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Technical Paper

An Investigation of Different Ported Fuel Injection Strategies and Thermal Stratification in HCCI Engines Using Chemiluminescence Imaging

2010-04-12
2010-01-0163
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effects of port fuel injection strategies and thermal stratification on the HCCI combustion processes. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI engine modified with windows in the combustion chamber for optical access. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured using an intensified CCD camera in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. N-heptane was used as the test fuel. The experimental data consisting of the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, chemiluminescence images all indicate that the different port fuel injection strategies result in different charge distributions in the combustion chamber, and thus affect the auto-ignition timing, chemiluminescence intensity, and combustion processes. Under higher intake temperature conditions, the injection strategies have less effect on the combustion processes due to improved mixing.
Technical Paper

Effects of Active Species in Residual Gas on Auto-Ignition in a HCCI Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1115
Chemical reaction kinetics plays an important role in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. In order to control the combustion process, the underlying mechanism of auto-ignition must be explored, especially for the HCCI combustion using negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy, in which the residual gas affects the auto-ignition of next cycle remarkably. In this research, experimental research was carried out in a single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with an in-cylinder sampling system which mainly consists of a special spark plug, a sampling tube and a high-speed electromagnetic valve. In-cylinder charge was sampled at compression stroke and analyzed by FTIR with two types of fuel injection strategy, such as port fuel injection (PFI) solely and port fuel injection combined with injection during negative valve overlap (PFI & NVO-Injection).
Technical Paper

Expanding the Low Load Limit of HCCI Combustion Process Using EIVO Strategy in a 4VVAS Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1121
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in gasoline engine. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its limited operation range. High load is limited by the tradeoff between the quantity of working charge and dilution charge. Low load is limited by the high residual gas fraction and low temperature in the cylinder. One of the highlights of HCCI combustion research at present is to expand the low load limit of HCCI combustion by developing HCCI idle operation. The main obstacle in developing HCCI idle combustion is too high residual gas fraction and low temperature to misfire in cylinder. This paper relates to a method for achieving the appropriate environment for auto-ignition at idle and the optimal tradeoff between the combustion stability and fuel consumption by employing EIVO valve strategy with an equivalent air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Combustion Process of Low-pressure CNG Compound Direct Injection Spark-ignited Engines

2010-09-28
2010-32-0052
Natural gas is regarded as one of the most potential alternative fuels of engines because of its fruitful storage, good obtainable resources, and high octane value, etc. Compared with port fuel injection (PFI), Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has many advantages on volumetric efficiency improvement, lean-burning, emissions control, etc. A set of measuring and data acquisition system on CNG direct injection spark-ignited engines and the CNG multi-direct injection system are developed in this paper. Based on different injection modes of CNG single DI and compound DI (main injection and auxiliary-Injection), the investigations on combustion process of CNG DI engines has been conducted by the factors of in-cylinder mixture formation, air/fuel ratio, and injection timing, etc. Meanwhile, the three-dimension simulation on mixture formation and combustion principle of low-pressure CNG compound direct injection engines has also been researched.
Journal Article

Numerical Study of the Effect of Piston Shapes and Fuel Injection Strategies on In-Cylinder Conditions in a PFI/GDI Gasoline Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2670
SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In order to stabilize the hybrid combustion process, the port fuel injection (PFI) combined with gasoline direct injection (GDI) strategy is proposed in this study to form the in-cylinder fuel stratification to enhance the early flame propagation process and control the auto-ignition combustion process. The effect of bowl piston shapes and fuel injection strategies on the fuel stratification characteristics is investigated in detail using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) simulations. Three bowl piston shapes with different bowl diameters and depths were designed and analyzed as well as the original flat piston in a single cylinder PFI/GDI gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a HCCI Engine Fuelled with Different n-Butanol-Gasoline Blends

2014-10-13
2014-01-2668
Biobutanol, i.e. n-butanol, as a second generation bio-derived alternative fuel of internal combustion engines, can facilitate the energy diversification in transportation and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from engines and vehicles. However, the majority of research was conducted on spark-ignition engines fuelled with n-butanol and its blend with gasoline. A few investigations were focused on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines fuelled with n-butanol-gasoline blends. In this study, experiments were conducted in a single cylinder four stroke port fuel injection HCCI engine with fully variable valve lift and timing mechanisms on both the intake and exhaust valves. HCCI combustion was achieved by employing the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy while being fueled with gasoline (Bu0), n-butanol (Bu100) and their blends containing 30% n-butanol by volume (Bu30).
Journal Article

Numerical Study of RCCI and HCCI Combustion Processes Using Gasoline, Diesel, iso-Butanol and DTBP Cetane Improver

