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Technical Paper

Study on Spatial Characteristics of the In-Cylinder Flow Field in an I.C. Engine Using PIV

1998-10-19
982632
In-cylinder flow characteristics in a four-stroke diesel engine were studied experimentally by instantaneous measurements of swirl and squish flow velocity distribution with particle image velocimetry (PIV). The triple-exposed PIV films were interrogated on a self-made system to get the velocity distribution. The measured velocities were analyzed by spatially high-pass and low-pass filtering techniques. Vorticity distributions were also calculated using the measured data. As results, vortex structure of the flow field was clearly visualized. Spatially averaged in-cylinder flow energy was found decaying at high rate but the less-scaled flow components at much lower rate. Clearly visualized squish and reverse squish movements around the top dead center (TDC) during the compression stroke were found strongly affecting the swirl flow field. making the in-bowl flow energy increased.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Combustion from Spark Ignition Engines Fueled with Dual Fuels

1995-10-01
952411
In the paper, the experiment of a spark ignition engine fueled with dissociated methanol gas (D.M.) and gasoline dual fuels is conducted. A quasi-dimensional two-zone combustion model is developed to analyze the combustion process. Engine dynamometer test results demonstrate that the engine fueled with D.M. and gasoline dual fuels can be operated at leaner mixtures. The combustion duration and ignition delay are shortened. The maximum mass burning rate of the mixture increased by 36%. And maximum 17% improvement in thermal efficiency, and low carbon monoxide CO and hydrocarbon HC emissions are obtained. Continuous 500 cycle measurement of the combustion pressure history demonstrates that the cycle-to-cycle fluctuation of the combustion pressure is decreased considerably.
Technical Paper

Combustion Process of Diesel Spray in High Temperature Air

1995-02-01
950856
Experimental results revealed that in many case, the performance of heat insulated engines was worse than that of the water-cooled engines due to the deteriorated combustion process at high air temperature in the insulated chamber. The observation of combustion process in high temperature air had been carried out in a constant volume bomb by the authors in a former research. In this paper, the image processing and thermodynamic analysis were applied to investigate the effects of ambient temperature on ignition, flame development and air entrainment into the spray. Based on the experimental results, the main reasons leading to the degraded combustion process at high temperature were indicated.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of In-Cylinder Tumble Generation by Directed Intake Ports

1996-10-01
962089
The magnitudes and compositions of in-cylinder tumble ratio generated by each velocity components were computed at different intake valve lifts and distances along the direction of valve axis in this paper, based on the three-dimensional velocity data measured by hot-wire anemometry at intake valve periphery of typical SI engine intake ports (horizontal and sloping directed ports) in a steady flow rig. The effect of velocity profiles at above two intake ports exit on in-cylinder tumble generation was studied, and a microscopic analytical method of evaluating tumble-generating capability of intake ports was developed according to the velocity profiles at intake valve exit area.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of a New Type Direct-injection Stratified- Charge Combustion System for Gasoline Engines

1996-05-01
961150
A new type direct-injection stratified-charge combustion system for gasoline engines is developed by the authors. In the system, gasoline is directly injected into a cylinder near the end of compression stroke by a nozzle with the injection holes unequally spaced on its tip. The angles among sprays in the vicinity of spark plug are small, and become larger downstream along the direction of air swirl motion. Therefore the circularly concentration stratification form rich to lean of air-fuel mixture is mechanically realized to ensure the reliable ignition and smooth flame propagation in the inhomogeneous mixture after sparking. The selection of main parameters of the system, the performance and the combustion characteristics of the engine after optimization of those parameters are introduced in detail in this paper.
Technical Paper

Number-Based Droplet Velocity Distribution in High Pressure Diesel Fuel Sprays

1994-09-01
941689
Using a Laser Doppler Velocimetry with Burst Spectrum Analyzer (LDV-BSA), droplet velocities of a diesel fuel spray under a pressure higher than 100 MPa were measured at different points within the spray profile. Results show that although the mean velocity distribution at the sampling plane is rather uniform, the number-based droplet velocity distributions of two sampling points at the same plane are different. The conclusions agree with theoretical predictions through maximum entropy principle qualitatively.
Technical Paper

LDA Analysis of High Injection Pressure Diesel Fuel Spray and Entrainment Air Flow

1994-10-01
941951
Droplet velocities in a diesel fuel spray before and after impinging on a wall as well as air movement around the spray are measured at room temperature and pressure. The range of fuel injection pressure is from 101 MPa to 139 MPa. The diagnostic equipment is a Laser Doppler Velocimetry with Burst Spectrum Analyzer (LDV-BSA).The results show that the droplet velocities of such a high pressure diesel fuel spray spread in a wide range (about 0-250m/s), so it is necessary to use the ensemble average for describing the velocity variation with time and space. After injection, the velocity reaches its peak value rapidly then attenuates gradually. When the spray impinges on the wall, the average velocity of the rebounded droplets is obviously reduced and the rebounded angle of most droplets is smaller than 30 degree when the incident angle is 70 degree. In the near field zone, the air entrainment in spray jet appears to be lower than that in gaseous one.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into Air Flow Characteristics through Inlet Valve of Directed Ports

