 50 years. However, United States ethyl alcohol production is small compared with gasoline production. High latent heat of vaporization of alcohol makes possible some increase of power over gasoline. The heating value of alcohol is low and energy content of alcohol blends is less than that of gasoline; fuel consumption of blends is therefore increased. The ability of ethanol to improve the octane number of gasoline has diminished as the octane number of gasoline has improved. There is no published evidence that alcohols can appreciably reduce air pollution problems.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Combustion and NO Emissions Based on a Modified Eddy Dissipation Concept

2004-03-08
2004-01-0107
This paper reports the development of a model of diesel combustion and NO emissions, based on a modified eddy dissipation concept (EDC), and its implementation into the KIVA-3V multidimensional simulation. The EDC model allows for more realistic representation of the thin sub-grid scale reaction zone as well as the small-scale molecular mixing processes. Realistic chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-heptane combustion and NOx formation processes are fully incorporated. A model based on the normalized fuel mass fraction is implemented to transition between ignition and combustion. The modeling approach has been validated by comparison with experimental data for a range of operating conditions. Predicted cylinder pressure and heat release rates agree well with measurements. The predictions for NO concentration show a consistent trend with experiments. Overall, the results demonstrate the improved capability of the model for predictions of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Performance on an Engine and a Gas Flow Reactor

2007-04-16
2007-01-0231
This paper analyzes and compares reactor and engine behavior of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) in the presence of conventional diesel exhaust and low temperature premixed compression ignition (PCI) diesel exhaust. Surrogate exhaust mixtures of n-undecane (C11H24), ethene (C2H4), CO, O2, H2O, NO and N2 are defined for conventional and PCI combustion and used in the gas flow reactor tests. Both engine and reactor tests use a DOC containing platinum, palladium and a hydrocarbon storage component (zeolite). On both the engine and reactor, the composition of PCI exhaust increases light-off temperature relative to conventional combustion. However, while nominal conditions are similar, the catalyst behaves differently on the two experimental setups. The engine DOC shows higher initial apparent HC conversion efficiencies because the engine exhaust contains a higher fraction of trappable (i.e., high boiling point) HC.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Turbocharged E85 Engine for Formula SAE Racing

2008-06-23
2008-01-1774
A summary of the design and development process for a Formula SAE engine is described. The focus is on three fundamental elements on which the entire engine package is based. The first is engine layout and displacement, second is the fuel type, and third is the air induction method. These decisions lead to a design around a 4-cylinder 600cc motorcycle engine, utilizing a turbocharger and ethanol E-85 fuel. Concerns and constraints involved with vehicle integration are also highlighted. The final design was then tested on an engine dynamometer, and finally in the 2007 M-Racing FSAE racecar.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Inlet Air Conditions on Carburetor Metering

1966-02-01
660119
This paper provides data concerning the enrichment of automotive carburetors with variation of inlet air pressure and temperature. These changes occur with weather and the seasons, with altitude, and because of underhood heating. The early opening of the conventional carburetor enrichment value at altitude can add greatly to the “ normal” carburetor enrichment. Means for compensating the mixture ratio for these changes in inlet air conditions are known, but will almost certainly add to the complexity and cost of the engine induction system. The cost of improved devices must be compromised with the possible reduction in exhaust emissions and improvement in fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Reactor Studies for Exhaust Oxidation Rates

1973-02-01
730203
A laboratory test reactor has been used to determine the rates of oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) as a class, and hydrogen (H2). The feed was supplied from the exhaust of a single-cylinder engine, with additions of H2 and CO in some runs. The test reactor was designed to be well mixed, and this was verified experimentally for mixing on macroscopic and microscopic scales. Wall effects were found to be unimportant. Kinetic data from 157 runs were correlated with global reaction rate expressions containing Arrhenius temperature dependence and power law concentration dependence. CO oxidation was found to be approximately 1/4 order in CO with an activation energy of 28,200 cal/g-mole. HC oxidation was found to be approximately 1/4 order in HC and 1/2 order in each of O2, CO, and NO with an activation energy of 29,800 cal/g-mole. H2 oxidation rates were not well correlated, but a zero-order rate with an activation energy of 52,000 cal/g-mole is reasonable.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Cone Angles in Pressure-Swirl Injector Sprays

