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Technical Paper

A Survey of Alcohol as a Motor Fuel

1964-01-01
640648
Alcohol has been promoted and used as a motor fuel for more than 50 years. However, United States ethyl alcohol production is small compared with gasoline production. High latent heat of vaporization of alcohol makes possible some increase of power over gasoline. The heating value of alcohol is low and energy content of alcohol blends is less than that of gasoline; fuel consumption of blends is therefore increased. The ability of ethanol to improve the octane number of gasoline has diminished as the octane number of gasoline has improved. There is no published evidence that alcohols can appreciably reduce air pollution problems.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Variable High-Speed Imaging Study of Ignition Instabilities in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injected Spark-Ignition Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-1264
Ignition stability was studied in an optical spray guided spark ignition direct injection engine. The impact of intake air dilution with nitrogen, spark plug orientation, ignition system dwell time, and fuel injector targeting was addressed. Crank angle resolved fuel distributions were measured with a high-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence technique for hundreds of consecutive cycles. IMEP, COV of IMEP, burn rates and spark energy delivered to the gas were examined and used in conjunction with the imaging data to identify potential reasons for misfires.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Turbocharged E85 Engine for Formula SAE Racing

2008-06-23
2008-01-1774
A summary of the design and development process for a Formula SAE engine is described. The focus is on three fundamental elements on which the entire engine package is based. The first is engine layout and displacement, second is the fuel type, and third is the air induction method. These decisions lead to a design around a 4-cylinder 600cc motorcycle engine, utilizing a turbocharger and ethanol E-85 fuel. Concerns and constraints involved with vehicle integration are also highlighted. The final design was then tested on an engine dynamometer, and finally in the 2007 M-Racing FSAE racecar.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Inlet Air Conditions on Carburetor Metering

1966-02-01
660119
This paper provides data concerning the enrichment of automotive carburetors with variation of inlet air pressure and temperature. These changes occur with weather and the seasons, with altitude, and because of underhood heating. The early opening of the conventional carburetor enrichment value at altitude can add greatly to the “ normal” carburetor enrichment. Means for compensating the mixture ratio for these changes in inlet air conditions are known, but will almost certainly add to the complexity and cost of the engine induction system. The cost of improved devices must be compromised with the possible reduction in exhaust emissions and improvement in fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Cone Angles in Pressure-Swirl Injector Sprays

2004-10-25
2004-01-2939
The transient cone angle of pressure swirl sprays from injectors intended for use in gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. A variety of injectors with varying nominal cone angle and flow rate were investigated. The general cone angle behavior was found to correlate well qualitatively with the measured fuel line pressure and was affected by the different injector specifications. Experimentally measured modulations in cone angle and injection pressure were forced on a comprehensive spray simulation to understand the sensitivity of pulsating injector boundary conditions on general spray structure. Ignoring the nozzle fluctuations led to a computed spray shape that inadequately replicated the experimental images; hence, demonstrating the importance of quantifying the injector boundary conditions when characterizing a spray using high-fidelity simulation tools.
Technical Paper

The Prospects of Using Alcohol-Based Fuels in Stratified-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4034
Near-term energy policy for ground transportation is likely to have a strong focus on both gains in efficiency as well as the use of alternate fuels; as both can reduce crude oil dependence and carbon loading on the environment. Stratified-charge spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines are capable of achieving significant gains in efficiency. In addition, these engines are likely to be run on alternative fuels. Specifically, lower alcohols such as ethanol and iso-butanol, which can be produced from renewable sources. SIDI engines, particularly the spray-guided variant, tend to be very sensitive to mixture preparation since fuel injection and ignition occur within a short time of each other. This close spacing is necessary to form a flammable mixture near the spark plug while maintaining an overall lean state in the combustion chamber. As a result, the physical properties of the fuel have a large effect on this process.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1512
Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Journal Article

Cycle-Resolved NO Measurements in a Spray-Guided SIDI Engine using Fast Exhaust Measurements and High-Speed OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

