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Technical Paper

Pressure Drop and Soot Regeneration Characteristics through Hexagonal and Square Cell Diesel Particulate Filters

2017-03-28
2017-01-0979
Although diesel engines have higher output torque, lower fuel consumption, and lower HC pollutant emissions, larger amounts of NOx and PM are emitted, compared with equivalent gasoline engines. The diesel particulate filters (DPF) have proved one of the most promising aftertreatment technologies due to the more stringent particulate matters (PM) regulations. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of DPF was built by utilizing AVL-Fire software code. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the pressure drop and soot regeneration characteristics of hexagonal and conventional square cell DPFs with various inlet mass flow rates, inlet temperatures, cell densities, soot loads and ash loads. Different cell geometry shapes of DPF were evaluated under various ash distribution types.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubricating Oil Metallic Content on Morphology, Nanostructure and Graphitization Degree of Diesel Engine Exhaust Particles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1009
In this paper, the influences of metallic content of lubricating oils on diesel particles were investigated. Three lubricating oils with different levels of metallic content were used in a 2.22 Liter, two cylinders, four stroke, and direct injection diesel engine. 4.0 wt. % and 8 wt. % antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor (T202) were added into baseline lubricating oil to improve the performance respectively. Primary particle diameter distributions and particle nanostructure were compared and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope. The graphitization degrees of diesel particles from different lubricating oils were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the metallic content increases the primary particles diameter at 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm. The primary particles diameter ranges from 5 nm to 65 nm and the distribution conformed to Gaussian distribution.
Technical Paper

Surface Functional Groups and Graphitization Degree of Soot in the Sooting History of Methane Premixed Flame

2017-03-28
2017-01-1003
The evolution of surface functional groups (SFGs) and the graphitization degree of soot generated in premixed methane flames are studied and the correlation between them is discussed. Test soot samples were obtained from an optimized thermophoretic sampling system and probe sampling system. The SFGs of soot were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after removing the soluble impurities from the soot samples, while the graphitization degree of soot was characterized by Raman spectrum and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The results reveal that the number of aliphatic C-H groups and C=O groups shows an initial increase and then decrease in the sooting history. The large amount of aliphatic C-H groups and small amount of aromatic C-H groups in the early stage of the soot mass growth process indicate that aliphatic C-H groups make a major contribution to the early stage of soot mass growth.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical Investigation of the Combustion of PRF90 under the Flexible Cylinder Engine Mode

2017-03-28
2017-01-1027
On-board fuel reforming offers a prospective clean combustion mode for the engines. The flexible cylinder engine strategy (FCE) is a new kind of such mode. In this paper, the combustion of the primary reference fuel of PRF90 was theoretically investigated in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to validate the FCE mode, mainly focusing on the ignition delay time, the flame speed, and the emissions. The simulations were performed by using the CHEMKIN2.0 package to demonstrate the fuel reforming process in the flexible cylinder, the cooling effect on the reformed products, and the combustions of the mixture of the fresh fuel and the reformed products in the normal cylinders. It was found that the FCE mode decreased the ignition delay time of the fuel by about 35 crank angles at a typical engine condition.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation and Analysis on Aerodynamic Noise at the Engine Inlet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0686
As the intake noise is a major contributing factor to automotive passenger compartment noise levels, it has received much more attention than before. Because the plastic manifolds could induce and transmit more noise owing to their lighter weight, aerodynamic noise has become a more serious problem in plastic manifolds than in conventional aluminum-made manifolds. Due to the complexity of aerodynamic noise of the intake system, it is difficult to predict the noise precisely, especially for the part whose frequency is higher than 1000 Hz. This paper introduces a new co-simulation method to simulate the aerodynamic noise at the engine inlet. With the coupled simulation between two programs, GT-Power and Fluent, it could simulate the gas flow inside the engine intake system, under the actual running condition of engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Combustion Characteristics of Methane/Gasoline Dual-Fuel in a SI Engine at Different Load Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1140
Methane as an attractive alternative fuel offers the most potential in clean combustion and low CO2 emissions. In this work, combustion characteristics of methane/gasoline dual-fuel were investigated in a spark-ignited engine with port-injection of methane and direct-injection of gasoline, allowing for variations in methane addition and excess air coefficient. Engine experimental results showed that under low load conditions, as methane mass rate was raised, there was a promotion in methane/gasoline dual-fuel combustion, and this became more obvious at lean conditions. Similar observations were also obtained when the engine was operated at intermediate load conditions, but a prolonged combustion duration was found with the methane addition. Further analysis showed that the promotion of methane/gasoline dual-fuel combustion with methane addition mainly occurred in the early stage of combustion, especially for lean conditions.
Technical Paper