1994-09-01
941753
The velocity and turbulence intensity profiles at exit of intake valve from typical SI engine intake ports (horizontal and sloping directed ports) were measured by hot wire anemometry (HWA) in a steady flow rig. The characteristics of velocity and turbulence intensity distribution under different valve lifts and at distances along valve axis were analysed and compared between above two intake ports. Results showed that velocity and turbulence intensity profiles are strongly dependent on intake port form,valve lift and surrounding geometry,they vary not only around valve head periphery but also along valve axis.
Technical Paper

A Microscopic Analysis of In-Cylinder Swirl Generated by Directed Ports

1994-09-01
941754
Based on 3- dimensional velocity data at intake valve exit area of typical SI engine intake ports (horizontal and sloping directed ports) measured by hot wire anemometry in a steady flow rig, the magnitudes and compositions of inflow angular momentum flux and swirl ratios at the end of induction process generated by each velocity component were computed at different intake valve lifts and distances along valve axis. A microscopic evaluation method was provided for evaluating intake port characteristics according to intake valve exit flow field.
Technical Paper

PAIRCUI- A New Pressure Accumulative, Injection Rate Controllable Unit Injector for Diesel Engine Fuel Systems

1997-05-01
971680
A pressure accumulative injection rate controllable unit injector-PAIRCUI is proposed and developed. This unit injector is powered by fuel pressure accumulation controlled by an electronic control unit and its injection rate is shaped by inner valves of the injector. Inherent advantages of an accumulator type unit injector have been carried out in this new design, including sructural simplicity, totally flexible injection timing, medium common rail pressure, tolerable pump size and flow requirement. A number of decisive features have also been realized that are significant for high efficiency and low emissions of engine combustion, including higher mean effective injection pressure(MEIP), pilot injection capability and rapid end of injection. The injection pressure is independent of engine speed, but regulated upon engine load. These characteristics are beneficial in improving engine performance and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Pressure Drop and Soot Regeneration Characteristics through Hexagonal and Square Cell Diesel Particulate Filters

2017-03-28
2017-01-0979
Although diesel engines have higher output torque, lower fuel consumption, and lower HC pollutant emissions, larger amounts of NOx and PM are emitted, compared with equivalent gasoline engines. The diesel particulate filters (DPF) have proved one of the most promising aftertreatment technologies due to the more stringent particulate matters (PM) regulations. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of DPF was built by utilizing AVL-Fire software code. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the pressure drop and soot regeneration characteristics of hexagonal and conventional square cell DPFs with various inlet mass flow rates, inlet temperatures, cell densities, soot loads and ash loads. Different cell geometry shapes of DPF were evaluated under various ash distribution types.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubricating Oil Metallic Content on Morphology, Nanostructure and Graphitization Degree of Diesel Engine Exhaust Particles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1009
In this paper, the influences of metallic content of lubricating oils on diesel particles were investigated. Three lubricating oils with different levels of metallic content were used in a 2.22 Liter, two cylinders, four stroke, and direct injection diesel engine. 4.0 wt. % and 8 wt. % antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor (T202) were added into baseline lubricating oil to improve the performance respectively. Primary particle diameter distributions and particle nanostructure were compared and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope. The graphitization degrees of diesel particles from different lubricating oils were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the metallic content increases the primary particles diameter at 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm. The primary particles diameter ranges from 5 nm to 65 nm and the distribution conformed to Gaussian distribution.
Technical Paper

Surface Functional Groups and Graphitization Degree of Soot in the Sooting History of Methane Premixed Flame

2017-03-28
2017-01-1003
The evolution of surface functional groups (SFGs) and the graphitization degree of soot generated in premixed methane flames are studied and the correlation between them is discussed. Test soot samples were obtained from an optimized thermophoretic sampling system and probe sampling system. The SFGs of soot were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after removing the soluble impurities from the soot samples, while the graphitization degree of soot was characterized by Raman spectrum and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The results reveal that the number of aliphatic C-H groups and C=O groups shows an initial increase and then decrease in the sooting history. The large amount of aliphatic C-H groups and small amount of aromatic C-H groups in the early stage of the soot mass growth process indicate that aliphatic C-H groups make a major contribution to the early stage of soot mass growth.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical Investigation of the Combustion of PRF90 under the Flexible Cylinder Engine Mode