2008-04-14
2008-01-1072
A potential correlation between OH* chemiluminescence and exhaust NO concentration is investigated to pursue a simple diagnostic technique for measurements of NO cycle-to-cycle fluctuations. Previous investigations of NO formation in a direct-injection gasoline engine have indicated that there may be a correlation between the concentration of NO and OH* chemiluminescence. Shortcomings of this work, namely phase-locked measurements, were overcome in the present study by using highspeed imaging capability to obtain chemiluminescence within the entire engine cycle and from entire engine cylinder volume. Cycle-resolved NO exhaust gas detection were performed synchronously with the chemiluminescence measurements on an optical spark-ignited engine with spray-guided direct-injection. A quartz cylinder liner, head and piston windows provide optical access for a highspeed CMOS camera and image intensifier to capture OH* images.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Vehicle Exhaust System Components on Flow Losses and Noise in Firing Spark-Ignition Engines

1995-05-01
951260
Sound attenuation and flow loss reduction are often two competing demands in vehicle breathing systems. The present study considers a full vehicle exhaust system and investigates both the sound attenuation and the flow performance of production configurations including the catalyst, the resonator, and the muffler. Dynamometer experiments have been conducted with a firing Ford 3.0L, V-6 engine at wide-open throttle with speeds ranging from 1000 to 5000 rpm. Measurements including the flow rates, the temperatures and the absolute dynamic pressures of the hot exhaust gases at key locations (upstream and downstream of every component) with fast-response, water-cooled piezo-resistive pressure transducers facilitate the calculation of acoustic performance of each component, as well as the determination of flow losses caused by these elements and their influence on the engine performance.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Properties on Metering in Carburetors

1971-02-01
710207
This paper considers the influence of the properties of gasolines and testing fluids on metering by carburetors. Since the fuel metering is controlled by orifices, the effects of fuel properties on orifice flow are analyzed. The results of an orifice testing program are presented, using the Reynolds number as the primary correlation parameter. The influences of fuel type, fuel temperature, and orifice geometry on the discharge coefficient are discussed, and the effect of a given fuel property change is shown. Experimental values for the variations in fluid properties with fuel type and temperature are presented for commercial gasolines, carburetor testing fluids, and pure hydrocarbons. The variation of carbon-to-hydrogen ratio among gasolines is shown to cause a change in stoichiometry, which is the equivalent of an error in metering.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Alternative Strategies for Reducing Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Small Two-Stroke Engines

1996-02-01
960743
Five small two-stroke engine designs were tested at different air/fuel ratios, under steady state and transient cycles. The effects of combustion chamber design, carburetor design, lean burning, and fuel composition on performance, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were studied. All tested engines had been designed to run richer than stoichiometric in order to obtain satisfactory cooling and higher power. While hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions could be greatly reduced with lean burning, engine durability would be worsened. However, it was shown that the use of a catalytic converter with acceptably lean combustion was an effective method of reducing emissions. Replacing carburetion with in-cylinder fuel injection in one of the engines resulted in a significant reduction of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Spray Cone Angle and Fuel Line Pressure in a Pressure-Swirl Injector Spray

2004-06-08
2004-01-1923
The transient cone angle of a pressure swirl spray from an injector for gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. Iso-octane was used as the fluid that was delivered at room temperature for two different static pressures, 5MPa and 8.5MPa. The iso-octane was injected into a chamber at room temperature and ambient pressure. After a rapid initial increase, the cone angle oscillates before stabilizing to a steady-state value very close to the nominal cone angle. The period of the oscillation was found to correlate well with oscillations measured in the fuel line pressure.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fluorescence Tracers on Combustion Performance in Optical Engine Experiments

