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Technical Paper

Instantaneous Optimization Energy Management for Extended-Range Electric Vehicle Based on Minimum Loss Power Algorithm

Most of the existing energy management strategies for Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (E-REVs) are heuristic, which restricts coordination between the battery and the Range Extender. This paper presents an instantaneous optimization energy management strategy based on the Minimum Loss Power Algorithm (MLPA) for a fuel cell E-REV. An instantaneous loss power function of power train system is constructed by considering the charge and discharge efficiency of the battery, together with the working efficiency of the fuel cell Range Extender. The battery working mode and operating points of the fuel cell Range Extender are decided by an instantaneous optimization module (an artificial neural network) that aims to minimize the loss power function at each time step.
Technical Paper

Time Delay Predictive and Compensation Method in the Theory of X-in-the-Loop

X-in-the-loop (XiL) framework is a new validation concept for vehicle product development, which integrates different virtual and physical components to improve the development efficiency. With XiL platform the requirements of reproducible test, optimization and validation, in which hardware, equipment and test objects are located in different places, could be realized. In the view of different location and communication form of hardware, equipment and test objects, time delay problem exists in the XiL platform, which could have a negative impact on development and validation process. In this paper, a simulation system of time delay prediction and compensation is founded with the help of BP neural network and RBF neural network. With this simulation system the effect of time delay in a vehicle dynamic model as well as tests of geographically distributed vehicle powertrain system is improved during the validation process.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Testing Technology of Powertrain System in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: A Review

The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) vehicle is one kind of new energy vehicle with fuel cell as power source, which has environmental friendliness, high power density and quick refueling. However, the productlization testing in powertrain system, especially for subsystems and key parts, is one of the critical technical challenges, which restricts the industry development and large-scale commercialization of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). In this paper, comprehensive testing requirement and latest testing technologies were reviewed, the development status and directions of testing technologies in FCEV powertrain system were presented. Based on comprehensive analysis, X-in-the-Loop (XiL) testing technology was proposed, and it is quite helpful to improve Real-time testing performance and functions for FCEV powertrain system. Furthermore, real-time and reliability as the two key factors for the XiL application was deeply analyzed and discussed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Geographically Distributed Vehicle Powertrain System Validation Platform Based on X-in-the-Loop Theory

X-in-the-loop (XiL) framework is a validation concept for vehicle product development, which integrates different virtual and physical components to improve the development efficiency. In order to develop and validate an extended validation method based on XiL, Tongji University in Shanghai, China and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Karlsruhe, Germany co- performed a feasibility study about an X-in-the-distance-loop demonstration platform. The X-in-the-distance-loop demonstration platform includes a MATLAB/Simulink software platform and geographically distributed equipment (driver simulator, driving electric motor and dynamometer test stand), which are used to conduct bidirectional experiments to test communication of powertrain data between China and Germany.
Technical Paper

Powertrain System Durability in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: A Review

On account of environmental friendliness, high energy conversion efficiency and high power density, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been used for automotive application for years. However, its durability in powertrain system is one of technical challenges, which restricts the large-scale commercialization of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). In addition to the complex aging mechanism of PEMFC, the durability and energy relationship of key components in powertrain system, including battery and DC/DC converter, have a crucial impact on the vehicle performance, which have not been thoroughly analyzed. Nowadays, most researchers have explored the causes of components degradation from models or experiments and tried to carry out the life expectancy. Nevertheless, it is in need of system-level researches on durability against the actual automotive application.
Technical Paper

State-of-the-Art and Development Trends of Energy Management Strategies for Intelligent and Connected New Energy Vehicles: A Review

Intelligent and connected vehicle (ICV) and new energy vehicle (NEV) will be two important directions of the automotive technology in the future, and the coordinated development of these two directions reflects relevantly the higher requirements put forward by nowadays society and people. Through the use of intelligent and connected technology (ICT), NEVs can exchange various traffic information data with the outside world (e.g. other running vehicles, road infrastructure, internet, etc.) in real time, which is so-called Vehicle to Everything (V2X). Based on the further analysis of the mutual traffic information, the vehicles can identify the current driving conditions and predict the future driving conditions effectively, which can realize the real time optimization of the energy management strategies (EMSs) of vehicles’ powertrain system, so as to meet the driving requirements of vehicles under different driving conditions.
Technical Paper

State-of-the-Art and Development Trends of Assembly Technologies for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack: A Review

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) uses hydrogen and oxygen for fuel, the whole energy conversion process almost has no negative impact on the environment. The PEM fuel cell stack with the advantages of low-operating temperature, high current density and fast start-up ability is considered to be the next generation of new electric vehicle power. However, due to the limited current output, it is difficult for a single cell to meet the practical application requirements. The actual fuel cell stack is formed by many single cells assembled together. The assembly process is often related to load transfer, material transfer, energy exchange, multi-phase flow, electrochemical reaction and other factors. The performance of MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly), sealing gaskets and other components will change during the assembly process, which makes the fuel cell stack assembly process more complex.
Technical Paper

Virtual Co-Simulation Platform for Test and Validation of ADAS and Autonomous Driving

Vehicles equipped with one or several functions of Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS) and autonomous driving (AD) technology are more mature and prevalent nowadays. Vehicles being smarter and driving being easier is an unstoppable trend. In the near future, intelligent vehicles will be mass produced and running on the road. However, before the mass-production of intelligent vehicles, a lot of experimental tests and validations need to be carried out to insure the safety and reliability of ADAS and AD technology. Although the road test of real vehicles is the most reliable and accurate test method, it cannot meet the need of rapid development of technology research due to high time and financial cost. Therefore, a high-efficient design and evaluation methodology for ADAS and AD development and test is a must. In this paper, a virtual co-simulation platform based on MATLAB/Simulink, OpenModelica and Unity 3D game engine (MOMU) is proposed.