Using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel PCCI Combustion: Potential to Extend Engine Load, Improve Trade-off of Emissions and Efficiency

2011-04-12
2011-01-1396
The Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) engine has the potential to reduce soot and NOx emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency at part load conditions. However, several technical barriers must be overcome. Notably ways must be found to control ignition timing, expand its limited operation range and limit the rate of heat release. In this paper, comparing with single fuel injection, the superiority of multiple-pulse fuel injection in extending engine load, improve emissions and thermal efficiency trade-off using high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and boost in diesel PCCI combustion is studied by engine experiments and simulation study. It was found that EGR can delay the start of hot temperature reactions, reduce the reaction speed to avoid knock combustion in high load, is a very useful method to expand high load limit of PCCI. EGR can reduce the NOx emission to a very small value in PCCI.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Combustion Control Strategy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Based on the Technologies of Multi-Pulse Injections, Variable Boost Pressure and Retarded Intake Valve Closing Timing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1382
Combustion control strategy for high efficiency and low emissions in a heavy duty (H D) diesel engine was investigated experimentally in a single cylinder test engine with a common rail fuel system, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system, boost system and retarded intake valve closing timing actuator. For the operation loads of IMEPg (Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) less than 1.1 MPa the low temperature combustion (LTC) with high rate of EGR was applied. The fuel injection modes of either single injection or multi-pulse injections, boost pressure and retarded intake valve closing timing (RIVCT) were also coupled with the engine operation condition loads for high efficiency and low emissions. A higher boost pressure played an important role in improving fuel efficiency and obtaining ultra-low soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Multiple Injections and Coupling Effects of Multi-Injection and EGR in a HD Diesel Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2807
Diesel engines have to reduce emissions to satisfy future emission legislations. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of multiple injections and the combined effects of multi-injection and EGR on HD diesel engine emissions and performance. A common rail fuel injection system and high pressure EGR system based on variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) were used. Injection parameters (injection dwell and mass) were adjusted with different injection strategies (pilot-main, pilot-pilot-main, main-post and pilot-main-post) to find out the influence of these parameters on combustion and emissions. Secondly the coupling effects of multi-injection and EGR were evaluated at both high and low loads. Finally, while keeping NOx at 2.0 g/kW.h by adjusting EGR rate, the influence of injection parameters and EGR were tested to highlight their influence on smoke and BSFC.
Technical Paper

A Solution to Fuel Vaporization Problem in a Power Nozzle

2009-04-20
2009-01-1051
A power nozzle is a fuel injection actuator in which fuel is instantly compressed and then discharged by a solenoid piston pump with nozzle. Fuel vaporization inside the power nozzles is a challenging issue. This paper presents an effective solution to the fuel vaporization problem in the power nozzle. An applied physical process, fluid boundary layer pumping (FBLP), is found in this study. FBLP can result in fuel circulation within the fuel line of the power nozzle, which on one hand brings heat out of the power nozzle, and on the other hand blocks vapor from entering the piston pump.
Technical Paper

Noise Source Identification of a Diesel Engine Using Inverse Boundary Element Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0729
The inverse boundary element method (IBEM) is presented to accurately identify the noise sources of a diesel engine in this study. The sound pressures on four near-field planes were measured as inputs for the method. Then, the acoustic model of the full diesel engine was established using the boundary element method, and the acoustic transfer vectors (ATV) between the surface normal velocity and acoustic pressure at field points were calculated over the frequency range of interest. Based on the measured sound pressure and the ATVs, the surface normal velocity distribution of the diesel engine was reconstructed by the IBEM. The reconstructed pressures at two reference field points were compared with the measured ones. Furthermore, the panel contribution of each engine component was analyzed through the reconstructed surface velocity.
Technical Paper

