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Technical Paper

Brake Judder Induced Steering Wheel Vibration: Experiment, Simulation and Analysis

The prevention and control of brake judder and its various negative effects has been a key target of vehicle production. One of the effects is the steering wheel vibration during vehicle braking. Experimental and theoretical investigation into “steering wheel vibration due to brake judder” is extensively presented in this paper. The vehicle road test is carried out under controlled braking conditions. During the test, the accelerations of brake caliper assembly, suspension low and upper control arm, steering arm, tie rod and steering wheel, left and right wheel rotary speed, are measured by a multi-channel data acquisition system. The data processing focuses on order tracking analysis and transfer path analysis to work out the related resonant components. A disc brake assembly, with deliberately designed disc thickness variation and surface run-out combinations, is tested on a brake dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Influences of Pad Backplate on Thermo-Mechnical Coupling in Disc Brake

The transient thermo-mechanical coupling dynamic model of ventilated disc brake with asymmetrical outer and inner thickness was established by means of Msc-marc software. In the model, pad backplate is simplified as a rigid surface with the same shape of brake lining and is bonded together with brake lining. Control node is associated with the rigid surface and the equivalent force that replaces the pressure is applied on the control nodes, of which the degrees of freedom in radial and rotational directions are constrained. With distribution characteristics of disc temperature field, normal stress field and lateral thermo-elastic deformation and thickness for the evaluation, the impacts of brake pad constraints on brake thermomechanical coupling characteristics were analyzed. The simulation results show that the brake pad back plate is an important structure in brake thermo-mechanical coupling analysis, which can’t be ignored in simulation computing.
Technical Paper

Brake Judder Analysis Based on the Rigid-Flexible Coupling Model of Brake Corner

Brake judder severely affects the riding comfort and safety of vehicle. For the brake corner system, a rigid-flexible coupling model is established based on ADAMS. In the model, brake pads, caliper, anchor and knuckle are flexible bodies, and the contacts between pads and disc and the contacts between pads and caliper are defined in detail. Meanwhile, the vibration acceleration of the brake corner components and the contact forces between disc and pads are used as evaluation index and the evaluation system of brake judder are improved. The analysis results show that the novel model and evaluation system can be used to predict brake judder effectively.
Journal Article

A Study on the Bench Test of Friction-Induced Hot Spots in Disc Brake

During light to moderate braking at high speed, the local high temperature phenomenon can be observed on the brake disc surfaces, known as hot spots. The occurrence of hot spots will lead to negative effects such as brake performance fade, thermal judder and local wear, which seriously affect the performance of vehicle NVH. In this paper, based on the bench test of a ventilated disc brake, the basic characteristics of hot spots is obtained and the evolution process of temperature field and disc deformation is analyzed in detail. In temperature field, hot bands appear first and grow, migrate from inner and outer radius to the middle, with the growing temperature fluctuation and finally hot spots appear in the middle radius of the brake disc. The stable SRO waviness forms much earlier than the temperature fluctuation. In the stop brake studied in this paper, the SRO waviness stabilizes in main 7 order state which is lower than the final hot spot order.
Technical Paper

Influences of Initial DTV on Thermomechnical Coupling in Disc Brake System

In this paper, the initial disc thickness variation (DTV) of a ventilated disc in automotive brake system is modeled as sinusoidal function of the second order. The transient thermomechanical coupling properties of the brake system is simulated using finite element (FE) modeling. The system models and results were verified by a thermomechanical coupling test of a disc brake conducted on a brake dynamometer. By using varied evaluation indexes such as the temperature distribution, the normal stress and the elastic deformation of disc surfaces, the influences of the initial DTV and its direction as well as its amplitude on the thermomechanical coupling characteristics were analyzed.
Technical Paper

Performance Testing and Analysis of Multi-Channel Active Control System for Vehicle Interior Noise Using Adaptive Notch Filter

It is considered that slow convergence speed and large calculation amount of commonly used adaptive algorithm in the active control system for vehicle interior noise yield noise reduction performance and hardware requirements problems. In this paper, a 4-channel active control of vehicle interior noise based on adaptive notch filter is established, and road test is carried out to test and analyze the performance of the control system. Firstly, the general mathematic model of the multi-channel active control system based on adaptive notch filter is established. The computational complexity of the algorithm is analyzed and compared with that of the FXLMS algorithm. Secondly, a hardware-in-the-loop test bench based on multi-channel adaptive notch filter is set up, to measure the noise reduction performance of ANC system under various working conditions.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of Series-parallel Hybrid Powertrain System under Typical Working Condition and Modes

Powertrain system of series-parallel hybrid vehicle contains multiple excitation sources like engine, motor and generator. The reduction of noise and vibration is quite difficult during multiplex working modes or the switch of modes. Aiming at Series-parallel hybrid powertrain system which contains engine, motor and planetary gear subsystems, this paper considered a typical working condition which is based on the power control strategy and established the torsional vibration mechanical model of hybrid powertrain system. The inherent characteristics and transient vibration response of the electric mode, hybrid mode and parking charging mode were studied and it was discovered that the repetitive frequency of the powertrain system under the three working modes is the same which is only related to inertia and meshing stiffness of planetary gear system. The non-repetitive frequency and corresponding vibration modes under the electric mode and parking charging mode are both close.
Technical Paper