2017-03-28
2017-01-1027
On-board fuel reforming offers a prospective clean combustion mode for the engines. The flexible cylinder engine strategy (FCE) is a new kind of such mode. In this paper, the combustion of the primary reference fuel of PRF90 was theoretically investigated in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to validate the FCE mode, mainly focusing on the ignition delay time, the flame speed, and the emissions. The simulations were performed by using the CHEMKIN2.0 package to demonstrate the fuel reforming process in the flexible cylinder, the cooling effect on the reformed products, and the combustions of the mixture of the fresh fuel and the reformed products in the normal cylinders. It was found that the FCE mode decreased the ignition delay time of the fuel by about 35 crank angles at a typical engine condition.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study on Particle Motion in Diesel Particulate Filter Based on Microcosmic Channel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0964
As the prime after-treatment device for diesel particulate matter (PM) emission control, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) has been widely used for its high particle capture efficiency. In order to study the particle motion and deposition distributions in the DPF inlet channel, a 2-D wall flow DPF microcosmic channel model is built in this paper. The motion trajectories of particles with different sizes are investigated considering the drag force, Brownian motion, gravity and Saffman lift. The effects of the space velocity on particle motion trajectories and deposition distributions inside the inlet channel are evaluated. These results demonstrate that the particle motion trajectories are highly dependent on particle sizes and influenced by the space velocity. The effect of the Brownian motion is obvious for fine particles and suppressed when the space velocity is raised.
Technical Paper

Simulating the Flow and Soot Loading in Wall- Flow DPF Using a Two-Dimensional Mesoscopic Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0955
A two-dimensional mesoscopic approach has been developed to investigate the flow and soot loading in the micro-channels of diesel particulate filter. Soot particle size examined is in the range of 10 nm to 10 μm. The flow is solved by an incompressible lattice Boltzmann model and the transport of solid particle is described in a Lagrangian frame of reference by cell automation probabilistic model. The lattice Boltzmann-cell automation probabilistic model (LB-CA model) is validated with the results of previous studies. The heterogeneous porous wall of DPF is generated by quartet structure generation set (QSGS). The effects of porous wall on the pressure field and velocity field are investigated. The distribution and deposition of soot particles with different sizes in clean channels are simulated. The dynamic evolution of solid boundary in soot particle capture process is investigated and the effects of the deposited soot particles on flow field are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation and Analysis on Aerodynamic Noise at the Engine Inlet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0686
As the intake noise is a major contributing factor to automotive passenger compartment noise levels, it has received much more attention than before. Because the plastic manifolds could induce and transmit more noise owing to their lighter weight, aerodynamic noise has become a more serious problem in plastic manifolds than in conventional aluminum-made manifolds. Due to the complexity of aerodynamic noise of the intake system, it is difficult to predict the noise precisely, especially for the part whose frequency is higher than 1000 Hz. This paper introduces a new co-simulation method to simulate the aerodynamic noise at the engine inlet. With the coupled simulation between two programs, GT-Power and Fluent, it could simulate the gas flow inside the engine intake system, under the actual running condition of engine.
Technical Paper

Potentials of External Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Water Injection for the Improvement in Fuel Economy of a Poppet Valve 2-Stroke Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Two-Stage Serial Charging System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0859
Engine downsizing is one of the most effective means to improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines because of lower pumping and friction losses. However, the occurrence of knocking combustion or even low-speed pre-ignition at high loads is a severe problem. One solution to significantly increase the upper load range of a 4-stroke gasoline engine is to use 2-stroke cycle due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. It was found that a 0.7 L two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve gasoline engine equipped with a two-stage serial boosting system, comprising a supercharger and a downstream turbocharger, could replace a 1.6 L naturally aspirated 4-stroke gasoline engine in our previous research, but its fuel economy was close to that of the 4-stroke engine at upper loads due to knocking combustion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Combustion Characteristics of Methane/Gasoline Dual-Fuel in a SI Engine at Different Load Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1140
Methane as an attractive alternative fuel offers the most potential in clean combustion and low CO2 emissions. In this work, combustion characteristics of methane/gasoline dual-fuel were investigated in a spark-ignited engine with port-injection of methane and direct-injection of gasoline, allowing for variations in methane addition and excess air coefficient. Engine experimental results showed that under low load conditions, as methane mass rate was raised, there was a promotion in methane/gasoline dual-fuel combustion, and this became more obvious at lean conditions. Similar observations were also obtained when the engine was operated at intermediate load conditions, but a prolonged combustion duration was found with the methane addition. Further analysis showed that the promotion of methane/gasoline dual-fuel combustion with methane addition mainly occurred in the early stage of combustion, especially for lean conditions.
Technical Paper

Pressure Drop Characteristics Through DPF with Various Inlet to Outlet Channel Width Ratios

2015-04-14
2015-01-1019
The main objective of this paper was to investigate the pressure drop characteristics of ACT (asymmetric cell technology) design filter with various inlet mass flow rates, soot loads and ash loads by utilizing 1-D computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The model was established by AVL Boost code. Different ratios of inlet to outlet channel width inside the DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) were investigated to determine the optimal structure in practical applications, as well as the effect of soot and ash interaction on pressure loss. The results proved that pressure drop sensitivity of different inlet/outlet channel width ratios increases with the increased inlet mass flow rate and soot load. The pressure drop increases with the increased channel width ratio at the same mass flow rate. When there is little soot deposits inside DPF, the pressure drop increases with the bigger inlet.
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