Effects of Late Intake Valve Closing Timing on Thermal Efficiency and Emissions Based on a Two-stage Turbocharger Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0276
This paper investigated the effects of late intake valve closing timing (IVCT) and two-stage turbocharger systems matching based on partially premixed combustion strategy. Tests were performed on a 12-liter L6 heavy-duty engine at loads up to 10 bar BMEP at various speed. IVCT (where IVCT is -80°ATDC, -65°ATDC and -55°ATDC at 1300 rpm, 1600 rpm and 1900 rpm, respectively) lowered the intake and exhaust difference pressure, reducing pumping loss and improved the effective thermal efficiency by 1%, 1.5% and 2% at BMEP of 5 bar at 1300 rpm, 1600 rpm and 1900 rpm. For certain injection timings and EGR rate, it is found that a significant reduction in soot (above 30%) and NOx (above 70%) emissions by means of IVCT. This is due to that IVCT lowered effective compression ratio and temperature during the compression stroke, resulting in a longer ignition delay as the fuel mixed more homogeneous with the charge air ahead of ignition.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modeling of Soot Formation with Highlight in Effects of Surface Activity on Soot Growth for Diesel Engine Partially Premixed Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1104
In this study, Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) on a modified heavy-duty diesel engine was realized by hybrid combustion control strategy with flexible fuel injection timing, injection rate pattern modulation and high ratio of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at different engine loads. It features with different degrees of fuel/air mixture stratifications. The very low soot emissions of the experiments called for further understanding on soot formation mechanism so that to promote the capability of prediction. A new soot model was developed with highlight in effects of surface activity on soot growth for soot formation prediction in partially premixed combustion diesel engine. According to previous results from literatures on the importance of acetylene as growth specie of PAH and soot surface growth, a gas-phase reduced kinetic model of acetylene formation was developed and integrated into the new soot model.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Practical Mechanisms on Lowering Exhaust Emission Levels for Diverse Types of Spark Ignition Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1545
The exhaust aftertreatment strategy is one of the most fundamental aspects of spark ignition engine technologies. For various types of engines (e.g., carburetor engine, PFI engine and GDI engine), measuring, purifying, modeling, and control strategies regarding the exhaust aftertreatment systems vary significantly. The primary goal of exhaust aftetreatment systems is to reduce the exhaust emission levels of NOx, HC and CO as well as to lower combustion soot. In general, there is a tradeoff among different engine performance aspects. The exhaust catalytic systems, such as the three way catalyst (TWC) and lean NOx trap (LNT) converters, can be applied together with the development of other engine technologies (e.g., variable valve timing, cold start). With respect to engine soot, some advanced diagnosing techniques are essential to obtain thorough investigation of exhaust emission mechanisms.
Technical Paper

The Application and Optimization of EGR-LNT Synergetic Control System on Lean-burn Gasoline Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1036
Ensuring lower emissions and better economy (fuel economy and after-treatment economy) simultaneously is the pursuit of future engines. An EGR-LNT synergetic control system was applied to a modified lean-burn CA3GA2 gasoline engine. Results showed that the synergetic control system can achieve a better NOx reduction than sole EGR and sole LNT within a proper range of upstream EGR rate and without the penalty in fuel consumption. It also has the potential to save costly noble metals in LNT, but excessive or deficient upstream EGR would make the synergetic control system inefficiency. In order to guarantee the objectivity of the effect of EGR-LNT synergetic control system on NOx reduction, another modified lean-burn CA4GA5 gasoline engine was additionally tested.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on the Fuel Economy Improvement of a Natural Gas SI Engine at the Lean Burn and the Stoichiometric Operation both with EGR under the Premise of Meeting EU6 Emission Legislation