2004-10-25
2004-01-2939
The transient cone angle of pressure swirl sprays from injectors intended for use in gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. A variety of injectors with varying nominal cone angle and flow rate were investigated. The general cone angle behavior was found to correlate well qualitatively with the measured fuel line pressure and was affected by the different injector specifications. Experimentally measured modulations in cone angle and injection pressure were forced on a comprehensive spray simulation to understand the sensitivity of pulsating injector boundary conditions on general spray structure. Ignoring the nozzle fluctuations led to a computed spray shape that inadequately replicated the experimental images; hence, demonstrating the importance of quantifying the injector boundary conditions when characterizing a spray using high-fidelity simulation tools.
Technical Paper

The Prospects of Using Alcohol-Based Fuels in Stratified-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4034
Near-term energy policy for ground transportation is likely to have a strong focus on both gains in efficiency as well as the use of alternate fuels; as both can reduce crude oil dependence and carbon loading on the environment. Stratified-charge spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines are capable of achieving significant gains in efficiency. In addition, these engines are likely to be run on alternative fuels. Specifically, lower alcohols such as ethanol and iso-butanol, which can be produced from renewable sources. SIDI engines, particularly the spray-guided variant, tend to be very sensitive to mixture preparation since fuel injection and ignition occur within a short time of each other. This close spacing is necessary to form a flammable mixture near the spark plug while maintaining an overall lean state in the combustion chamber. As a result, the physical properties of the fuel have a large effect on this process.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Spark Behavior in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injected Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3376
The spark process has previously been shown to heavily influence ignition stability, particularly in direct-injected gasoline engines. Despite this influence, few studies have addressed spark behavior in direct-injected engines. This study examines the role of environmental factors on the behavior of the spark. Through measurement of the spark duration, by way of the ignition current trace, several observations are made on the influence of external factors on the behavior of the spark. Changing the level of nitrogen in the cylinder (to simulate EGR), the level of wetting and velocity imparted by the spray, the ignition dwell time and the orientation of the ground strap, observations are made as to which conditions are likely to produce unfavorable (shorter) spark durations. Through collection of a statistically significant number of sample spark lengths under each condition, histograms have been assembled and compared under each case.
Technical Paper

Algorithmic Maintenance of a Diesel Engine Electronic Fuel Feed Controller by Criterion of the Content of Soot in Exhaust Gas

2007-04-16
2007-01-0973
The feature of offered algorithm is that it allows, without record and analysis of the display diagram, to estimate a running cycle of a diesel engine parameters which characterize ecological and economic performances. The mathematical model described in report allows to determine connection of coefficient of filling, pressure and temperature of air boost, factor of excess of air with effectiveness ratio of combustion and contents of soot in exhaust gas and to take into account this connection at a choice initial data for control fuel feed or for elaboration of diesel engine dynamic model. The algorithm incorporated, for example, in the microcontroller of an electronic fuel feed controller allows analyzing the sensors data and theoretically determine of smoke amount in the exhaust gases for chosen cycle of fuel feed. The restriction of smoke is possible by criterion dD/dGT, where D - contents of soot in exhaust gas and GT - fuel cycle submission under the program-adaptive schema.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1512
Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Vehicle Exhaust System Components on Flow Losses and Noise in Firing Spark-Ignition Engines

1995-05-01
951260
Sound attenuation and flow loss reduction are often two competing demands in vehicle breathing systems. The present study considers a full vehicle exhaust system and investigates both the sound attenuation and the flow performance of production configurations including the catalyst, the resonator, and the muffler. Dynamometer experiments have been conducted with a firing Ford 3.0L, V-6 engine at wide-open throttle with speeds ranging from 1000 to 5000 rpm. Measurements including the flow rates, the temperatures and the absolute dynamic pressures of the hot exhaust gases at key locations (upstream and downstream of every component) with fast-response, water-cooled piezo-resistive pressure transducers facilitate the calculation of acoustic performance of each component, as well as the determination of flow losses caused by these elements and their influence on the engine performance.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Emission Sequence Related to Cylinder Mal-Distribution in a L-Head Engine