2015-04-14
2015-01-0850
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to be an attractive concept to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion. RCCI can be realized by applying two fuels with different reactivities, e.g., diesel and gasoline. This motivates the idea of using a single low reactivity fuel and direct injection (DI) of the same fuel blended with a small amount of cetane improver to achieve RCCI combustion. In the current study, numerical investigation was conducted to simulate RCCI and HCCI combustion and emissions with various fuels, including gasoline/diesel, iso-butanol/diesel and iso-butanol/iso-butanol+di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) cetane improver. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF)-iso-butanol-DTBP mechanism was formulated and coupled with the KIVA computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to predict the combustion and emissions of these fuels under different operating conditions in a heavy duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

PAIRCUI- A New Pressure Accumulative, Injection Rate Controllable Unit Injector for Diesel Engine Fuel Systems

1997-05-01
971680
A pressure accumulative injection rate controllable unit injector-PAIRCUI is proposed and developed. This unit injector is powered by fuel pressure accumulation controlled by an electronic control unit and its injection rate is shaped by inner valves of the injector. Inherent advantages of an accumulator type unit injector have been carried out in this new design, including sructural simplicity, totally flexible injection timing, medium common rail pressure, tolerable pump size and flow requirement. A number of decisive features have also been realized that are significant for high efficiency and low emissions of engine combustion, including higher mean effective injection pressure(MEIP), pilot injection capability and rapid end of injection. The injection pressure is independent of engine speed, but regulated upon engine load. These characteristics are beneficial in improving engine performance and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

On-Line Optimization of Direct-Injection-Timing for SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion in a PFI-DI Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0757
The spark ignition-controlled auto-ignition (SI-CAI) hybrid combustion is promising in achieving smooth transition between SI and CAI combustion but, it is limited by the combustion cyclic-variation at late combustion phasing to avoid too high pressure rise rate (PRR). In this paper, to stabilize the combustion and reduce PRR, the in-cylinder fuel-stratification strategy is investigated in a gasoline engine, equipped with port fuel injection combined with single pulse direct injection (PFI-DI). Experimental results confirm the benefits of employing PFI-DI in comparison with PFI and single-pulse DI strategy. The influence of DI timing (Start of injection, SOI) on the combustion process is found to be quite complicated, in terms of combustion phasing, combustion stability, PRR and thermal efficiency. It makes the optimal-SOI calibration time-intensive, since complex trade-off between PRR and thermal efficiency is needed.
Technical Paper

Number-Based Droplet Velocity Distribution in High Pressure Diesel Fuel Sprays

1994-09-01
941689
Using a Laser Doppler Velocimetry with Burst Spectrum Analyzer (LDV-BSA), droplet velocities of a diesel fuel spray under a pressure higher than 100 MPa were measured at different points within the spray profile. Results show that although the mean velocity distribution at the sampling plane is rather uniform, the number-based droplet velocity distributions of two sampling points at the same plane are different. The conclusions agree with theoretical predictions through maximum entropy principle qualitatively.
Technical Paper

LDA Analysis of High Injection Pressure Diesel Fuel Spray and Entrainment Air Flow

1994-10-01
941951
Droplet velocities in a diesel fuel spray before and after impinging on a wall as well as air movement around the spray are measured at room temperature and pressure. The range of fuel injection pressure is from 101 MPa to 139 MPa. The diagnostic equipment is a Laser Doppler Velocimetry with Burst Spectrum Analyzer (LDV-BSA).The results show that the droplet velocities of such a high pressure diesel fuel spray spread in a wide range (about 0-250m/s), so it is necessary to use the ensemble average for describing the velocity variation with time and space. After injection, the velocity reaches its peak value rapidly then attenuates gradually. When the spray impinges on the wall, the average velocity of the rebounded droplets is obviously reduced and the rebounded angle of most droplets is smaller than 30 degree when the incident angle is 70 degree. In the near field zone, the air entrainment in spray jet appears to be lower than that in gaseous one.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ignition Core Formation and the Effects on Combustion in a Pilot Ignited NG Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2273
A numerical simulation was performed to investigate the pilot ignited natural gas combustion process in a direct injection natural gas engine. Various mixture distribution characteristics were compared in terms of the evolution of mixture equivalent ratio distributions and mixture concentration stratifications around top dead center (TDC). Based on above, the pilot injections were specially designed to investigate ignition core formation and its effects on natural gas combustion process. The result shows that pilot ignition sites have great impacts on pilot fuel ignition process and natural gas combustion process. The pilot ignition site on the region with rich NG/Air mixture is disadvantageous to the pilot fuel ignition due to a lack of oxygen, which is not beneficial to ignition core formation.
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