2004-10-25
2004-01-2975
For applications of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to measure the fuel or equivalence ratio distributions in internal combustion (IC) engines it is typically assumed that the addition of a fluorescence tracer to a base fuel does not alter the combustion performance. We have investigated the impact on combustion performance through the addition of various amounts of 3-pentanone or toluene to iso-octane fuel. Correlations between equivalence ratio for a range of fuel/tracer mixtures and engine parameters, like peak pressure, location of peak pressure, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), and peak burn rate are discussed for data obtained in a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engine operated with near homogeneous charge. For typical tracer concentrations the impact on combustion performance is mostly negligible.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-1246
A quasi-dimensional, multi-zone, direct injection (DI) diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion and NO and soot pollutant formation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into a number of zones, which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the cycle simulation of Assanis and Heywood [1] are described in this paper. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in a constant volume chamber and engines. First, predictions of spray penetration and spray angle are validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Using Neural Networks to Compensate Altitude Effects on the Air Flow Rate in Variable Valve Timing Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0066
An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Imaging of Fuel Distribution, Ignition and Combustion in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3753
A combination of imaging techniques for investigations of highly transient processes and cyclic variations in internal combustion engines is presented. The single high-speed camera setup uses a CMOS camera combined with a two-stage image-intensifier and two excimer lasers. Fuel mixing, ignition and combustion were monitored via planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of toluene as a tracer that was added to iso-octane in combination with the simultaneous recording of light emission from the spark plasma and OH* chemiluminescence of the developing flame. Image frame rates of 12 kHz for hundreds of cycles were achieved. Application to misfire events in a spray-guided gasoline direct-injection engine is described to illustrate the merits of the technique.
Journal Article

Impact of Fuel Sprays on In-Cylinder Flow Length Scales in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0618
The interaction of fuel sprays and in-cylinder flow in direct-injection engines is expected to alter kinetic energy and integral length scales at least during some portions of the engine cycle. High-speed particle image velocimetry was implemented in an optical four-valve, pent-roof spark-ignition direct-injection single-cylinder engine to quantify this effect. Non-firing motored engine tests were performed at 1300 RPM with and without fuel injection. Two fuel injection timings were investigated: injection in early intake stroke represents quasi-homogenous engine condition; and injection in mid compression stroke mimics the stratified combustion strategy. Two-dimensional crank angle resolved velocity fields were measured to examine the kinetic energy and integral length scale through critical portions of the engine cycle. Reynolds decomposition was applied on the obtained engine flow fields to extract the fluctuations as an indicator for the turbulent flow.
Technical Paper

A Universal Heat Transfer Correlation for Intake and Exhaust Flows in an Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0372
In this paper, the available correlations proposed in the literature for the gas-side heat transfer in the intake and exhaust system of a spark-ignition internal combustion engine were surveyed. It was noticed that these only by empirically fitted constants. This similarity provided the impetus for the authors to explore if a universal correlation could be developed. Based on a scaling approach using microscales of turbulence, the authors have fixed the exponential factor on the Reynolds number and thus reduced the number of adjustable coefficients to just one; the latter can be determined from a least squares curve-fit of available experimental data. Using intake and exhaust side data, it was shown that the universal correlation The correlation coefficient of this proposed heat transfer model with all available experimental data is 0.845 for the intake side and 0.800 for the exhaust side.
Technical Paper

First and Second Law Analyses of a Naturally-Aspirated, Miller Cycle, SI Engine with Late Intake Valve Closure

1998-02-23
980889
A naturally-aspirated, Miller cycle, Spark-Ignition (SI) engine that controls output with variable intake valve closure is compared to a conventionally-throttled engine using computer simulation. Based on First and Second Law analyses, the two load control strategies are compared in detail through one thermodynamic cycle at light load conditions and over a wide range of loads at 2000 rpm. The Miller Cycle engine can use late intake valve closure (LIVC) to control indicated output down to 35% of the maximum, but requires supplemental throttling at lighter loads. The First Law analysis shows that the Miller cycle increases indicated thermal efficiency at light loads by as much as 6.3%, primarily due to reductions in pumping and compression work while heat transfer losses are comparable.
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