1994-03-01
940305
The distribution of fuel-air mixtures in many L-head engines is not homogeneous. If local mixture is too rich or lean, incomplete combustion occurs. This can play a major role in unburned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. Fuel-air mixture distribution depends on in-cylinder swirl and turbulence and is directly related to intake manifold configuration, fuel delivery system design and combustion chamber shape. Understanding the spatial mixture distribution may help improve the design of these aforementioned components. Consequently, a more complete combustion process may result, and emissions reduced. A method that measures the emission of CH and C2 radicals via the use of an optical fiber bundle was used in this research to map the mixture uniformity in the combustion chamber. The intensity ratio (IC2/ICH) was correlated to the fuel-air equivalence ratio. The mixture distribution measured was then correlated with the hydrocarbon emission sequence.
Technical Paper

Basic Physiology of Carbon Monoxide

1971-02-01
710300
The physiology of carbon monoxide is discussed in the human respiratory system. The details of the relationship of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin are outlined, and the effects of specific concentrations of CO are shown. Acute and chronic exposures to CO create certain effects on the various bodily systems, and these are described in detail.
Technical Paper

Health Aspects of Atmospheric Exposure to Lead

1971-02-01
710302
The paper discusses how atmospheric exposure to lead affects health. Sources of lead in the atmosphere are explored, lead aerosol is described, and the importance of lead in the diet is discussed. Methods of detecting lead in the human system are detailed. The paper suggests that a threshold limit of atmospheric lead be firmly established.
Technical Paper

Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System

1971-02-01
710297
The anatomy of the human respiratory system is detailed. The function of the entire system is shown from inspiration to expiration. Equations are given to illustrate flow-pressure relationships in the airways. Specifics of gas transfer are shown. All these details of physiology and function are necessary for an understanding of the effects of air pollution upon the human respiratory system.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Properties on Metering in Carburetors

1971-02-01
710207
This paper considers the influence of the properties of gasolines and testing fluids on metering by carburetors. Since the fuel metering is controlled by orifices, the effects of fuel properties on orifice flow are analyzed. The results of an orifice testing program are presented, using the Reynolds number as the primary correlation parameter. The influences of fuel type, fuel temperature, and orifice geometry on the discharge coefficient are discussed, and the effect of a given fuel property change is shown. Experimental values for the variations in fluid properties with fuel type and temperature are presented for commercial gasolines, carburetor testing fluids, and pure hydrocarbons. The variation of carbon-to-hydrogen ratio among gasolines is shown to cause a change in stoichiometry, which is the equivalent of an error in metering.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Alternative Strategies for Reducing Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Small Two-Stroke Engines

1996-02-01
960743
Five small two-stroke engine designs were tested at different air/fuel ratios, under steady state and transient cycles. The effects of combustion chamber design, carburetor design, lean burning, and fuel composition on performance, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were studied. All tested engines had been designed to run richer than stoichiometric in order to obtain satisfactory cooling and higher power. While hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions could be greatly reduced with lean burning, engine durability would be worsened. However, it was shown that the use of a catalytic converter with acceptably lean combustion was an effective method of reducing emissions. Replacing carburetion with in-cylinder fuel injection in one of the engines resulted in a significant reduction of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Spray Cone Angle and Fuel Line Pressure in a Pressure-Swirl Injector Spray

2004-06-08
2004-01-1923
The transient cone angle of a pressure swirl spray from an injector for gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. Iso-octane was used as the fluid that was delivered at room temperature for two different static pressures, 5MPa and 8.5MPa. The iso-octane was injected into a chamber at room temperature and ambient pressure. After a rapid initial increase, the cone angle oscillates before stabilizing to a steady-state value very close to the nominal cone angle. The period of the oscillation was found to correlate well with oscillations measured in the fuel line pressure.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Catalytic Converter Performances during Cold Starts

1999-10-25
1999-01-3473
Automotive exhaust emission regulations are becoming progressively stricter due to increasing awareness of the hazardous effects of exhaust emissions. The main challenge to meet the regulations is to reduce the emissions during cold starts, because catalytic converters are ineffective until they reach a light-off temperature. It has been found that 50% to 80% of the regulated hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions are emitted from the automotive tailpipe during the cold starts. Therefore, understanding the catalytic converter characteristics during the cold starts is important for the improvement of the cold start performances This paper describes a mathematical model that simulates transient performances of catalytic converters. The model considers the effect of heat transfer and catalyst chemical reactions as exhaust gases flow through the catalyst. The heat transfer model includes the heat loss by conduction and convection.
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