Fast Prediction of Disc Brake Squeal Uncertainty Based on Perturbation Concept

It is a worldwide technical difficulty to predict brake squeal uncertainty and its propagation regularity due to key parameters’ randomcity. However, as a widely used stochastic finite element method, Monte Carlo Method costs a large amount of time in calculation. It is very important to establish a fast prediction method for brake squeal uncertainty due to key parameters. In this paper, perturbation concept was applied for disc brake squeal uncertainty prediction. Firstly, a simplified, parameterized finite element model of disc brake was established for complex eigenvalues calculation. Then sensitivity analysis of real parts and frequencies of complex eigenvalues to influence parameters was carried out based on the finite element model. A series of second order perturbation polynomial formulas were fitted from the sensitivity analysis results, which were used for calculation of uncertain complex eigenvalues.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Correlation between Driver's Visual Features and Driver Intention

Driver behaviors provide abundant information and feedback for future Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Driver’s eye and head may present some typical movement patterns before executing driving maneuvers. It is possible to use driver’s head and eye movement information for predicting driver intention. Therefore, to determine the most important features related to driver intention has attracted widespread research interests. In this paper, a method to analyze the correlation between driver’s visual features and driver intention is proposed, aiming to determine the most representative features for driver intention prediction. Firstly, naturalistic driving experiment is conducted to collect driver’s videos during executing lane keeping and lane change maneuvers. Then, driver’s head and face visual features are extracted from those videos. By using boxplot and independent samples T-test, features which have significant correlation with driver intention are found.
Technical Paper

Experimental Performance Analysis of Multi-Channel Active Control System for Road Noise in Vehicles Using FXLMS Algorithm

It’s significant to analyze the Experimental performance of active control system for road noise. In this paper, a 2-channel active control system of vehicle road noise based on FXLMS algorithm is established. The complexity of Filtered-x Least Mean Square algorithm (FXLMS) is analyzed. The bench test and road test are carried out to test and analyze the performance of the control system. Firstly, the general mathematic model of the multi-channel active control system based on FXLMS algorithm is established. The computational complexity of the algorithm is analyzed. Secondly, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench based on multi-channel FXLMS algorithm and a measurement system based on DASP are set up, to measure the noise reduction performance of active noise control system under various working conditions. Finally, the bench test and the road test are carried out and the results are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Analysis of Temperature Field of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Considering High Frequency Magnetic Field Characteristics

The vehicle permanent magnet synchronous motor has the advantages of high power density, compact structure and small size, which makes it generate heat obviously in the process of energy conversion, which seriously affects the service life of the motor and the performance of permanent magnet. Predicting magnet temperature is a challenging task, in lab and various specialized applications, infrared sensors or thermocouples are used to measure the temperature, but it cost a lot. In order to predict the temperature field of the motor, the hysteresis characteristic test of the core material of the motor is carried out in this paper. The hysteresis characteristic and loss of electrical steel under different temperature, magnetic field intensity and magnetic field frequency are tested. It is found that the loss of electrical steel increases with the increase of magnetic induction intensity and magnetic field frequency.
Technical Paper

Active and Passive Control of Torsional Vibration in Vehicle Hybrid Powertrain System

The vibration characteristics of hybrid vehicles are very different from that of traditional fuel vehicles. In this paper, the active and passive control schemes are used to inhibit the vibration issues in vehicle hybrid powertrain system. Firstly the torsional vibration mechanical model including engine, motor and planetary gear subsystems is established. Then the transient vibration responses of typical working condition are analyzed through power control strategy. Consequently the active and passive control of torsional vibration in hybrid powertrain system is proposed. The active control of the motor and generator torque is designed and the vehicle longitudinal vibration is reduced. The vibration of the planetary gear system is ameliorated with passive control method by adding torsional vibration absorbers to power units. The vibration characteristics in vehicle hybrid powertrain system are effectively improved through the active and passive control.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Trajectory Prediction Based on Motion Model and Maneuver Model Fusion with Interactive Multiple Models

Safety is the cornerstone for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Autonomous Driving Systems (ADS). To assess the safety of a traffic situation, it is essential to predict motion states of traffic participants in the future with mathematic models. Accurate vehicle trajectory prediction is an important prerequisite for reasonable traffic situation risk assessment and appropriate decision making. Vehicle trajectory prediction methods can be generally divided into motion model based methods and maneuver model based methods. Vehicle trajectory prediction based on motion models can be accurate and reliable only in the short term. While vehicle trajectory prediction based on maneuver models present more satisfactory performance in the long term, these maneuver models rely on machine learning methods. Abundant data should be collected to train the maneuver recognition model, which increases complexity and lowers real-time performance.