2015-09-01
2015-01-1958
In order to further study the effects of air and EGR dilution on the fuel economy improvement of natural gas engines under the premise of meeting EU6 legislation, a comparison between stoichiometric operation with EGR and lean burn operation with and without EGR has been conducted at 1600rpm 50% and 75% load. The conversion efficiencies of the catalysts for both NOx and CH4 emissions are assumed at 90% for lean burn operation. Experiment results indicate that under the condition of meeting both NOx and CH4 predetermined engine-out emissions limits for EU6 legislation, lean operation with a small fraction of EGR dilution enables more advanced combustion phasing compared to pure lean operation, which results in much better fuel economy, thus further improvement compared to stoichiometric operation is achieved.
Technical Paper

Achievement of Diesel Low Temperature Combustion through Higher Boost and EGR Control Coupled with Miller Cycle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0383
Diesel engines generally tend to produce a very low level of NOx and soot through the application of Miller Cycle, which is mainly due to the low temperature combustion (LTC) atmosphere resulting from the Miller Cycle utilization. A CFD model was established and calibrated against the experimental data for a part load operation at 3000 r/min. A designed set of Miller-LTC combustion modes were analyzed. It is found that a higher boost pressure coupled with EGR can further tap the potential of Miller-LTC cycle, improving and expanding the Miller-LTC operation condition. The simulated results indicated that the variation of Miller timings can decrease the regions of high temperatures and then improve the levels and trade-off relationship of NOx and soot. The in-cylinder peak pressure and NOx emissions were increased dramatically though the problem of insufficient intake charge was resolved by the enhanced intake pressure that is equivalent to dual-stage turbo-charging.
Technical Paper

Knock Threshold Detection in Turbocharged Gasoline Engine Using EEMD and Bispectrum

2016-04-05
2016-01-0643
Knock threshold detection is the key of closed loop control of ignition in gasoline engine, and it is also the difficult point in knock measurement. In this paper, an investigation of knock detection in turbocharged gasoline engine using bispectrum slice and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based on the engine cylinder head vibration signals is presented. By adding some finite amplitude Gaussian white noises to the signal, EEMD keeps the signal continuous in different time span, and therefore the mode mixing inhering in the classical empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is alleviated. Power spectrum density (PSD) estimation is used to determine the band range of the resonance frequency generated by knock component. EEMD is used to decompose the original signals, the time-frequency characteristics of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) are analyzed using Continues Wavelet Transform (CWT) due to its excellent time-frequency resolution.
Technical Paper

Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Evolution Processing in GDI Engines Using TRF-PAH Chemical Kinetic Mechanism

2016-04-05
2016-01-0690
In the present study, we developed a reduced TRF-PAH chemical reaction mechanism consisted of iso-octane, n-heptane and toluene as gasoline surrogate fuels for GDI (gasoline direct injection) spark ignition engine combustion simulation. The reduced mechanism consists of 85 species and 232 reactions including 17 species and 40 reactions related to the PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) formation. The present mechanism was validated for extensive validations with experimental ignition delay times in shock tubes and laminar flame speeds in flat flame adiabatic burner for gasoline/air and TRF/air mixtures under various pressures, temperatures and equivalence ratios related to engine conditions. Good agreement was achieved for most of the measurement. Mole fraction profiles of PAHs for n-heptane flame were also simulated and the experimental trends were reproduced well. The vapor-phase and particulate-bound PAHs existed in GDI engine exhaust were sampled and analyzed by GC-MS.
Technical Paper

Research in the Effects of Intake Manifold Length and Chamber Shape on Performance for an Atkinson Cycle Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1086
In order to improve the fuel consumption and expand the range of low fuel consumption area of a 1.5L Atkinson cycle PFI engine, the effect of the intake manifold length and chamber shape on the engine performance is investigated by setting up a GT-power (1-D) and an AVL-Fire (3-D) computational model which are calibrated with experimental data. After this the new engine was transformed to the test bench to do the calibration experiment. The results demonstrate that the intake manifold case_1 (the length is 300mm, side intake form) matched with a new designed chamber improves combustion in cylinder with a range 1.6∼7.4g/(kW•h) reduced in fuel consumption of speed that has been studied; the case_3 (the length is 100mm, intermediate intake form) matched with the new designed chamber with a range 3.86∼7g/(kW•h) reduced in fuel consumption of speed that has been studied. Both case_1 and case_3 expand the range of low fuel consumption area significantly.
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